[Man sits under an awning]

[Man sits under an awning]

Date: 1982
Creator: Clark, Joe & Clark, Joseph Wade Junebug
Description: Photograph of a silhouette of a man underneath an awning. The porch has a dirt floor that leads right up to a road winding around the building in the background. The focal point of the picture is the American flag leaning next to a US Postal Service mailbox.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K. & Lagerberg, B.
Description: Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge

The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge

Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E. & Hargraves, M.D.
Description: The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Date: August 20, 1999
Creator: U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office
Description: This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 252 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 252 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-07-02, Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) Decontamination Pad. Located in Area 25 at the intersection of Road H and Road K at the Nevada Test Site, ETS-1 was designed for use as a mobile radiation checkpoint and for vehicle decontamination. The CAS consists of a concrete decontamination pad with a drain, a gravel-filled sump, two concrete trailer pads, and utility boxes. Constructed in 1966, the ETS-1 facility was part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) complex and used to test nuclear rockets. The ETS-1 Decontamination Pad and mobile radiation check point was built in 1968. The NRDS complex ceased primary operations in 1973. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to determine if any primary contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) (including radionuclides, total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Another Look at the Relationship Between Accident- and Encroachment-Based Approaches to Run-Off-the-Road Accidents Modeling

Another Look at the Relationship Between Accident- and Encroachment-Based Approaches to Run-Off-the-Road Accidents Modeling

Date: August 1997
Creator: Miaou, Shaw-Pin
Description: The purpose of this study was to look for ways to combine the strengths of both approaches in roadside safety research. The specific objectives were (1) to present the encroachment-based approach in a more systematic and coherent way so that its limitations and strengths can be better understood from both statistical and engineering standpoints, and (2) to apply the analytical and engineering strengths of the encroachment-based thinking to the formulation of mean functions in accident-based models.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Traffic congestion forecasting model for the INFORM System. Final report

Traffic congestion forecasting model for the INFORM System. Final report

Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Azarm, A.; Mughabghab, S. & Stock, D.
Description: This report describes a computerized traffic forecasting model, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a portion of the Long Island INFORM Traffic Corridor. The model has gone through a testing phase, and currently is able to make accurate traffic predictions up to one hour forward in time. The model will eventually take on-line traffic data from the INFORM system roadway sensors and make projections as to future traffic patterns, thus allowing operators at the New York State Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) INFORM Traffic Management Center to more optimally manage traffic. It can also form the basis of a travel information system. The BNL computer model developed for this project is called ATOP for Advanced Traffic Occupancy Prediction. The various modules of the ATOP computer code are currently written in Fortran and run on PC computers (pentium machine) faster than real time for the section of the INFORM corridor under study. The following summarizes the various routines currently contained in the ATOP code: Statistical forecasting of traffic flow and occupancy using historical data for similar days and time (long term knowledge), and the recent information from the past hour (short term knowledge). Estimation of the empirical relationships between traffic flow ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, June 1--August 31, 1996

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, June 1--August 31, 1996

Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: unknown
Description: Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ``as-generated`` slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ``as-generated`` slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 17000F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Paving materials for heat island mitigation

Paving materials for heat island mitigation

Date: November 1997
Creator: Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. & Rosenfeld, A. H.
Description: This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R. & Glover, C.J.
Description: About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Development of superior asphalt recycling agency: Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

Development of superior asphalt recycling agency: Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Lin, Moon-Sun; Chaffin, J.; Liu, Meng et al.
Description: About every 12 years, asphalt roads must be reworked, and this is usually done by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of failed material, resulting in considerable waste of material and use of new asphalt binder. A good recycling agent is needed, not only to reduce the viscosity of the aged material but also to restore compatibility. Objective is to establish the technical feasibility (Phase I) of determining the specifications and operating parameters for producing high quality recycling agents which will allow most/all the old asphalt-based road material to be recycled. It is expected that supercritical fractionation can be used. The advanced road aging simulation procedure will be used to study aging of blends of old asphalt and recycling agents.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Final technical progress report

Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Final technical progress report

Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Chaffin, J.; Liu, M. & Madrid, R.
Description: After an introduction and a literature survey in Chap. 1, Chap. 2 describes the tasks, together with objectives and important results obtained for each task throughout the entire project. Chaps. 3 thru 7 detail work in developing a qualitative and quantitative knowledge of asphalt oxidation, composition dependence of asphalt properties, and guidelines for producing superior asphalt binders through composition control. They also detail the development of a kinetic model for asphalt oxidative aging and present an understanding of the composition dependence of asphalt oxidation as well as other performance-related properties. Chaps. 8 and 9 compare the aging performance of recycled blends produced using commercial recycling agents and industrial supercritical fractions as rejuvenating agents. Oxidative aging of the recycled blends were evaluated along with the performance of the recycled blends in terms of the strategic highway research program performance grading procedure. Chap. 10 summarizes the work completed in the areas of processing schemes development, projection updates, and scale-up and commercialization plans.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use

Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Bland, A.E. & Brown, T.H.
Description: Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conceptual design report for facilities capability assurance program (FCAP) roads and parking lot replacements FY 1994 line item

Conceptual design report for facilities capability assurance program (FCAP) roads and parking lot replacements FY 1994 line item

Date: January 6, 1992
Creator: unknown
Description: Mound, located in Montgomery County, Miamisburg, Ohio, on the east bank of the Great Miami River, was established in 1948 by the Atomic Energy Commission to develop and manufacture explosive devices for the United States Government. Mound occupies 305 acres and at present the facility is operated by EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. It is devoted to research, development, testing and manufacturing of components for nuclear weapons systems under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The complex employs approximately 2,200 people generating an annual payroll in excess of $75 million. Whereas Government sponsors have traditionally placed great emphasis on new technological concepts and manufacturing processes for weapons, unfortunately, such has not been the case in the maintenance of the roadway infrastructure. The roadway system which, for the most part is 40 years old, must be restored to a condition which will ensure smooth transportation of weapon component production, safe access for emergency and fire vehicles and safe ingress and egress for pedestrian personnel. This Facilities Capability Assurance Program (FCAP) project will provide this much needed restoration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Capital assets management process (CAMP) prioritization exercise for FY 1994 and FY 1995 projects at Field Office, Albuquerque

Capital assets management process (CAMP) prioritization exercise for FY 1994 and FY 1995 projects at Field Office, Albuquerque

Date: January 16, 1992
Creator: unknown
Description: This report presents figures derived from a rating process to determine budget needs for projects for 1994 and 1995 at the Albuquerque Field Office. Projects for 1994 include plant life safety code upgrades, roads and parking lot upgrades, and emergency system notification replacement. Projects for 1995 include reconfiguration of inert operations, steam and condensate system upgrades, and site drainage control.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The traffic equilibrium problem with nonadditive path costs

The traffic equilibrium problem with nonadditive path costs

Date: August 21, 1995
Creator: Gabriel, S.A. & Bernstein, D.
Description: In this paper the authors present a version of the (static) traffic equilibrium problem in which the cost incurred on a path is not simply the sum of the costs on the arcs that constitute that path. The authors motivate this nonadditive version of the problem by describing several situations in which the classical additivity assumption fails. They also present an algorithm for solving nonadditive problems that is based on the recent NE/SQP algorithm, a fast and robust method for the nonlinear complementarity problem. Finally, they present a small example that illustrates both the importance of using nonadditive costs and the effectiveness of the NE/SQP method.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conceptual design report for the facilities capability assurance program roads and parking lot replacements. Part III: Supplemental information. FY 1994 line item

Conceptual design report for the facilities capability assurance program roads and parking lot replacements. Part III: Supplemental information. FY 1994 line item

Date: January 6, 1992
Creator: unknown
Description: This report presents information pertaining to cost estimates for replacement of roads and parking lots for the Mound Laboratory.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Assessment of the energy impacts of improving highway-infrastructure materials

Assessment of the energy impacts of improving highway-infrastructure materials

Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Stammer, R.E. Jr. & Stodolsky, F.
Description: Argonne National Laboratory has conducted a study to ascertain the relative importance of improved highway materials compared to vehicle energy consumption on US energy consumption. Energy savings through an improved highway infrastructure can occur in at least three ways. First, replacing aged and failing materials with improved and advanced materials can produce energy ``use`` savings. Second, advances in materials science can yield energy efficiency gains in the production of infrastructure materials. Third, using new or improved transportation-infrastructure materials that have longer service life reduces the energy expended in producing replacement materials and installing or repairing facilities. The Argonne study finds that energy savings from highway materials improvements are on the order of 0.1 {times} 10{sup 12} to 2.1 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. This savings is relatively small compared with energy savings from improvements in vehicle fuel economy. Several infrastructure improvement scenarios were examined, with results that were highly dependent on the assumptions. Reducing traffic congestion, particularly in high-traffic-volume locations, produces major energy savings compared with the other scenarios.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Area-normalized thematic views

Area-normalized thematic views

Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Keahey, T.A.
Description: This paper presents a novel technique for dealing with a classic problem that frequently arises in visualization. Very expressive nonlinear transformations can be automatically generated to correct thematic maps so that the areas of map regions are proportional to the thematic variables assigned to them. This helps to eliminate one of the most commonly occurring visual lies that occurs in information visualization. Thematic variables are commonly used in cartography to encode additional information within the spatial layout of a map. Common examples of thematic variables are population density, pollution level and birth rate. The method is illustrated with two examples, mapping interstate speed limits and presidential election results.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Model for Flow and Dispersion Around Buildings and Its Validation Using Laboratory Measurements

