Synthesis and Characterization of Crystalline Assemblies of Functionalized Hydrogel Nanoparticles

Synthesis and Characterization of Crystalline Assemblies of Functionalized Hydrogel Nanoparticles

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Date: December 2005
Creator: Cai, Tong
Description: Two series monodispersed nanoparticles of hydroxylpropyl cellulose (HPC) and functionalized poly-N-isopropylamide (PNIPAM) particles have been synthesized and used as building blocks for creating three-dimensional networks, with two levels of structural hierarchy. The first level is HPC nanoparticles were made from methacrylated or degradable cross-linker attached HPC. These nanoparticles could be stabilized at room temperature by residual methacrylate or degradable groups are present both within and on the exterior of HPC nanoparticles. Controlled release studies have been performed on the particle and networks .The nearly monodispersed nanoparticles have been synthesized on the basis of a natural polymer of hydropropylcellulose (HPC) with a high molecular weight using the precipitation polymerization method and self-assembly of these particles in water results in bright colors. The HPC nanoparticles can be potential using as crosslinkers to increase the hydrogels mechanical properties, such as high transparency and rapid swelling/de-swelling kinetics. The central idea is to prepare colloidal particles containing C=C bonds and to use them as monomers - vinylparticles, to form stable particle assemblies with various architectures. This is accomplished by mixing an aqueous suspension of hydrogel nanoparticles (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) with the organic solvent (dichloromethane) to grow columnar crystals. The hydrogels with such a unique crystal structure behavior ...
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Polymer hydrogel nanoparticles and their networks

Polymer hydrogel nanoparticles and their networks

Date: August 2002
Creator: Lu, Xihua
Description: The thermally responsive hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) hydrogel nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized. The HPC particles were obtained by chemically crosslinking collapsed HPC polymer chains in water-surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide) dispersion above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the HPC. The size distributions of microgel particles, measured by dynamic light scattering, have been correlated with synthesis conditions including surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, and reaction temperature. The swelling and phase transition properties of resultant HPC microgels have been analyzed using both static and dynamic light scattering techniques. By first making gel nanoparticles and then covalently bonding them together, we have engineered a new class of gels with two levels of structural hierarchy: the primary network is crosslinked polymer chains in each individual particle, while the secondary network is a system of crosslinked nanoparticles. The covalent bonding contributes to the structural stability of the nanostructured gels, while self-assembly provides them with crystal structures that diffract light, resulting in colors. By using N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer hydrogel nanoparticles, we have synthesized nanoparticle networks that display a striking iridescence like precious opal but are soft and flexible like gelatin. This is in contrast to previous colored hydrogels, which were created either by adding dyes or fluorescent, ...
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Quantum-Confined CdS Nanoparticles on DNA Templates

Quantum-Confined CdS Nanoparticles on DNA Templates

Date: May 1998
Creator: Rho, Young Gyu
Description: As electronic devices became smaller, interest in quantum-confined semiconductor nanostructures increased. Self-assembled mesoscale semiconductor structures of II-VI nanocrystals are an especially exciting subject because of their controllable band gap and unique photophysical properties. Several preparative methods to synthesize and control the sizes of the individual nanocrystallites and the electronic and optical properties have been intensively studied. Fabrication of patterned nanostructures composed of quantum-confined nanoparticles is the next step toward practical applications. We have developed an innovative method to fabricate diverse nanostructures which relies on the size and a shape of a chosen deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template.
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Synthesis and characterization of crystalline assembly of poly Nisopropylacry-lamide)-co-acrylic acid nanoparticles.

Synthesis and characterization of crystalline assembly of poly Nisopropylacry-lamide)-co-acrylic acid nanoparticles.

Date: December 2004
Creator: Zhou, Bo
Description: In this study, crystalline poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPAm-co-AAc) nanoparticle network in organic solvents was obtained by self assembling precursor particles in acetone/epichlorohydrin mixture at room temperature followed by inter-sphere crosslinking at ~98 °C. The crystals thus formed can endure solvent exchanges or large distortions under a temporary compressing force with the reoccurrence of crystalline structures. In acetone, the crystals were stable, independent of temperature, while in water crystals could change their colors upon heating or changing pH values. By passing a focused white light beam through the crystals, different colors were displayed at different observation angles, indicating typical Bragg diffraction. Shear moduli of the gel nanoparticle crystals were measured in the linear stress-yield ranges for the same gel crystals in both acetone and water. Syntheses of particles of different sizes and the relationship between particle size and the color of the gel nanoparticle networks at a constant solid content were also presented. Temperature- and pH- sensitive crystalline PNIPAm-co-AAc hydrogel was prepared using osmosis crosslinking method. Not only the typical Bragg diffraction phenomenon was observed for the hydrogel but also apparent temperature- and pH- sensitive properties were performed. The phase behavior of PNIPAm nanoparticles dispersed in water was also investigated using a ...
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Interfacial Electrochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles Formation on Diamond and Copper Electroplating on Ruthenium Surface

