The factors that determine the minimum speed of an airplane

The factors that determine the minimum speed of an airplane

Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: The author argues that because of a general misunderstanding of the principles of flight at low speed, there are a large number of airplanes that could be made to fly several miles per hour slower than at present by making slight modifications. In order to show how greatly the wing section affects the minimum speed, curves are plotted against various loadings. The disposition of wings on the airplane slightly affects the lift coefficient, and a few such cases are discussed. Another factor that has an effect on minimum speed is the extra lift exerted by the slip stream on the wings. Also discussed are procedures to be followed by the pilot, especially with regard to stick movements during low speed flight. Also covered are stalling, yaw, rolling moments, lateral control, and the effectiveness of ailerons and rudders.
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Construction of models for tests in wind tunnels

Construction of models for tests in wind tunnels

Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: Report deals with the methods of constructing aerofoils and all other parts of a model airplane, including discussion of the degree of accuracy.
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The efficiency of small bearings in instruments of the type used in aircraft

The efficiency of small bearings in instruments of the type used in aircraft

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This report deals with the construction and properties of bearings and pivots for use in instruments. The static and running friction for both thrust and radial loads was determined for a number of conical pivots and cylindrical and ball bearings. The static rocking friction was also measured for several conical and ball bearings under a heavy load, especially to determine their suitability for use in N. P. L. (National Physical Laboratory) type wind tunnel balance. In constructing conical pivots and sockets it was found that the pivots should be hardened and highly polished, preferably with a revolving lap, and that the sockets should be made by punching with a hardened and polished punch. It was found that for a light load the conical pivots give less friction than any other type, and their wearing qualities when hardened are excellent. Very small ball bearings are unsatisfactory because the proportional accuracy of the balls and races is not high enough to insure smooth running. For rocking pivots under heavy loads it was found that a ball-and-socket bearing, consisting of a hemispherical socket and a sphere of smaller diameter concentric with it, with a row of small balls resting between the two, was ...
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Pressure distribution over the wings of an MB-3 airplane in flight

Pressure distribution over the wings of an MB-3 airplane in flight

Date: January 1, 1925
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This investigation was carried out to determine the distribution of load over the wings of a high speed airplane under all conditions of flight. In particular it was desired to find the pressure distribution during level flight, over the portions of the wings in the slipstream and, during violent maneuvers, over the entire wing surface. The method used consisted in connecting a number of holes in the surface of the wings to recording multiple manometers mounted in the fuselage of the airplane. In this way simultaneous records could be taken on all of the holes for any desired length of time. (author).
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The art of writing scientific reports

The art of writing scientific reports

Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: As the purpose of the report is to transmit as smoothly and as easily as possible, certain facts and ideas, to the average person likely to read it, it should be written in a full and simple enough manner to be comprehended by the least tutored, and still not be boring to the more learned readers.
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The vertical, longitudinal, and lateral accelerations experienced by an S. E. 5a airplane while maneuvering

The vertical, longitudinal, and lateral accelerations experienced by an S. E. 5a airplane while maneuvering

Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Norton, F H & Carroll, T
Description: This investigation was carried out by the Langley Field Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of measuring the accelerations along the three principal axes of an airplane while it was maneuvering. The airplane selected for this purpose was the fairly maneuverable SE-5A and the instruments used were the NACA three component accelerometer and the NACA recording airspeed meter. The results showed that the normal accelerations did not exceed 4.000 G. While the lateral and longitudinal accelerations did not exceed 0.60 G.
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A mechanical device for illustrating airplane stability

A mechanical device for illustrating airplane stability

Date: December 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: An instrument is described which will illustrate completely in a qualitative sense the longitudinal stability characteristics of an airplane. The instrument is primarily of use for the lecture room, but it is hoped that ultimately it will be possible to obtain quantitative results from it.
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The small angular oscillations of airplanes in steady flight

The small angular oscillations of airplanes in steady flight

Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This investigation was carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Army Air Service to provide data concerning the small angular oscillations of several types of airplanes in steady flight under various atmospheric conditions. The data are of use in the design of bomb sights and other aircraft instruments. The method used consisted in flying the airplane steadily in one direction for at least one minute, while recording the angle of the airplane with the sun by means of a kymograph. The results show that the oscillations differ but little for airplanes of various types, but that the condition of the atmosphere is an important factor. The average angular excursion from the mean in smooth air is 0.8 degrees in pitch, 1.4 degrees in roll, and 0.9 degrees in yaw, without special instruments to aid the pilot in holding steady conditions. In bumpy air the values given above are increased about 50 per cent. (author).
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An investigation on the effect of raked wing tips

An investigation on the effect of raked wing tips

Date: November 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This investigation was carried out by request of the United States Air Service in the wind tunnel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The results are here published by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics as it is thought that they may be of general interest. Wings of the R.A.F. 6 section are tested with various angles of rake, and it is found that although rake has very little effect, a positive or negative rake of 30 degrees is the best.
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The pressure distribution over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane  I

The pressure distribution over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane I

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This work was undertaken to determine as completely as possible the distribution of pressure over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane, and to analyze the relation of this pressure to the structural loads and the longitudinal stability. The investigation is divided into three parts, of which this the first. The first part of the investigation is for the purpose of determining the pressure distribution over two horizontal tail surfaces in uniform free flight; the second part to conduct tests of similar tail planes in the wind tunnel; and the third part to determine the pressure distribution on the horizontal tail surfaces during accelerated flight on the full-size airplane.
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Practical stability and controllability of airplanes

Practical stability and controllability of airplanes

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: The effect of the characteristics of an airplane on balance, stability, and controllability, based on free flight tests, is discussed particularly in respect to the longitudinal motion. It is shown that the amount of longitudinal stability can be varied by changing the position of the center of gravity or by varying the aspect ratio of the tail plane, and that the stability for any particular air speed can be varied by changing the camber of the tail plane. It is found that complete longitudinal stability may be obtained even when the tail plane is at all times a lifting surface. Empirical values are given for the characteristics of a new airplane for producing any desired amount of stability and control, or to correct the faults of an airplane already constructed. (author).
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The photographic recording of small motions

The photographic recording of small motions

Date: November 1, 1920
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: Methods and equipment for recording small and sometimes rapid motions by photographic means are described, and the efficacy of photographic recording in such instances is evaluated. The optical system consisting of the light source, the mirror or prism for transmitting motion to the emergent beam, and a means of bringing the rays into focus on the film are discussed. Attention is given to the critical issue of mirror mounting. The film holder and the driving motor for the recording drum are described in detail. The authors conclude that the optical methods they describe are far more satisfactory than the recording pen, in compactness, in high natural period, and in elimination of friction. Costs are similar to mechanical methods. The development and reproduction of the record is an added complication, but the ease of duplicating the records is a decided advantage.
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The measurement of the damping in roll on a JN4h in flight

The measurement of the damping in roll on a JN4h in flight

Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This investigation was carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of measuring the value of L sub P in flight. The method consisted in flying with heavy weights on each wing tip, suddenly releasing one of them, and allowing the airplane to roll up to 90 degrees with controls held in neutral while a record was being taken of the airspeed, and angular velocity about the X axis. The results are of interest as they show that the damping found in the wind tunnel by the method of small oscillations is in general 40 per cent higher than the damping in flight. At 50 M. P. H. The flight curve of L sub P has a high peak, which is not indicated in the model results. It is also shown that at this speed the lateral maneuverability is low.
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The effect of longitudinal moment of inertia upon dynamic stability

The effect of longitudinal moment of inertia upon dynamic stability

Date: October 1, 1922
Creator: Norton, F H & Carroll, T
Description: Free flight tests were carried out to show whether the longitudinal oscillations of a standard S.E.5A airplane are noticeably affected if its longitudinal moment of inertia is increased. These oscillations were taken by means of a self-recording instrument, the airplane having first its ordinary moment of inertia and then one increased by 14 percent. The period of oscillation was slightly longer after the increase of the moment of inertia, but the damping was not affected. Presented here are test results from an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring loaded, automatic injection valve was used. It was centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5-inch by 7-inch engine. A series of fuel injection valve nozzles with different arrangements of round orifices were tested, starting with orifices so small that impingement on the combustion chamber walls was impossible and increasing beyond the start of impingement. a :A table and curves are presented showing the performance of the engine with different nozzles. The test results are ...
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A study of longitudinal dynamic stability in flight

A study of longitudinal dynamic stability in flight

Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This investigation was carried out by the aerodynamic staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of studying experimentally the longitudinal dynamic stability of airplanes in flight. The airplanes selected for this purpose were a standard rigged VE-7 advanced-training airplane and a JN4H with special tail surfaces. The airplanes were caused to oscillate by means of the elevator, then the longitudinal control was either locked or kept free while the oscillation died out. The magnitude of the oscillation was recorded either by a kymograph or an airspeed meter. The results show that the engine speed has as much effect on the period and damping as the airspeed, and that, contrary to theory as developed for small oscillations, the damping decreased at the higher airspeeds with closed throttle.
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A preliminary investigation of a new method for testing aerofoils in free flight

A preliminary investigation of a new method for testing aerofoils in free flight

Date: January 1, 1922
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This report is a description of a new method of testing aerofoils in free flight devised by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The method consists in lowering below a flying airplane a large inverted aerofoil on three small steel wires in such a way that the lift on the aerofoil always keeps the wires tight. The resultant force is measured by the tension in the wires, and the direction of the resultant by the amount the wing trails backwards. A test was made on an aerofoil of the N.A.C.A. #64 section, 6 ft. in span and the results are compared with a similar section tested in the wind tunnel. This investigation indicates that by the use of suitable recording apparatus aerofoils may be accurately and conveniently tested at a Reynolds number, a velocity and a degree of turbulence, comparable with that on the full-sized airplane. Satisfactory experiments were also made in trailing a sphere and a streamlined body on single wires.
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The effect of staggering a biplane

The effect of staggering a biplane

Date: September 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This investigation was carried out by request of the United States Air Service at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology wind tunnel in 1918. As the data collected may be of general interest, they are published here by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The lift, drag, and center of pressure travel are determined for a biplane with a stagger varying from +100% to -100%. It is found that the efficiency and the maximum lift increase with positive stagger. With large positive staggers the center of pressure is far forward and has a very slight travel with changes in lift coefficient.
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The drawing of experimental curves

The drawing of experimental curves

Date: July 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This report presents a discussion of how to determine the location of a line or surface from experimental data. What we desire to know practically is the number of ordinates required to obtain a certain probable precision in drawing a line or surface.
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Design of recording wind tunnel balances

Design of recording wind tunnel balances

Date: December 1, 1920
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: Given here is a description of the design of a scientific recording wind tunnel balance. It was decided that the most satisfactory arrangement would be a rigid ring completely surrounding the tunnel or wind stream, so that the model could be supported from it by wires or any arrangement of spindles. The forces and moments acting on this ring can then be recorded by suitable weighing apparatus. The methods available for recording forces on the arms are explained. The proposed type of balance will support the model rigidly in a variety of ways, will make a complete test without attention, and will plot the results so that all computations are avoided.
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N.A.C.A. control position recorder

N.A.C.A. control position recorder

Date: May 1922
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: A new instrument is described which is capable of simultaneously recording the position of the three controls of an airplane. The records are taken photographically on a standard N.A.C.A. film drum and the instrument can be quickly installed in any airplane.
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N.A.C.A. recording  air speed meter

N.A.C.A. recording air speed meter

Date: October 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: A new type of air speed meter is described which was designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists essentially of a tight metal diaphragm of high natural period which is acted upon by the pressure difference of a pitot-static head. The resulting deflection of this diaphragm is recorded optically on a moving film.
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The aerodynamic properties of thick aerofoils suitable for internal bracing

The aerodynamic properties of thick aerofoils suitable for internal bracing

Date: 1920
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: The object of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of various types of wings having sufficient depth to entirely inclose the wing bracing, and also to provide data for the further design of such sections. This type of wing is of interest because it eliminates the resistance of the interplane bracing, a portion of the airplane that sometimes absorbs one-quarter of the total power required to fly, and because these wings may be made to give a very high maximum lift. Results of the investigation of the following subjects are given: (1) effect of changing the upper and lower camber of thick aerofoils of uniform section; (2) effect of thickening the center and thinning the tips of a thin aerofoil; (3) effect of adding a convex lower surface to a tapered section; (4) effect of changing the mean thickness with constant center and tip sections; and (5) effect of varying the chord along the span.
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Thermal Stess of the Refractories in a Nuclear Reactor

Thermal Stess of the Refractories in a Nuclear Reactor

Date: September 23, 1948
Creator: Norton, F. H.
Description: None
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Control in circling flight

Control in circling flight

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Norton, F H & Allen, E T
Description: This investigation was undertaken for the purpose of developing instruments that would record the forces and positions of all three controls, and to obtain data on the behavior of an airplane in turns. All the work was done on a standard rigged JN4H (airplane no. 2 of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, report no. 70). It was found that the airplane was longitudinally unstable and nose heavy; that it was laterally unstable, probably due to too little dihedral; and that it was directionally unstable, due to insufficient fin area, this last being very serious, for in case of a loss of rudder control the airplane immediately whips into a spin from which there is no way of getting it out. On the other hand, it was found possible to fly quite satisfactorily with the rudder locked, and safely, though not so well, with the ailerons locked.
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