A Model for Flow and Dispersion Around Buildings and Its Validation Using Laboratory Measurements

Date: May 17, 2000
Creator: Chan, S. T.; Stevens, D. & Lee, R.
Description: Numerical modeling of airflow and pollutant dispersion around buildings is a challenging task due to the geometrical variations of buildings and the extremely complex flow created by such surface-mounted obstacles. The airflow around buildings inevitably involves impingement and separation regions, a multiple vortex system with building wakes, and jetting effects in street canyons. The interference from adjacent buildings further complicates the flow and dispersion patterns. Thus accurate simulations of such flow and pollutant transport require not only appropriate physics submodels but also accurate numerics and significant computing resources. We have developed an efficient, high resolution CFD model for such purposes, with a primary goal to support incident response and preparedness in emergency response planning, vulnerability analysis, and the development of mitigation techniques.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of nondestructive evaluation technologies

Overview of nondestructive evaluation technologies

Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Thomas, G.
Description: The infrastructure in the US and the world is aging. There is an increasing awareness of the need to assess the severity of the damage occurring to the infrastructure. Limited resources preclude the replacement of all structures that need repairs or have exceeded their life times. Methods to assess the amount and severity of damage are crucial to implementing a systematic, cost effective approach to repair and/or replace the damaged structures. The challenges of inspecting aging structures without impairing their usefulness rely on a variety of technologies and techniques for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper will briefly describe several nondestructive evaluation technologies that are required for inspecting a variety of systems and structures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes

EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes

Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Nelson, S.D.
Description: An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safety and security issues in developing and operating in intelligent transportation systems

Safety and security issues in developing and operating in intelligent transportation systems

Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Lawrence, J.D.
Description: The purpose of this panel is to introduce the safety and security issues related to the development and operation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to Compass participants. Many of these issues need to be addressed by the system safety and computer security communities prior to the development and deployment of ITS. For example, how can information technology be applied in the context of a fully automated highway system (AHS) such that the safety, security, and performance of the system are not compromised? At present, the US and other countries are funding academia and industry to build prototype automated highway systems in which vehicles are controlled via drive-by-wire technology, with vehicles traveling at high speeds (in excess of 30 m/s) at close spacing (1 to 4 m). The potential impact of software errors or hardware errors on system safety and security are great.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Independent seismic evaluation of the 24-580-980 south connector ramps

Independent seismic evaluation of the 24-580-980 south connector ramps

Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Hutchings, L.J.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Jarpe, S.P. & Foxall, W.
Description: The interchange for highways 24, 580, and 980 (the Stack) in Oakland, California, lies 4.3 km from the surface expression of the Hayward fault and 26 km from the San Andreas fault. The purpose of this project is to compute realistic, linear, strong ground motion (rock outcrop motion) likely to affect this interchange during a hazardous earth-quake on the Hayward fault. With the exception of very long period ( >20 sec) motion, the Hayward fault will be the controlling deterministic ground motion hazard to this structure. We identified a magnitude M = 7.25 earthquake that ruptures 82 km of the Hayward fault as the principal hazard to the Stack; it has a moment of 8.5 x 10{sup 26} dyne-cm. Moment magnitudes (Hanks and Kanamori, 1979) are used in this report. Our goal is to produce realistic synthesized ground motion for three components and the full wavetrain and for frequencies from 0.05 to 33.0 Hz.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Independent seismic evaluation of the 24-580-980 south connector ramps response to the south connector ramps to a magnitude 7.25 Hayward Fault earthquake. Volume 3

Independent seismic evaluation of the 24-580-980 south connector ramps response to the south connector ramps to a magnitude 7.25 Hayward Fault earthquake. Volume 3

Date: November 1996
Creator: McAllen, David B.; Gerhard, Michael A.; Trummer, David J. & Murray, Robert C.
Description: The 24/580/980 interchange is located near Oakland California on the Eastern perimeter of the San Francisco Bay (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). This interchange is a major artery in the Eastern San Francisco Bay area and provides a critical link between major bay area highways. The main Concord line of the Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART), with ridership of approximately 270,000 per day, runs underneath the interchange. The interchange site is approximately 4 Km from the Hayward fault and 16 Km from the San Andreas fault. The reinforced concrete interchange was designed and constructed in the mid 1960`s and thus the asphalt structure has many of the vulnerabilities associated with typical pre-1970`s concrete structures (Roberts [1], Zefinski [2], Chai et. al. [3], Priestly and Seible [4]). In 1980 some of the seismic vulnerabilities were addressed as the interchange was retrofit with deck hinge restrainers as part of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) state-wide seismic retrofit of bridge expansion joints. The interchange was subjected to earthquake motion during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and sustained minor damage in some of the concrete diaphragms which support the hinge restrainer forces [5]. Caltrans engineers, working together with their external consultants Imbsen ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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