RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Nakamura, Dr. T. & Senior, Dr. C.L.
Description: Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2001 in which Aquasearch tested 24 different species of microalgae for growth at three different temperatures. Eleven species were analyzed for the presence of high-value pigments. Most of the algae analyzed were good sources of industrially valuable pigments. Analysis of the methods for introducing and dissolving CO{sub 2} in the commercial bioreactor was begun this quarter.
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BEST: Bilingual environmental science training, Grades 3--4

BEST: Bilingual environmental science training, Grades 3--4

Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: unknown
Description: This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references with annotations in English. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: the identification of primary and secondary colors in the environment; recognizing the basic food tastes; the variety of colors that can be made by crushing plant parts; the variety of animal life present in common soil; animal tracks; evidence of plant and animal life in the local environment; recycling, reducing, and composting as alternative means of garbage disposal; waste associated with packaging; paper- recycling principles; and how organic waste can be composted into usable soil. 2 figs.
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Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with thermally structured pigments and methods for the same. Final technical report

Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with thermally structured pigments and methods for the same. Final technical report

Date: January 23, 1997
Creator: Whalen-Shaw, M.
Description: The subject is coating of paperboard. Structured pigments designed to eliminate calcined clay were prepared and tested.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Replacemernt of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same, quarterly report, January 1, 1995-April 1, 1995

Replacemernt of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same, quarterly report, January 1, 1995-April 1, 1995

Date: April 25, 1995
Creator: Whalen-Shaw, M.
Description: The business objective is to manufacture an economically viable chemically structured clay to replace thermally structured calcined clay. The technology will provide substantial benefit in paper coating. The structured pigment containing 90% clay and 10% TiO2 vs the loose blend of these materials as a filler for paper was evaluated. A plan to improve the permanence of the structured pigment using dual functional dispersed pigments is in place. The cationic dispersant for TiO2 will also be a binder. Spray drying will be use to fix the structure of the internally bound structured pigment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
[Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same]. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--August 1, 1995

[Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same]. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--August 1, 1995

Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Whalen-Shaw, M.
Description: The objective is to license the present technology for replacing thermally structured clay (calcined clay) with chemically structured clay. Composite layered pigments using Titanium dioxide and {number_sign}1 standard clay have already been shown to have activity in replacing calcined clay. In this past quarter the effect of clay particle size and distribution as raw materials for making the layered pigment have been investigated.
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Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same, quarterly report, May 1, 1996-August 1, 1996

Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same, quarterly report, May 1, 1996-August 1, 1996

Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Whalen-Shaw, M.
Description: The focus was on the preparation and testing of Miragloss clay and Brazilian clay as copigments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same. Final technical report

Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same. Final technical report

Date: January 23, 1997
Creator: Whalen-Shaw, M.
Description: This investigation focuses on layered pigments for the paper industry, more specifically layered (two non-identical particles) pigments for paper coating, with resulting improved opacity (brightness).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same, Final technical report, Quarterly report, February 3, 1996-May 1, 1996

Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same, Final technical report, Quarterly report, February 3, 1996-May 1, 1996

Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Whalen-Shaw, M.
Description: The testing of control formulas was repeated due to instability of the TiO2 dispersion being used. Calcined clay controls were compared to the performance of layered pigments of the instant invention in coatings on brown natural kraft paperboard from Mead Corporation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Is Lutein a Physiologically Important Ligand for Transthyretin in Humans?

Is Lutein a Physiologically Important Ligand for Transthyretin in Humans?

Date: May 31, 2003
Creator: Chen, Liwei
Description: Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids accumulated in the macula of the human retina and are known as the macular pigments (MP). These pigments account for the yellow color of the macula and appear to play an important role in protecting against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The uptake of lutein and zeaxanthin in human eyes is remarkably specific. It is likely that specific transport or binding proteins are involved. The objective is to determine whether transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in human plasma and could thus deliver lutein from the blood to the retina. In this study, they used a biosynthetic {sup 13}C-lutein tracer and gas chromatography-combustion interfaced-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) to gain the requisite sensitivity to detect the minute amounts of lutein expected as a physiological ligand for human transthyretin. The biosynthetic {sup 13}C-labeled lutein tracer was purified from algae. Healthy women (n = 4) each ingested 1 mg of {sup 13}C-labeled lutein daily for 3 days and a blood sample was collected 24 hours after the final dose. Plasma TTR was isolated by retinol-binding protein (RBP)-sepharose affinity chromatography and extracted with chloroform. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio in the TTR extract was measured by GCC-IRMS. ...
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Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report

Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report

Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Lohrenz, S.E. & Asper, V.L.
Description: The authors objective was to characterize distributions of chloropigment fluorescence in relation to physical processes in the benthic boundary layer in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Ocean Margins Program`s (OMP) goal of quantifying carbon transport across the continental shelf. Their approach involved participation in the Ocean Margins Program (OMP) field experiment on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras by conducting multi-sensor fluorescence measurements of photosynthetic pigments. Specific tasks included (1) pre- and post-deployment calibration of multiple fluorescence sensors in conjunction with Woods Hole personnel; (2) collection and analysis of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and total particulate carbon in water column samples to aid in interpretation of the fluorescence time-series during the field experiment; (3) collaboration in the analysis and interpretation of 1994 and 1996 time-series data in support of efforts to quantify pigment and particulate organic carbon transport on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras. This third component included analysis of data obtained with a multi-sensor fiber-optic fluorometer in the benthic boundary layer of the inner shelf off Cape Hatteras during summer 1994.
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The chlorophyll-binding protein CP47 in photosystem II. Final report

The chlorophyll-binding protein CP47 in photosystem II. Final report

Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Vermaas, W.F.J.
Description: Generally, light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins (LHCP) of the Cab family that are prevalent antenna systems in plants are thought to be absent in cyanobacteria. Therefore, it often is tacitly assumed that in cyanobacteria all chlorophyll is associated with the PS II and PS I core antenna. For this reason, it was of interest to investigate what the effect would be of genetic deletion of both the PS I core complex and the PS II core antenna in Synechocystis. Therefore, a mutant was made in which the psaAB genes for the PS I core were deleted, in addition to deletion or inactivation of psbB and/or psbC (coding for CP43). In this series of mutants, also apcE was deleted. In the absence of both CP47 and CP43, also the PS II reaction center proteins D1 and D2 were not detectable in the thylakoid membrane. Thus, both PS II and PS I were deleted in the resulting strains. Nonetheless, a significant amount of chlorophyll (about 15% of that present when PS II was left intact) was found to remain in the PS I-less, psbB{sup {minus}}, psbC{sup {minus}}, apcE{sup {minus}} mutant. This chlorophyll had fluorescence characteristics resembling those of LHC II in higher plants, with ...
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Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

Date: June 20, 1995
Creator: Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. & Southon, J.
Description: This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.
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Artificially-structured photorefractive and biomimetic materials. Final report

Artificially-structured photorefractive and biomimetic materials. Final report

Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: McBranch, D.; Bishop, A.; Donohoe, R.; Heeger, A.; Li, D.; Maniloff, E. et al.
Description: This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Organic materials have shown great promise for near term applications in electro-optic, photorefractive, and electroluminescent devices. Electro-optic materials are useful for fast optical switching, photorefractive materials are essential for optical computing and information storage; electroluminescence is the basis for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Existing organic electro- optic and photorefractive materials require a breakthrough in techniques to control the microscopic molecular orientation while maintaining economical processing. Our unique approach addresses this problem by building ordered superlattices by molecular engineering. Existing organic LEDs suffer from device breakdown, probably catalyzed by interfacial defects. Our approach allows molecular level control of the electronic properties of the polymer interfaces by designing charge transport layers to isolate the active polymer layer. This project sought to create electro-optic and photorefractive materials by engineering rationally designed nonlinear molecular building blocks into multilayer thin films using self assembly techniques.
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The Effects of Color Concentrate in Polyolefins.

The Effects of Color Concentrate in Polyolefins.

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Flora, Paul
Description: Throughout history consumer products were generally manufactured from wood and metal. They either had to hold their natural color or become subject to painting. When plastics entered the industry, it was recognized for its ease of shaping, re-usability, physical properties and its low cost. One of plastics' greatest benefits is its ability to hold a given color from within allowing it to avoid use of paint. This paper will give a brief overview on the effects of pigments when incorporated in a polyolefin. It will provide a classification of the main types of pigments and how each effect the properties of the product through: crystallization, weatherability, opacity, coloristic values and of course viscosity.
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Theoretical Simulations and Ultrafast Pump-probe Spectroscopy Experiments in Pigment-protein Photosynthetic Complexes

Theoretical Simulations and Ultrafast Pump-probe Spectroscopy Experiments in Pigment-protein Photosynthetic Complexes