Interfacial Electrochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles Formation on Diamond and Copper Electroplating on Ruthenium Surface

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Date: May 2003
Creator: Arunagiri, Tiruchirapalli Natarajan
Description: An extremely facile and novel method called spontaneous deposition, to deposit noble metal nanoparticles on a most stable form of carbon (C) i.e. diamond is presented. Nanometer sized particles of such metals as platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), gold (Au), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) could be deposited on boron-doped (B-doped) polycrystalline diamond films grown on silicon (Si) substrates, by simply immersing the diamond/Si sample in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution containing ions of the corresponding metal. The electrons for the reduction of metal ions came from the Si back substrate. The diamond/Si interfacial ohmic contact was of paramount importance to the observation of the spontaneous deposition process. The metal/diamond (M/C) surfaces were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology (i.e. size and distribution) of metal nanoparticles deposits could be controlled by adjusting the metal ion concentration, HF concentration and deposition time. XRD data indicate the presence of textured and strained crystal lattices of Pd for different Pd/C morphologies, which seem to influence the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The sensitivity of electrocatalytic reactions to surface crystal structure implies that M/C could be fabricated for specific electrocatalytic applications. The research also ...
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Microstructure and Electronic Structures of Er-Doped Si Nano-particles Synthesized by Vapor Phase Pyrolysis

Microstructure and Electronic Structures of Er-Doped Si Nano-particles Synthesized by Vapor Phase Pyrolysis

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Date: May 2000
Creator: Chen, Yandong
Description: Si nanoparticles are new prospective optoelectronic materials. Unlike bulk Si cry-stals, Si nanoparticles display intriguing room-temperature photoluminescence. A major challenge in the fabrication of Si nanoparticles is the control of their size distribution. The rare-earth element Er has unique photo emission properties, including low pumping power, and a temperature independent, sharp spectrum. The emission wavelength matches the transmission window of optical fibers used in the telecommunications industry. Therefore, the study of Er-doped Si nanoparticles may have practical significance. The goals of the research described in this dissertation are to investigate vapor phase pyrolysis methods and to characterize the microstructure and associated defects, particles size distributions and photoluminescence efficiencies of doped and undoped Si nanoparticles using analytical transmission electron microscopy, high resolution electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. Er-doped and undoped Si nanoparticles were synthesized via vapor-phase pyrolysis of disilane at Texas Christian University. To achieve monodisperse size distributions, a process with fast nucleation and slow growth was employed. Disilane was diluted to 0.48% with helium. A horizontal pyrolysis oven was maintained at a temperature of 1000 °C. The oven length was varied from 1.5 cm to 6.0 cm to investigate the influence of oven length on the properties of the nanoparticles. ...
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Nanoparticles Engineered to Bind Serum Albumin: Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Characterization, and Functionalization of Fluorescently-Labeled, Acrylate-Based, Polymer Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles Engineered to Bind Serum Albumin: Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Characterization, and Functionalization of Fluorescently-Labeled, Acrylate-Based, Polymer Nanoparticles

Date: August 2010
Creator: Hinojosa, Barbara R.
Description: The potential use of polymeric, functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) as drug delivery vectors was explored. Covalent conjugation of albumin to the surface of NPs via maleimide chemistry proved problematic. However, microwave assisted synthesis of NPs was not only time efficient, but enabled the exploration of size control by changing the following parameters: temperature, microwave power, reaction time, initiator concentration, and percentage of monomer used. About 1.5 g of fluorescently-labeled, carboxylic acid-functionalized NPs (100 nm diameter) were synthesized for a total cost of less than $1. Future work will address further functionalization of the NPs for the coupling of albumin (or other targeted proteins), and tests for in vivo biodistribution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries