The role of resilience in mediating outcomes associated with grandparents raising their grandchildren.

The role of resilience in mediating outcomes associated with grandparents raising their grandchildren.

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Date: December 2009
Creator: Davis, Shanna R.
Description: The occurrence of custodial grandparents is increasing greatly. These grandparents face added stress and many adversities that arise from caregiving. Findings of current research tends to be mixed on the effects of grandparents raising grandchildren experience. Much research concludes that grandparent caregivers experience negative declines in overall health and well-being, while other research points out that the caregiving role may actually be a positive experience for the grandparent. The current study hypothesizes that mixed research may be a result of varying levels of resilience in the custodial grandparent population. The model proposed in this study looks at resilience as a mediator between several variables that effect custodial grandparenting. The current sample consisted of 239 custodial grandparents. A regression/correlation analysis was conducted on the data, and it was found that resilience levels were significant in mediating the effects of grandparent caregiving.
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The power of teams: Do self-managing work teams influence managers' perceptions of potency?

The power of teams: Do self-managing work teams influence managers' perceptions of potency?

Date: December 2005
Creator: Hass, Nicolette P.
Description: The present study examined the perceptions of teams and managers on team potency levels as a function of stage of team development. Drawing from the power and influence literature, potency was established as a means by which to assess team's internal dynamics. Stage of team development was separated into four categories including pseudo, potential, real and high performance teams. Archival data included 45 teams and managers gathered from the manufacturing and service industries. Results indicated a significant linear relationship between team perceptions of team potency and stage of team development. Additionally, potency perceptions of teams significantly differentiated between the four stages of team development. Manager perceptions of team potency produced non-significant results. Possible explanations of the results as well as implications for practice and future research are provided.
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Assessment of Psychopathy in Incarcerated Females

Assessment of Psychopathy in Incarcerated Females

Date: August 2001
Creator: Jackson, Rebecca L.
Description: Psychopaths constitute only an estimated 1% of the population, yet they are responsible for a disproportionately large number of violent and nonviolent crimes. The literature addressing this syndrome among male offenders is quite extensive. In contrast, psychopathy and its underlying factor structure remains understudied among female offenders. Research has suggested marked gender differences in the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and underlying dimensions of psychopathy. This study examined the dimensions of psychopathy in a female offender sample. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and the Self Report Psychopathy-II (SRP-II) were administered to 119 female inmates at Tarrant County Jail in Fort Worth, TX. Confirmatory factor analyses of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) did not support the use of the traditional two factor male model or a recently proposed two- factor female model. This thesis also addressed females' self-appraisal of PCL-R Factor 1 characteristics as well as the usefulness of the self-administered Self-Report Psychopathy-II as a screen for psychopathy.
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The Effects Of The Allocation Of Attention Congruent With Lateralized Cognitive Tasks On EEG Coherence Measurements

The Effects Of The Allocation Of Attention Congruent With Lateralized Cognitive Tasks On EEG Coherence Measurements

Date: May 2002
Creator: Hill, Cynthia DeLeon
Description: The single task condition of the Urbanczyk and Kennelly (1991) study was conducted while recording a continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) record. Attention was allocated by instructed lateral head orienting and eye gaze either congruently or incongruently with lateralized cognitive tasks. Thirty university subjects retained a digit span or a spatial location span for a 20 second retention interval. EEG data were extracted from the 20 second retention intervals and interhemispheric coherence was calculated for homologous sites in the temporal, parietal and occipital regions of the brain. There was a main effect for group, with congruent orienting producing greater coherence values than incongruent orienting. This effect of attention on alpha coherence values was found in the low alpha (8-10 Hz) frequency band. This provides evidence that the lower alpha frequency band is reflective of manipulations of attention. The higher coherence measures for the congruent orienting group indicates that homologous regions of the two hemispheres are more coupled into a single system when lateralized attention activates the same hemisphere performing the cognitive task. In the higher alpha frequency band (11-13 Hz) group, sex, site and task interacted. This provides evidence that the higher alpha band is more affected by cognitive processing of the ...
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Automaticity and Hemispheric Specialization in Emotional Expression Recognition: Examined using a modified Stroop Task

Automaticity and Hemispheric Specialization in Emotional Expression Recognition: Examined using a modified Stroop Task