Date: September 12, 2000
Creator: Buck, D.R.
Description: Theoretical simulations and ultrafast pump-probe laser spectroscopy experiments were used to study photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes and antennae found in green sulfur bacteria such as Prosthecochloris aestuarii, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, and Chlorobium tepidum. The work focused on understanding structure-function relationships in energy transfer processes in these complexes through experiments and trying to model that data as we tested our theoretical assumptions with calculations. Theoretical exciton calculations on tubular pigment aggregates yield electronic absorption spectra that are superimpositions of linear J-aggregate spectra. The electronic spectroscopy of BChl c/d/e antennae in light harvesting chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus differs considerably from J-aggregate spectra. Strong symmetry breaking is needed if we hope to simulate the absorption spectra of the BChl c antenna. The theory for simulating absorption difference spectra in strongly coupled photosynthetic antenna is described, first for a relatively simple heterodimer, then for the general N-pigment system. The theory is applied to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) BChl a protein trimers from Prosthecochloris aestuarii and then compared with experimental low-temperature absorption difference spectra of FMO trimers from Chlorobium tepidum. Circular dichroism spectra of the FMO trimer are unusually sensitive to diagonal energy disorder. Substantial differences occur between CD spectra in exciton simulations performed with and without realistic ...
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Microbial Metabolite Production for Accelerated Metal and Radionuclide Bioremediation (Microbial Metabolite Production Report)

Microbial Metabolite Production for Accelerated Metal and Radionuclide Bioremediation (Microbial Metabolite Production Report)

Date: September 21, 2004
Creator: TURICK, CHARLES
Description: Biogeochemical activity is an ongoing and dynamic process due to bacterial activity in the subsurface. Bacteria contribute significantly to biotransformation of metals and radionuclides. As basic science reveals more information about specific mechanisms of bacterial-metal reduction, an even greater contribution of bacteria to biogeochemical activities is realized. An understanding and application of the mechanisms of metal and radionuclide reduction offers tremendous potential for development into bioremedial processes and technologies. Most bacteria are capable of biogeochemical transformation as a result of meeting nutrient requirements. These assimilatory mechanisms for metals transformation include production of small molecules that serve as electron shuttles for metal reduction. This contribution to biogeochemistry is small however due to only trace requirements for minerals by bacteria. Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) reduce oxidized metals and insoluble mineral oxides as a means for biological energy production during growth. These types of bacteria offer considerable potential for bioremediation of environments contaminated with toxic metals and radionuclides because of the relatively large amount of metal biotransformation they require for growth. One of the mechanisms employed by some DMRB for electron transfer to insoluble metal oxides is melanin production. The electrochemical properties of melanin provide this polymeric, humic-type compound with electron shuttling ...
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Kinetics of Beta-14[14C] Carotene in a Human Subject Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

Kinetics of Beta-14[14C] Carotene in a Human Subject Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

Date: January 31, 2000
Creator: Dueker, S.R.; Lin, Y.; Follett, J.R.; Clifford, A.J. & Buchholz, B.A.
Description: {beta}-Carotene is a tetraterpenoid distributed widely throughout the plant kingdom. It is a member of a group of pigments referred to as carotenoids that have the distinction of serving as metabolic precursors to vitamin A in humans and many animals [1,2]. We used Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) [3] to determine the metabolic behavior of a physiologic oral dose of {beta}-[{sup 14}C]carotene (200 nanoCuries; 0.57 {micro}mol) in a healthy human subject. Serial blood specimens were collected for 210-d and complete urine and feces were collected for 17 and 10-d, respectively. Balance data indicated that the dose was 42% bioavailable. The absorbed {beta}-carotene was lost slowly via urine in accord with the slow body turnover of {beta}-carotene and vitamin A [4]. HPLC fractionation of plasma taken at early time points (0-24-h) showed the label was distributed between {beta}-carotene and retinyl esters (vitamin A) derived from intestinal metabolism.
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Aerosol-Assisted Self-Assembly of Mesostructured Spherical Nanoparticles

Aerosol-Assisted Self-Assembly of Mesostructured Spherical Nanoparticles

Date: March 23, 1999
Creator: Brinker, C.J.; Fan,; H.; Lu, Y.; Rieker, T.; Stump, A. et al.
Description: Nanostructured particles exhibiting well-defined pore sizes and pore connectivities (1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional) are of interest for catalysis, chromatography, controlled release, low dielectric constant fillers, and custom-designed pigments and optical hosts. During the last several years considerable progress has been made on controlling the macroscopic forms of mesoporous silicas prepared by surfactant and block copolymer liquid crystalline templating procedures. Typically interfacial phenomena are used to control the macroscopic form (particles, fibers, or films), while self-assembly of amphiphilic surfactants or polymers is used to control the mesostructure. To date, although a variety of spherical or nearly-spherical particles have been prepared, their extent of order is limited as is the range of attainable mesostructures. They report a rapid, aerosol process that results in solid, completely ordered spherical particles with stable hexagonal, cubic, or vesicular mesostructures. The process relies on evaporation-induced interfacial self-assembly (EISA) confined to a spherical aerosol droplet. The process is simple and generalizable to a variety of materials combinations. Additionally, it can be modified to provide the first aerosol route to the formation of ordered mesostructured films.
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GENETIC AND BIOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF BARLEY CHLOROPLAST MUTANTS. Final Report.

