Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan

Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan

Date: March 28, 2008
Creator: Japan. The Global Warming Prevention Headquarters
Description: Content of this document includes the basic direction of promotion of global warming countermeasures, the targets for control and removal of GHG, and the Japan's measures and policies to achieve the targets.
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Low Carbon Technology Plan

Low Carbon Technology Plan

Date: May 19, 2008
Creator: Kagaku Gijutsu Kaigi (Japan)
Description: The document describes Japan's strategy for transforming into a low carbon society, through the promotion of alternative energy sources and energy efficient technologies.
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Scaling Up AFOLU Mitigation Activities in Non-Annex I Countries

Scaling Up AFOLU Mitigation Activities in Non-Annex I Countries

Date: June 12, 2008
Creator: Climate Strategies
Description: This paper is about reducing greenhouse gas emissions through land use policies in the agriculture and forestry sectors.
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Global Carbon Finance: A quantitative modelling framework to explore scenarios of the Global Deal on Climate Change

Global Carbon Finance: A quantitative modelling framework to explore scenarios of the Global Deal on Climate Change

Date: April 2009
Creator: Great Britain. Office of Climate Change
Description: According to the abstract, the purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative research methodology for analyzing the costs of dealing with climate change.
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Climate Change: Financing Global Forests

Climate Change: Financing Global Forests

Date: 2008
Creator: Eliasch, Johan
Description: According to the Office of Climate Change press release, the Eliasch Review aims to provide an analysis of international financing to reduce forest loss and its associated impacts on climate change. The focus related to the international efforts to achieve a new global climate change agreement in Copenhagen in 2009. The Eliasch Review focuses on the financing required to produce significant reductions in forest carbon emissions. It also examines how mechanisms to address forest loss can reduce poverty while preserving ecosystem biodiversity and water services.
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Analytical Audit: Annex on emissions measurements and projections

Analytical Audit: Annex on emissions measurements and projections

Date: unknown
Creator: Great Britain. Office of Climate Change
Description: This document reviews the United Kingdom's process of compiling historical greenhouse gas emissions, the process of estimating greenhouse gas emissions projections, the state of greenhouse gas emissions, and the implications of these findings on the United Kingdoms domestic targets. The paper is based on analysis prepared by the Office of Climate Change in the United Kingdom in order to facilitate discussion within government departments.
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Assessment and Review of the Climate Change Policy Programme, Interim Report

Assessment and Review of the Climate Change Policy Programme, Interim Report

Date: August 2004
Creator: Central Environment Council, Ministry of the Environment of Japan
Description: This interim report provides an assessment and review of the Japanese Climate Change Policy Programme.
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Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry

Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry

Date: 2000
Creator: Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Description: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (SR-LULUCF) has been prepared in response to a request from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA). At its eighth session in Bonn, Germany, 2-12 Ju and technical implications of carbon sequestration strategies related to land use, land-use change, and forestry activities. The scope, structure, and outline of this Special Report was approved by the IPCC in plenary meetings during its Fourteenth Session. This Special Report examines several key questions relating to the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial pool of aboveground biomass, below-ground biomass, and soils. Vegetation exchanges carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere through photosynthesis and plant and soil respiration. This natural exchange has been occurring for hundreds of millions of years. Humans are changing the natural rate of exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere through land use, land-use change, and forestry activities. The aim of the SR-LULUCF is to assist the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol by providing relevant scientific and technical information to describe how the global carbon cycle operates ...
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Interactions of the EU ETS with Green And White Certificate Schemes: European Commission Directorate-General Environment

Interactions of the EU ETS with Green And White Certificate Schemes: European Commission Directorate-General Environment

Date: November 17, 2005
Creator: NERA Economic Consulting
Description: The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme ('EU ETS') began on 1 January 2005. The implementation of the EU ETS has raised interest in market-based approaches to achieving environmental and related public policy goals in the EU, particularly those related to promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Indeed, national and regional markets in tradable green certificates ('TGCs') and (to a lesser extent) tradable white certificates ('TWCs') already exist. Green certificate schemes are established or proposed in a number of Member States (e.g., Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK) and form part of a growing portfolio of measures to achieve the renewable targets outlined in Directive 2001/77/EC. White certificate schemes are considerably less widespread, although schemes have been established in Italy and the UK and further activity may be stimulated by the Commission proposal on energy services (COM(2003)739). Both the renewables Directive and the energy services proposal envisage the possible evolution and harmonisation of these instruments into EU-wide certificate schemes. This study has two major objectives: -1. Analyse interactions among EU ETS and green/white certificate markets. The first major objective is to describe the interactions between green and white certificate programmes and the EU ...
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Service Contract : EC - DG Environment − CNRS-IEPE: Options for the Operationalisation of the Kyoto Mechanisms - Economic Analysis based on Partial Equilibrium Models

Service Contract : EC - DG Environment − CNRS-IEPE: Options for the Operationalisation of the Kyoto Mechanisms - Economic Analysis based on Partial Equilibrium Models

Date: October 2001
Creator: Institut d'√Čconomie et de Politique de l'√Čnergie (France)
Description: This report presents two series of studies performed before COP-6 and COP-6bis, in order to provide DG Environment with economic analysis of the issues at stake in international climate negotiations. These analysis used the background information provided by the large scale world energy partial equilibrium model POLES. They were also based on an extensive use of the Marginal Abatement Cost Curves produced by the POLES model through the ASPEN-sd software, specifically designed to produce assessment.
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''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

Date: May 9, 2003
Creator: Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L. & Bernstein, P.M.
Description: Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium ...
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TEWI Analysis: Its Utility, Its Shortcomings, and Its Results

TEWI Analysis: Its Utility, Its Shortcomings, and Its Results

Date: September 13, 1999
Creator: Baxter, V.D.; Fischer, S.K. & Sand, J.R.
Description: The past decade has been a challenging time for the refrigeration and air conditioning industry worldwide. Provisions of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments require the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) compounds that have been used extensively as insulating foam blowing agents and refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps, and air conditioners. In response, hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) compounds were proposed, developed, and are starting to be used as the primary alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs. However, in 1997 under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized nations have agreed to roll back emissions of HCFCs, carbon dioxide (CO*), and four other greenhouse gases which threaten to cause excessive global warming. The US. Department of Energy and the Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) jointly sponsored research projects to identify the major applications of CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs and to examine the impacts of these compounds and the energy use of applications employing these compounds on global warming. The five major uses of fluorocarbons based on sales were automobile air conditioning, supermarket refrigeration, unitary heat pumps and air conditioning, chillers for cooling large office buildings, and household refrigeration. Almost all of the refrigerants used in these applications are global warming gases, and if ...
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Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Sari, Agus P. & Meyers, Stephen
Description: This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to ...
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Multi-project baselines for potential clean development mechanism projects in the electricity sector in South Africa

Multi-project baselines for potential clean development mechanism projects in the electricity sector in South Africa

Date: June 26, 2002
Creator: Winkler, H.; Spalding-Fecher, R.; Sathaye, J. & Price, L.
Description: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aims to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in order to ''prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system'' and promote sustainable development. The Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted in 1997 and appears likely to be ratified by 2002 despite the US withdrawing, aims to provide means to achieve this objective. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of three ''flexibility mechanisms'' in the Protocol, the other two being Joint Implementation (JI) and Emissions Trading (ET). These mechanisms allow flexibility for Annex I Parties (industrialized countries) to achieve reductions by extra-territorial as well as domestic activities. The underlying concept is that trade and transfer of credits will allow emissions reductions at least cost. Since the atmosphere is a global, well-mixed system, it does not matter where greenhouse gas emissions are reduced. The CDM allows Annex I Parties to meet part of their emissions reductions targets by investing in developing countries. CDM projects must also meet the sustainable development objectives of the developing country. Further criteria are that Parties must participate voluntarily, that emissions reductions are ''real, measurable and long-term'', and that they are additional to those that would have occurred anyway. ...
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Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa

Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa

Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi et al.
Description: The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with ...
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Current Work in Energy Analysis (Energy Analysis Program -1996 Annual Report)

Current Work in Energy Analysis (Energy Analysis Program -1996 Annual Report)

Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Program, Energy Analysis
Description: This report describes the work that Environmental Energy Technologies Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been doing most recently. One of our proudest accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. This analysis played a key role in shaping the U.S. position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. Our participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. We are also especially proud of our study of ''leaking electricity,'' which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of U.S. residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the following pages summarize results of research. activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China. These are the intellectual endeavors ...
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Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

Date: May 9, 2011
Creator: Elcock, D.
Description: Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this ...
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A REVIEW ON BIOMASS DENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIE FOR ENERGY APPLICATION

A REVIEW ON BIOMASS DENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIE FOR ENERGY APPLICATION

Date: August 1, 2010
Creator: TUMULURU, JAYA SHANKAR & WRIGHT, CHRISTOPHER T.
Description: The world is currently facing challenges to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is finding more uses as it is considered carbon neutral since the carbondioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle (Arias et al., 2008). Increasing the utilization of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help to meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol (UN, 1998). Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes like thermochemical (combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation) or chemical (esterification) where direct combustion can provide a direct near-term energy solution (Arias et al., 2008). Some of the inherent problems with raw biomass materials, like low bulk density, high moisture content, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value, limit the ease of use of biomass for energy purposes (Arias et al., 2008). In fact, due to its low energy density compared to fossil fuels, high volumes of biomass will be needed; adding to problems associated ...
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Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott & Worrell, Ernst
Description: Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the ...
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''When Cost Measures Contradict''

''When Cost Measures Contradict''

Date: May 9, 2003
Creator: Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L. & Bernstein, P. M.
Description: When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative ...
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