Date: August 2002
Creator: Beall, Paula M.
Description: The main focus of this investigation was to examine the automaticity of facial expression recognition through valence judgments in a modified photo-word Stroop paradigm. Positive and negative words were superimposed across male and female faces expressing positive (happy) and negative (angry, sad) emotions. Subjects categorized the valence of each stimulus. Gender biases in judgments of expressions (better recognition for male angry and female sad expressions) and the valence hypothesis of hemispheric advantages for emotions (left hemisphere: positive; right hemisphere: negative) were also examined. Four major findings emerged. First, the valence of expressions was processed automatically (robust interference effects). Second, male faces interfered with processing the valence of words. Third, no posers' gender biases were indicated. Finally, the emotionality of facial expressions and words was processed similarly by both hemispheres.
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Spirituality, health locus of control, and wellness in organizational health promotion and wellness programs

Spirituality, health locus of control, and wellness in organizational health promotion and wellness programs

Date: August 2001
Creator: Gauthier, Janine E.
Description: The relationship between an individual's level of spirituality, health locus of control, and participating in wellness activity was investigated. The relationship between spirituality, health locus of control on physical health was also investigated. The research question was based on prior studies that reported people who are more spiritual are healthier. Does their spirituality lead to increased levels of health, or are individual's who are more spiritual more likely to proactively take control of their health and engage in health promoting behaviors? One hundred and fifteen male and female employees completed The Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS), a spirituality measure, The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, a measure of locus of control related to health and healthcare, and The Center for Disease Control's (CDC) Health Risk Appraisal, a self-report measure of participation in health behaviors. Physical measures of health were obtained by obtaining Body Mass Index, blood pressure readings, and a cholesterol screening. The current study looked at level of spirituality (internal, external), level of health locus of control (internal, powerful other, chance) and participation in wellness/health promoting behaviors and health. Correlational analyses were performed on the relationship between spirituality and health locus of control. Hierarchical multiple regressions were ...
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Heart rhythm variability in persons with chronic pain.

Heart rhythm variability in persons with chronic pain.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Saxon, LaDonna Christine
Description: The present study evaluated the utility of heart rhythm coherence (HRC) feedback to reduce the reported pain intensity of patients enrolled in a multimodal pain management program. Participants were recruited and assigned to a usual treatment group (UT) or a heart rhythm coherence feedback group (UT+HRC). It was hypothesized that UT+HRC participants who achieved heart rhythm coherence would report a reduction of pain intensity, as measured by the McGill Pain Inventory. For those whose pain intensity decreased, it was also expected that their self reported levels of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and state anger as measured by the State Trait Anger Inventory would decrease. It is also hypothesized that with a reduction in pain levels, anger, and depression, blood pressure would also decrease among those who had high blood pressure prior to the intervention. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between treatment condition, coherence status and pain levels. A series of independent t-tests were utilized to investigate the change in pain, depression, and state anger from baseline to posttest, followed by Pearson product moment correlation coefficients on difference scores to understand the relationship between the outcome variables for Hypothesis 2. ...
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Negative affect, introversion and physiological markers of cardiovascular disease.

Negative affect, introversion and physiological markers of cardiovascular disease.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Martin, Luci A.
Description: Cardiovascular risk factors have expanded to include personality and other psychological characteristics. Negative affect (NA) has a longstanding history in cardiovascular health, but the path by which NA leads to cardiovascular disease (CVD) is yet to be defined. The following study examined the relationship of high NA and low extroversion (EX) with physiological cardiovascular markers in a sample of non-medical, professional adults. Our results indicated that individuals high in NA and low in EX displayed a significantly lower platelet count and a significantly higher mean platelet volume. Individuals high in NA displayed a significantly lower cholesterol risk ratio, while individuals high in EX displayed significantly higher platelet counts. Personality was not significantly related to blood pressure, high or low density lipoproteins. Understanding the relationships among psychological variables and physiological markers will help clinical researchers design interventions that reduce the likelihood of CVD.
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An exercise in story repair: A guided written disclosure protocol for fostering narrative completeness of traumatic memories.

An exercise in story repair: A guided written disclosure protocol for fostering narrative completeness of traumatic memories.

Date: May 2008
Creator: Tomczyk, Daniel A.
Description: Flutists have reported musculoskeletal pain from practicing and performing their instrument. This study was a statistical approach to investigate potential causal risk factors for flute related pain among high school and college students. The study focused on the relationship between flute related pain and musical background or anthropometric measurements including size, strength and flexibility. Subjects included thirty high school and college-aged flutists who were assessed using a questionnaire, bi-lateral anthropometric measurements of the upper-extremities, upper-extremity performance tests for range of motion, isometric strength and rotation speed, and instrument specific questions. Four questions regarding pain associated with flute playing were treated as dependent variables and used for correlation and regression analyses with other independent variables. A six-factor regression model was created and each model was statistically significant. Results of this study show that strength, flexibility, pain spots, and exposure are risk factors for flute related pain. Both left and right pinch strength and right isometric pronation strength were significantly correlated to flutists experiencing pain while playing. Knowledge of these factors in relationship to pain is needed in flute pedagogy to help teachers and performers understand why flutists report pain during and after playing. Additional studies are warranted for replication of this ...
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Improving the Definition of Exercise Maintenance: Evaluation of Concepts Related to Adherence

Improving the Definition of Exercise Maintenance: Evaluation of Concepts Related to Adherence

Date: August 2002
Creator: Wilcox, Susan E.
Description: Physical activity has been demonstrated in the literature as an effective way to reduce the risk for development of chronic disease. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change has been developed as a means to predict and facilitate movement into healthier lifestyle behaviors. The model is centered on "stages of change", which describe a continuum of readiness to engage in a health behavior change. Stages contain temporal, qualitative, and quantitative characteristics. This was a six-month study that evaluated the effectiveness of stage-matched (theorized to be pertaining only to the maintenance stage of change) vs. generic (theorized to be pertaining to anyone, regardless of stage) newsletters in assisting subjects to attain the Maintenance stage of change. It also sought to identify further qualitative characteristics that can differentiate between the Action and Maintenance stages of change. Results indicated that monthly stage-matched newsletters were no more effective in helping subjects reaching Maintenance than were the generic newsletters. Exerciser self-schema was related to stages of change, but those relationships differed from baseline to six-month follow-up, indicating development of exerciser self-schema during the study period. Implications of this are discussed. Other concepts discussed included "structure" of change process, in that three new scores were developed ...
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The Effect of Web-Based Support as an Adjunct to a Self-Help Smoking Cessation Program

The Effect of Web-Based Support as an Adjunct to a Self-Help Smoking Cessation Program

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer Lynn
Description: For the past quarter century, the public has been educated and warned about the dangers of smoking, and both smokers and health researchers have been in search of cost-effective, smoking cessation programs that will lead to long-term cessation. This study used a randomized experimental design to investigate the effectiveness of adding Web-based support materials to a nationally sponsored self-help smoking intervention. There was no significant increase in abstinence rates nor progression through the stages of change by those participants who had access to the Web site. However, there were some overall significant trends that suggested these self-help interventions were successful at decreasing daily rates of smoking and nicotine dependency, as well as tended to encourage repeated quit attempts. Although Web-based supports did not appear to increase the effectiveness of the nationally sponsored self-help intervention, this study demonstrated overall 12 week follow-up abstinence rates of 30-32%--greater than what might be expected, given average success rates of other self-help interventions. This study also supports the notion that women may face additional barriers to smoking cessation. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
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Women's career success: The contributions of human capital, individual, organizational, and power variables.

Women's career success: The contributions of human capital, individual, organizational, and power variables.

Date: May 2008
Creator: Blansett, Karen D.
Description: Women are a significant presence in today's workforce; however, few rise to the top management ranks. Therefore, there is a critical need to better understand the factors that facilitate their success. This study examined several variables that may contribute to women's objective (income, span of control, promotions) and subjective (self-reported satisfaction) success. Predictive variables include human capital (training, experience), individual (perception of promotability, motivation for training), organizational (supervisor gender, percentage of male subordinates) and power (extent of supervisory authority) factors. Participants were members of the National Longitudinal Surveys Young Women cohort, conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data were analyzed through simultaneous multiple regression analysis, and the results indicated that education was significantly related to income for all women. For women in management positions, their degree of supervisory power was also predictive of higher income, yet negatively associated with job satisfaction. Further, their span of control was positively influenced by the amount of time they spent in on-the-job training. The implications for women's career advancement, study limitations, and future research possibilities are also discussed.
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Working Memory Processes in the Encoding of Intentions

Working Memory Processes in the Encoding of Intentions

Date: August 2004
Creator: Clark, Michael
Description: The primary interest of this investigation concerned working memory functioning and cue/act discrimination during encoding of intentions. The study included manipulations of working memory and intention load to investigate the encoding processes related to prospective memory (PM). Three experiments are presented that involve working memory distraction tasks at the time of encoding the PM intentions, as well as varying numbers of cues and actions. In the first experiment three cues were paired with one action, in the second, one cue with three actions, and in the third, three cues with three actions. Results suggest that the central executive is involved in binding a cue to an action, and that this operation is key to PM success. Furthermore, the phonological loop seems primarily involved with processing of cues and the visuospatial sketchpad with actions. It is further proposed that the processes of the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad must be successful before the central executive can bind the cues and acts together, which is possibly the most important part in the encoding of intentions. By directly examining PM at the time of encoding, information was gained that allows for a more complete understanding of the nature of how we form and ...
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The Perceptions of Psychotherapists-in-Training regarding People who Stutter versus Normally Fluent Speakers

The Perceptions of Psychotherapists-in-Training regarding People who Stutter versus Normally Fluent Speakers

Date: December 2004
Creator: Tomczyk, Daniel A.
Description: It has been shown repeatedly that many people hold personality stereotypes of stutterers. The attitudes of psychotherapists regarding stutterers have never been investigated. The present investigation assessed the degree to which psychotherapists-in-training hold stereotypes of stutterers as compared to normally fluent speakers. Two groups viewed a videotaped vignette of a male. In one, the male interviewee displayed stuttering behaviors. In the other, the same male spoke fluently. Participants then rated the male interviewee on several personality dimensions. Contrary to previous findings, the group viewing the stuttering interviewee rated him no differently than did the group viewing the fluent interviewee. Greater knowledge of stuttering was associated with more positive ratings of the person who stuttered. The clinical and research implications of these findings are then discussed.
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Examining parenting outcomes of childhood sexual abuse survivors utilizing observation and self-report methods.

Examining parenting outcomes of childhood sexual abuse survivors utilizing observation and self-report methods.

Date: August 2004
Creator: Kallstrom-Fuqua, Amanda C.
Description: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including difficulty in relationships. Research has posited CSA may lead to insecure attachment in survivors, which may be the vehicle by which dysfunctional parent-child relationships develop. The purpose of the proposed study was to examine differences in parenting outcomes between CSA and non-CSA mothers utilizing both observational and self-report methods and to examine the unique impact of CSA on parenting attitudes. Abuse status was determined by scores on the Sexual Abuse subscale of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with the CSA group comprised of mothers scoring in the moderate to severe range. Mothers self-reported parenting attitudes on the Parent-Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire/Control (P-PARQ/Control) and the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2), while parental depression was assessed with the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2). Parenting behaviors were observed by coding the Parent-Child Interaction Assessment (PCIA). Hypotheses were not supported until child gender was considered as a third variable. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated CSA mothers, but not comparison mothers, exhibited significantly poorer limit-setting skills (h² = .21) with male children compared to female children, but did not self-report these differences. Although not statistically significant, small but potentially meaningful effect sizes were ...
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The Impact of Training on Employee Advancement

The Impact of Training on Employee Advancement

Date: May 2011
Creator: Bradley, Lori
Description: In recent years, organizations have invested increasing financial and labor-related resources on employee training. The assumption is that training will benefit the organization through improved performance which will result in greater efficiency, greater customer satisfaction and, ultimately, increased revenue and profits. Further, employees are assumed to benefit because their improved performance should lead to career advancement and increased compensation. However, measuring the effect of training on employee performance has been problematic due to the difficulty of isolating the effect of training from other human resource management practices and environmental and organizational influences. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test a model for predicting merit pay increase, job promotion and performance ratings from measures of general and finance training, as well as employee tenure, gender, educational level and organizational level. It was found that while significant contributions (i.e., betas) were made by finance and general training for performance ratings, promotion and merit pay increase, they did not increase the variance accounted for by tenure, organizational level and gender.
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Type D Personality and Coping Style as Predictors of Cardiovascular Risk

Type D Personality and Coping Style as Predictors of Cardiovascular Risk

Date: August 2011
Creator: Martin, Luci A.
Description: Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) does not occur until mid to late life for most adults, the presence of risk factors for CVD, such as high blood pressure (BP) and high cholesterol, has increased dramatically in young adults. Type D personality consists of two personality traits, negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), and has repeatedly been shown to be an independent predictor of hard medical outcomes (e.g. morbidity and mortality) in cardiac patients. The present study examined the relationships between Type D personality (high NA and high SI), coping strategies, and physiological markers of cardiovascular health in a sample of non-medical, university students. Measures of cardiovascular risk included high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV), calculated LDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Regression analyses revealed that higher use of social supportive coping was a significant predictor of calculated LDL cholesterol. Social supportive coping was also shown to moderate the relationship between Type D personality and HF HRV. Interventions that target psychological and physiological mechanisms associated with CVD are well developed. Clear identification of young adults who are at risk of developing CVD is necessary to intervene in a manner that could potentially save lives. Additional systematic research, especially if ...
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Combat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Effect of Intelligence on Symptomatology

Combat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Effect of Intelligence on Symptomatology

Date: May 2004
Creator: Crisp, William A.
Description: The objective of this study was to examine the relations between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptomatology and intelligence. Thirty American combat veterans of the Vietnam War, diagnosed with chronic PTSD, were given a psychodiagnostic structured interview. Participants were assessed for Intelligence Quotient as well as the veracity of their self report. The study found that there were significant differences in how participants experienced their PTSD symptoms that were correlated with intelligence. The higher IQ participants reported more frequent and intense guilt related symptoms as well as more intense intrusive recollections. The lower IQ participants experienced more frequent startle responses, more intense problems related to falling or remaining asleep and more frequent affective symptoms related to emotional numbing. Psychologists could use these differences in how PTSD is experienced in treatment planning. It may be useful for therapy to address sleep disturbances and affective numbing in lower IQ individuals. Therapy for higher IQ individuals may be more useful if it addresses feelings of guilt and intrusive recollections.
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Age and Responses to the Events of September 11, 2001

Age and Responses to the Events of September 11, 2001

Date: December 2004
Creator: Holmes, D. Nicole
Description: Following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, many turned to the field of psychology for greater understanding of the impact of such events and guidance in supporting our citizens. This study sought to gain greater understanding of the differential impact of the September 11th attack on individuals by investigating the influence of age, psychological hardiness, and repression versus sensitization as forms of coping behavior on psychological health. Both an initial cross-sectional sample (172 young adults & 231older adults) and a short-term longitudinal follow-up (39 young adults & 58 older adults) were included in the study. Older age, psychological hardiness and the use of a repressing coping style were found to each individually relate to greater resilience/less dysfunction at both time one and two. For young adults, high hardy repressors faired best, followed by high hardy sensitizers. Low hardy young adults demonstrated similar levels of dysfunction regardless of coping style (repressions/sensitization). For older adults, coping style impacted both high and low hardy individuals equally, with high hardy repressors demonstrating greater functioning. This study attempted to gain greater insight into explanations for these and previous findings of greater resilience among older adults. In explaining the greater resilience ...
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Exploring Team Performance as an Independent Variable: Can Performance Predict Resource Allocation?

Exploring Team Performance as an Independent Variable: Can Performance Predict Resource Allocation?

Date: December 2007
Creator: Lopez, Nicolette P.
Description: Encouraging positive work team growth depends on, in part, the form and availability of organizational resources and support. Support systems have been found to be important for work team health and survival. However, managers are challenged to make resource decisions while working within company budgetary restraints. Previous research has indicated a positive relationship exists between teams provided with appropriate resources and support, and increased team performance. This study extended previous research by exploring if team performance can predict resources and support. Specifically, the means by which managers allocate resources based on team performance was examined. Archival data included 36 work teams and their managers drawn from four geographically dispersed manufacturing companies. Information gathered from a modified version of an original team support system instrument was used to assess the importance and presence of four resource systems. Additionally, a gap score was calculated from these scores to assess the alignment between resource need and resource existence. Data was used to assess the potential relationships between managers' perceptions of team performance and the manner by which resources are allocated. All hypotheses produced non-significant findings. Results of the hypotheses, data patterns, and limitations of the study are discussed, and opportunities for future research ...
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Identifying AD/HD subtypes using the cognitive assessment system and the NEPSY

Identifying AD/HD subtypes using the cognitive assessment system and the NEPSY

Date: August 2001
Creator: Pottinger, Lindy Sylvan
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) and the NEPSY, A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, to differentiate between the subtypes of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). The CAS and NEPSY are neuropsychological instruments which provide norms for AD/HD children in general. This study examined the performance of the two subtypes of AD/HD on the CAS and NEPSY. In addition, this study examined the performance of the two AD/HD groups on the Screening Test for Auditory Processing Disorders (SCAN). Since AD/HD children tend to have difficulty with language, the SCAN was used to determine if any of the AD/HD subjects had auditory processing difficulties that might impact their performance on the CAS and/or NEPSY subtests. The sample consisted of 118 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years of age. Using the DSM-IV criteria, the children were diagnosed as having three types of AD/HD: A Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (AD/HD-HI), a Predominantly Inattentive Type (AD/HD-I) and a Combined Type The subtypes were also identified by the Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale-Home Version (ADDES-H). Only two subtypes, AD/HD-I and AD/HD-C, were identified by the ADDES-H. There were not enough AD/HD-HI subjects to include in ...
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Correlates of a Past Behavior Interview for the Business Unit Leader: Experience, Motivation, Personality and Cognitive Ability

Correlates of a Past Behavior Interview for the Business Unit Leader: Experience, Motivation, Personality and Cognitive Ability

Date: August 2008
Creator: Conner, Lane A.
Description: This research evaluates the relationship between various individual differences constructs and performance on a past behavior interview (PBI)-one of the most popular forms of personnel selection interviews used today-within a sample of business unit leader level incumbents and applicants from organizations across the United States. Correlation analysis is conducted on the relationship between overall performance on a PBI and four work-related constructs: Experience, Motivation, Personality, and Cognitive Ability. The existing literature on PBIs and the four independent variables is critically reviewed. As limited research has been conducted on the influence of Experience and Motivation on PBI performance, this study makes unique contributions to the literature regarding impact of these two constructs. The major hypotheses stated that Experience and Motivation would yield significant, positive correlations with PBI performance while Personality and Cognitive Ability would not be significantly correlated with PBIs. Results partially supported the hypotheses-Experience, Motivation, and Personality were significantly related to overall PBI score, while Cognitive Ability was not. Implications for the findings as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Leadership, Ascendancy, and Gender

Leadership, Ascendancy, and Gender

Date: August 2001
Creator: Hale, John P.
Description: By the year 2000 women will constitute more than 50 percent of the workforce in the United States, yet their representation in top management and executive-level positions continues to hover in the single digits. This “glass ceiling,” which is conceptualized as limiting women's advancement into these roles, has been the subject of much debate and research over the last fifteen years. As both an equal rights and key competitive issue, the topic of women and leadership is gaining ever-increasing emphasis and momentum in American corporations. Although leadership skills have been advocated as a key human capital/person-centered variable leading to managerial ascendancy for women, the empirical research directly investigating this link is virtually non-existent. This longitudinal study proposed to measure the strength of this relationship using a matched sample of male and female managers. Eighty-five subjects, from the same U.S. based health-care products corporation, had previously participated in a multirater assessment process where seven different facets of their leadership skills were evaluated. Time two data were collected on four objective measures of ascendancy: percent change in salary, number of promotions (job moves) either offered or accepted, change in number of direct reports, and change in number of indirect reports. Multivariate analysis ...
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Mediational Roles of Personality Factors and Vengeful Rumination in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Mediational Roles of Personality Factors and Vengeful Rumination in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Date: August 2009
Creator: Crostley, Jeremy T.
Description: Considerable research has demonstrated a link between thoughts of revenge, or vengeful rumination, and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, particularly in situations involving interpersonal trauma. Personality factors have been related to both vengefulness and PTSD. No study to date has simultaneously examined the unique contributions of vengefulness and personality factors in the development of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, the present study addressed these questions in an inpatient sample by comparing contributions of the Big Five personality factors and vengeful rumination to the development of PTSD symptoms through correlation, hierarchical regression, and omnibus regression analyses. Results showed that Neuroticism predicted PTSD symptoms better than other personality factors, that Neuroticism and Agreeableness predicted vengeful rumination in opposite directions, and that personality factors and vengeful rumination each added unique variance in the prediction of PTSD symptoms. Future directions and implications are discussed.
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