GENETIC AND BIOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF BARLEY CHLOROPLAST MUTANTS. Final Report.

Date: October 31, 1970
Creator: unknown
Description: None
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RADIATION PASTEURIZATION OF FRESH MEATS AND POULTRY. Annual Report, February 15, 1968--February 14, 1969.

RADIATION PASTEURIZATION OF FRESH MEATS AND POULTRY. Annual Report, February 15, 1968--February 14, 1969.

Date: January 1, 1969
Creator: Urbain, W.M.; Giddings, G.G.; Belo, P.S. & Ballantyne, W.W.
Description: None
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THE PERFORMANCE OF A MOTOR, A SWITCH, AND TWO TYPES OF PRESSURE PICKUP IN A HIGH-GAMMA-FLUX ENVIRONMENT

THE PERFORMANCE OF A MOTOR, A SWITCH, AND TWO TYPES OF PRESSURE PICKUP IN A HIGH-GAMMA-FLUX ENVIRONMENT

Date: June 1, 1961
Creator: Ayer, J.E. & Pokorny, G.J.
Description: To determine the effects of gamma radiation upon transducers, switches, and motors, two test assemblies were irradiated in the ANL Gamma Irradiation Facility at levels of 1.50 x 10/sup 5/to 2.10 x 10/sup 6/ rad/hr to a total dose of 1.0 x 10/sup 9/ rad. The components tested were a motor, a straingage pressure pickup, a quartz pressure pickup, and a high-temperature switch. The performances of the straingage pickup and snap switch were highly satisfactory over the test period. The quartz pickup, however, exhibited a sensitivity to radiation which rendered it ineffective for use in such an environment. Radiation damage to the motor was manifest as degradation of insulation, and evaporation and condensation of some of the products of degradation upon the walls of the test containment shell. As a result, the motor lost power, indicating a need for insulation more resistant to gamma radiation. Radistion damage to paints, varnish, grease, and conventional insu lations was noted, but the extent of this effect was not considered detrimental to the test. (auth)
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Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes from Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes from Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

Date: August 10, 2005
Creator: Blankenship, Robert E.
Description: This project is concerned with the structure and function of the chlorosome antennas found in green photosynthetic bacteria. Chlorosomes are ellipsoidal structures attached to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane. These antenna complexes provide a very large absorption cross section for light capture. Evidence is overwhelming that the chlorosome represents a very different type of antenna from that found in any other photosynthetic system yet studied. It is now clear that chlorosomes do not contain traditional pigment-proteins, in which the pigments bind to specific sites on proteins. Instead, the chlorosome pigments are organized in vivo into pigment oligomers in which direct pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. Our group has used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate this unique system, as well as the complexes that they directly interact with. Our work has included using model systems, numerous types of both steady-state and ultrafast spectroscopy, molecular biology, protein chemistry and X-ray crystallography. Details of our recent results using these approaches are given below and in the references. Numbers cited in the sections refer to DOE-sponsored publications that are listed below. Only publications dated 2001-2004 or later are included in this report. In addition to the primary literature reports, a ...
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Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

Date: June 10, 2005
Creator: Blankenship, Robert E.
Description: Most chlorophyll-type pigments in a photosynthetic organism function as an antenna, absorbing light and transferring excitations to a photochemical reaction center where energy storage takes place by a series of chemical reactions. The green photosynthetic bacteria are characterized by large antenna complexes known as chlorosomes, in which pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanisms of excitation transfer and regulation of this unique antenna system, including how it is integrated into the rest of the photosynthetic energy transduction apparatus. Techniques that are being used in this research include biochemical analysis, spectroscopy, microscopy, X-ray structural studies, and reconstitution from purified components. Our recent results indicate that the chlorosome baseplate structure, which is the membrane attachment site for the chlorosome to the membrane, is a unique pigment-protein that contains large amounts of carotenoids and small amounts of bacteriochlorophyll a. Reconstitution of directed energy transfer in chlorosomes will be carried out using purified baseplates and oligomeric pigments. The integral membrane B808-866 antenna complex from Chloroflexus aurantiacus and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein-reaction center complex from green sulfur bacteria will be characterized by spectroscopic and structural techniques.
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NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS: CLINICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF MANGANESE

NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS: CLINICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF MANGANESE

Date: January 1, 1962
Creator: Cotzias, G.C.; Papavasiliou, P.S. & Miller, S.T.
Description: From Symposium on Radioactivation Analysis and its Application to the Biological Sciences, Saclay, France, Sept. 1963. The use of neutron activation analysis for studying the metabolism of manganese in the body is discussed. Results of various clinical and biological studies of manganese metabolism are described. Some of the results indicate that pigments (melanin) in general contain high manganese concentrations and might play a role in extrapyramidal diseases. (D.L.C.)
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