Ballistic deposition: global scaling and local time series.

Ballistic deposition: global scaling and local time series.

Date: December 2003
Creator: Schwettmann, Arne
Description: Complexity can emerge from extremely simple rules. A paradigmatic example of this is the model of ballistic deposition (BD), a simple model of sedimentary rock growth. In two separate Problem-in-Lieu-of Thesis studies, BD was investigated numerically in (1+1)-D on a lattice. Both studies are combined in this document. For problem I, the global interface roughening (IR) process was studied in terms of effective scaling exponents for a generalized BD model. The model used incorporates a tunable parameter B to change the cooperation between aggregating particles. Scaling was found to depart increasingly from the predictions of Kardar-Parisi-Zhang theory both with decreasing system sizes and with increasing cooperation. For problem II, the local single column evolution during BD rock growth was studied via statistical analysis of time series. Connections were found between single column time series properties and the global IR process.
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A New Approach for Transition Metal Free Magnetic Sic: Defect Induced Magnetism After Self-ion Implantation

A New Approach for Transition Metal Free Magnetic Sic: Defect Induced Magnetism After Self-ion Implantation

Date: May 2013
Creator: Kummari, Venkata Chandra Sekhar
Description: SiC has become an attractive wide bandgap semiconductor due to its unique physical and electronic properties and is widely used in high temperature, high frequency, high power and radiation resistant applications. SiC has been used as an alternative to Si in harsh environments such as in the oil industry, nuclear power systems, aeronautical, and space applications. SiC is also known for its polytypism and among them 3C-SiC, 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC are the most common polytypes used for research purposes. Among these polytypes 4H-SiC is gaining importance due to its easy commercial availability with a large bandgap of 3.26 eV at room temperature. Controlled creation of defects in materials is an approach to modify the electronic properties in a way that new functionality may result. SiC is a promising candidate for defect-induced magnetism on which spintronic devices could be developed. The defects considered are of room temperature stable vacancy types, eliminating the need for magnetic impurities, which easily diffuse at room temperature. Impurity free vacancy type defects can be created by implanting the host atoms of silicon or carbon. The implantation fluence determines the defect density, which is a critical parameter for defect induced magnetism. Therefore, we have studied the influence ...
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Ion Beam Synthesis of Carbon Assisted Nanosystems in Silicon Based Substrates

Ion Beam Synthesis of Carbon Assisted Nanosystems in Silicon Based Substrates

Date: May 2011
Creator: Poudel, Prakash Raj
Description: The systematic study of the formation of β-SiC formed by low energy carbon ion (C-)implantation into Si followed by high temperature annealing is presented. The research is performed to explore the optimal annealing conditions. The formation of crystalline β-SiC is clearly observed in the sample annealed at 1100 °C for a period of 1 hr. Quantitative analysis is performed in the formation of β-SiC by the process of implantation of different carbon ion fluences of 1×1017, 2×1017, 5×1017, and 8×1017 atoms /cm2 at an ion energy of 65 keV into Si. It is observed that the average size of β-SiC crystals decreased and the amount of β-SiC crystals increased with the increase in the implanted fluences when the samples were annealed at 1100°C for 1 hr. However, it is observed that the amount of β-SiC linearly increased with the implanted fluences up to 5×1017 atoms /cm2. Above this fluence the amount of β-SiC appears to saturate. The stability of graphitic C-C bonds at 1100°C limits the growth of SiC precipitates in the sample implanted at a fluence of 8×1017 atoms /cm2 which results in the saturation behavior of SiC formation in the present study. Secondly, the carbon cluster formation process ...
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Thorium and Uranium M-shell X-ray Production Cross Sections for 0.4 – 4.0 MeV Protons, 0.4 - 6.0 MeV Helium Ions, 4.5 – 11.3 MeV Carbon Ions, and 4.5 – 13.5 MeV Oxygen Ions.

Thorium and Uranium M-shell X-ray Production Cross Sections for 0.4 – 4.0 MeV Protons, 0.4 - 6.0 MeV Helium Ions, 4.5 – 11.3 MeV Carbon Ions, and 4.5 – 13.5 MeV Oxygen Ions.

Date: May 2011
Creator: Phinney, Lucas C.
Description: The M-shell x-ray production cross section for thorium and uranium have been determined for protons of energy 0.4 - 4.0 MeV, helium ions of energy 0.4 - 6.0 MeV, carbon ions of energy 4.5 - 11.3 MeV and oxygen ions of energy 4.5 - 13.5 MeV. The total cross sections and the cross sections for individual x-ray peaks in the spectrum, consisting of the following transitions Mz (M4-N2, M5-N3, M4-N3), Ma (M5-N6,7), Mb (M4-N6, M5-O3, M4- O2), and Mg (M4-O3, M5-P3, M3-N4, M3-N5), were compared to the theoretical values determined from the PWBA + OBKN and ECUSAR. The theoretical values for the carbon and oxygen ions were also modified to take into account the effects of multiple ionizations of the target atom by the heavier ions. It is shown that the results of the ECUSAR theory tend to provide better agreement with the experimental data.
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Broad-band Light Emission From Ion Implanted Silicon Nanocrystals Via Plasmonic and Non-plasmonic Effects for Optoelectronics

Broad-band Light Emission From Ion Implanted Silicon Nanocrystals Via Plasmonic and Non-plasmonic Effects for Optoelectronics

Date: December 2012
Creator: Singh, Akhilesh K.
Description: Broad band light emission ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR) has been observed from silicon nanoparticles fabricated using low energy (30-45 keV) metal and non-metal ion implantation with a fluence of 5*1015 ions/cm2 in crystalline Si(100). It is found from a systematic study of the annealing carried out at certain temperatures that the spectral characteristics remains unchanged except for the enhancement of light emission intensity due to annealing. The annealing results in nucleation of metal nanoclusters in the vicinity of Si nanoparticles which enhances the emission intensity. Structural and optical characterization demonstrate that the emission originates from both highly localized defect bound excitons at the Si/Sio2 interface, as well as surface and interface traps associated with the increased surface area of the Si nanocrystals. The emission in the UV is due to interband transitions from localized excitonic states at the interface of Si/SiO2 or from the surface of Si nanocrystals. The radiative efficiency of the UV emission from the Si nanoparticles can be modified by the localized surface plasmon (LSP) interaction induced by the nucleation of silver nanoparticles with controlled annealing of the samples. The UV emission from Si nanoclusters are coupled resonantly to the LSP ...
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A Novel Process for GeSi Thin Film Synthesis

A Novel Process for GeSi Thin Film Synthesis

Date: December 2007
Creator: Hossain, Khalid
Description: A unique process of fabricating a strained layer GexSi1-x on insulator is demonstrated. Such strained heterostructures are useful in the fabrication of high-mobility transistors. This technique incorporates well-established silicon processing technology e.g., ion implantation and thermal oxidation. A dilute GeSi layer is initially formed by implanting Ge+ into a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. Thermal oxidation segregates the Ge at the growing oxide interface to form a distinct GexSi1-x thin-film with a composition that can be tailored by controlling the oxidation parameters (e.g. temperature and oxidation ambient). In addition, the film thickness can be controlled by implantation fluence, which is important since the film forms pseudomorphically below 2×1016 Ge/cm2. Continued oxidation consumes the underlying Si leaving the strained GeSi film encapsulated by the two oxide layers, i.e. the top thermal oxide and the buried oxide. Removal of the thermal oxide by a dilute HF etch completes the process. Strain relaxation can be achieved by either of two methods. One involves vacancy injection by ion implantation to introduce sufficient open-volume within the film to compensate for the compressive strain. The other depends upon the formation of GeO2. If Ge is oxidized in the absence of Si, it evaporates as GeO(g) resulting in spontaneous ...
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Charge Collection Studies on Integrated Circuit Test Structures using Heavy-Ion Microbeams and MEDICI Simulation Calculations

Charge Collection Studies on Integrated Circuit Test Structures using Heavy-Ion Microbeams and MEDICI Simulation Calculations

Date: May 2000
Creator: Guo, Baonian
Description: Ion induced charge collection dynamics within Integrated Circuits (ICs) is important due to the presence of ionizing radiation in the IC environment. As the charge signals defining data states are reduced by voltage and area scaling, the semiconductor device will naturally have a higher susceptibility to ionizing radiation induced effects. The ionizing radiation can lead to the undesired generation and migration of charge within an IC. This can alter, for example, the memory state of a bit, and thereby produce what is called a "soft" error, or Single Event Upset (SEU). Therefore, the response of ICs to natural radiation is of great concern for the reliability of future devices. Immunity to soft errors is listed as a requirement in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors prepared by the Semiconductor Industry Association in the United States. To design more robust devices, it is essential to create and test accurate models of induced charge collection and transport in semiconductor devices. A heavy ion microbeam produced by an accelerator is an ideal tool to study charge collection processes in ICs and to locate the weak nodes and structures for improvement through hardening design. In this dissertation, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection ...
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Ion-Induced Damage In Si: A Fundamental Study of Basic Mechanisms over a Wide Range of Implantation Conditions

Ion-Induced Damage In Si: A Fundamental Study of Basic Mechanisms over a Wide Range of Implantation Conditions

Date: May 2006
Creator: Roth, Elaine Grannan
Description: A new understanding of the damage formation mechanisms in Si is developed and investigated over an extended range of ion energy, dose, and irradiation temperature. A simple model for dealing with ion-induced damage is proposed, which is shown to be applicable over the range of implantation conditions. In particular the concept of defect "excesses" will be discussed. An excess exists in the lattice when there is a local surplus of one particular type of defect, such as an interstitial, over its complimentary defect (i.e., a vacancy). Mechanisms for producing such excesses by implantation will be discussed. The basis of this model specifies that accumulation of stable lattice damage during implantation depends upon the excess defects and not the total number of defects. The excess defect model is validated by fundamental damage studies involving ion implantation over a range of conditions. Confirmation of the model is provided by comparing damage profiles after implantation with computer simulation results. It will be shown that transport of ions in matter (TRIM) can be used effectively to model the ion-induced damage profile, i.e. excess defect distributions, by a simple subtraction process in which the spatially correlated defects are removed, thereby simulating recombination. Classic defect studies ...
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Investigation of Selected Optically-Active Nanosystems Fashioned using Ion Implantation

Investigation of Selected Optically-Active Nanosystems Fashioned using Ion Implantation

Date: May 2006
Creator: Mitchell, Lee
Description: Opto-electronic semiconductor technology continues to grow at an accelerated pace, as the industry seeks to perfect devices such as light emitting diodes for purposes of optical processing and communication. A strive for greater efficiency with shrinking device dimensions, continually pushes the technology from both a design and materials aspect. Nanosystems such a quantum dots, also face new material engineering challenges as they enter the realm of quantum mechanics, with each system and material having markedly different electronic properties. Traditionally, the semiconductor industry has focused on materials such Group II-VI and III-V compounds as the basis material for future opto-electronic needs. Unfortunately, these material systems can be expensive and have difficulties integrating into current Si-based technology. The industry is reluctant to leave silicon due in part to silicon's high quality oxide, and the enormous amount of research invested into silicon based circuit fabrication. Although recently materials such as GaN are starting to dominate the electro-optical industry since a Si-based substitute has not been found. The purpose of the dissertation was to examine several promising systems that could be easily integrated into current Si-based technology and also be produced using simple inexpensive fabrication techniques such ion implantation. The development of optically active ...
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Energy Distribution of Sputtered Neutral Atoms from a Multilayer Target

Energy Distribution of Sputtered Neutral Atoms from a Multilayer Target

Date: August 2000
Creator: Bigelow, Alan W.
Description: Energy distribution measurements of sputtered neutral particles contribute to the general knowledge of sputtering, a common technique for surface analysis. In this work emphasis was placed on the measurement of energy distribution of sputtered neutral atoms from different depths. The liquid Ga-In eutectic alloy as a sample target for this study was ideal due to an extreme concentration ratio gradient between the top two monolayers. In pursuing this study, the method of sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy (SIRIS) was utilized. SIRIS employs a pulsed ion beam to initiate sputtering and tunable dye lasers for resonance ionization. Observation of the energy distribution was achieved with a position-sensitive detector. The principle behind the detector's energy resolution is time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For this specific detector, programmed time intervals between the sputtering pulse at the target and the ionizing laser pulse provided information leading to the energy distribution of the secondary neutral particles. This experiment contributes data for energy distributions of sputtered neutral particles to the experimental database, required by theoretical models and computer simulations for the sputtering phenomenon.
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