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The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd Rule"

The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd Rule"

Date: July 2, 2010
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. This report discusses the Byrd rule, which provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Budget Process Reform in the 110th Congress: A Brief Overview

Federal Budget Process Reform in the 110th Congress: A Brief Overview

Date: May 28, 2008
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report briefly discusses the context in which federal budget process changes are made and identifies selected reform proposals by major category. The identification of reform proposals in this report is not intended to be comprehensive; other CRS reports discuss different aspects of budget process reform in more detail.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Duration of Continuing Resolutions in Recent Years

Duration of Continuing Resolutions in Recent Years

Date: May 28, 2008
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides information on congressional practices with respect to the duration of continuing resolutions, including the use of full-year measures, and focuses particularly on the period covering FY1998-FY2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Budget Process Reform in the 111th Congress: A Brief Overview

Federal Budget Process Reform in the 111th Congress: A Brief Overview

Date: May 20, 2010
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report briefly discusses the context in which federal budget process changes are made and identifies selected reform proposals by major category. The identification of reform proposals in this report is not intended to be comprehensive.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Reconciliation Measures Enacted Into Law: 1980-2010

Budget Reconciliation Measures Enacted Into Law: 1980-2010

Date: May 28, 2010
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report identifies and briefly summarizes the 20 budget reconciliation measures enacted into law during the period covering 1980, when reconciliation procedures first were used by both chambers, through 2010, the last year of the 111th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act of 2010: Summary and Legislative History

The Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act of 2010: Summary and Legislative History

Date: June 8, 2010
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides a summary and legislative history of the P.L. 111-139, focusing on the features of the Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act of 2010.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The "Deeming Resolution": A Budget Enforcement Tool

The "Deeming Resolution": A Budget Enforcement Tool

Date: May 17, 2010
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: Deeming resolution" is a term that refers to legislation which is deemed to serve as an annual budget resolution for purposes of establishing enforceable budget levels for a budget cycle. A deeming resolution is used when the House and Senate are late in reaching final agreement on a budget resolution or fail to reach agreement altogether. Either chamber may initiate its own budget enforcement procedures by adopting a "deeming resolution" in the form of a simple resolution. This report describes substantive enforcement procedures associated with the budget resolution, explains the concept of a "deeming resolution," discusses House and Senate action on deeming resolutions, and provides information on a related topic, waiving a bar against the consideration of budgetary legislation for a fiscal year before a budget resolution for that fiscal year has been adopted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Duration of Continuing Resolutions in Recent Years

Duration of Continuing Resolutions in Recent Years

Date: May 13, 2010
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides information on congressional practices with respect to the duration of continuing resolutions, including the use of full-year measures, and focuses particularly on the period covering FY1998-FY2010.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Date: October 18, 1999
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report briefly discusses federal funding gaps. The routine activities of most federal agencies are funded annually by one or more of the 13 regular appropriations bills. When action on the regular appropriations bills is delayed, a continuing resolution (CR) is used to provide interim funding. During the past 48 years, CRs have been enacted for all but four fiscal years (FY1953, 1989, 1995, and 1997). For some fiscal years, a series of as many as six CRs have been enacted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Reconciliation Measures Enacted Into Law: 1980-2008

Budget Reconciliation Measures Enacted Into Law: 1980-2008

Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report identifies and briefly summarizes the 19 budget reconciliation measures enacted into law during the period covering 1980, when reconciliation procedures first were used by both chambers, through 2008, the last year of the 110th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Mid-Session Review of the President's Budget: Timing Issues

The Mid-Session Review of the President's Budget: Timing Issues

Date: August 19, 2008
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides information on the timing of submission of the mid-session review for FY1980-FY2009, a 30-year period that covers all or part of the administrations of five Presidents, applying to the last two years of the Carter Administration, and the full terms of the Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush Administrations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Annual Appropriations Acts: Consideration During Lame-Duck Sessions

Annual Appropriations Acts: Consideration During Lame-Duck Sessions

Date: July 25, 2008
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides information on the consideration of annual appropriations acts in connection with lame-duck sessions occurring between 1994 and 2006 as background for the possibility of such a session during 2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY2009 (P.L. 110-329): An Overview

Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY2009 (P.L. 110-329): An Overview

Date: November 3, 2008
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides an overview of the Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY2009, including a brief discussion of the budgetary and legislative context in which the act was developed and considered, a short summary of its provisions, and a legislative history.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Initial Federal Budget Response to the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor

Initial Federal Budget Response to the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor

Date: September 13, 2001
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report discusses initial federal budget response to attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, which occurred as the federal government was half way through FY1942.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Discretionary Spending Limits for FY2002: A Procedural Assessment

Discretionary Spending Limits for FY2002: A Procedural Assessment

Date: May 23, 2002
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report discusses discretionary spending, which is provided in annual appropriations acts, is constrained in part by limits set in the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, as amended.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Techniques for Preventing a Budget Sequester

Techniques for Preventing a Budget Sequester

Date: March 8, 2002
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report briefly describes the budget sequestration process, including the ways in which a sequester could be avoided under the regular process, and then discusses in more detail various techniques that have been used since FY1991 to prevent a sequester by intervening in the regular process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Across-the-Board Spending Cuts in End-of Session Appropriations Acts

Across-the-Board Spending Cuts in End-of Session Appropriations Acts

Date: December 13, 2007
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report examines the use of across-the-board spending cuts in the end-of-session appropriations acts for FY2000-FY2006 identified above, assessing the budgetary context leading to the spending cut, recounting the legislative action on the spending cut provision, and reviewing the provision’s design and implementation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Revenue Reconciliation Directives in the FY2004 Budget Resolution

Revenue Reconciliation Directives in the FY2004 Budget Resolution

Date: May 7, 2003
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report discusses the proposed levels of revenue reduction in the President’s budget and the congressional budget resolution for FY2004, the features of the budget reconciliation process, the inclusion of revenue reconciliation directives in the FY2004 budget resolution, and selected procedural issues pertaining to the consideration of the resultant reconciliation legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution

Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution

Date: May 18, 2006
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report discusses the FY2006 budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 95), which was agreed to by the House and Senate on April 28, 2005, included reconciliation instructions for: (1) an omnibus bill to reduce mandatory outlays by about $35 billion over a five-year period, covering FY2006-FY2010; (2) a bill to reduce revenues by $70 billion over the same period; and (3) a bill to increase the limit on the public debt by $781 billion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions

Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions

Date: December 28, 2006
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report discusses the revenue reconciliation directives that varied in their time frame, from single-year coverage (in the FY1976, FY1981, and FY1990 budget resolutions) to 11-year coverage (in the FY2002 and FY2004 budget resolutions)
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 0.38 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2000 Appropriations

The 0.38 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2000 Appropriations

Date: February 25, 2000
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report outlines cuts made in the federal budget for FY2000. The 0.38% cut was expected to yield savings of $2.4 billion in budget authority and $1.4 billion in outlays for the fiscal year. Departments with cuts in excess of $100 million included the Departments of Defense, Transportation, Health and Human Services, and Education.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Budget Actions in 1997

Congressional Budget Actions in 1997

Date: January 8, 1997
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: In 1997, during the first session of the 105th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most of these measures will pertain to FY1998 and beyond, but some measures will make adjustments in the budget for the current fiscal year, FY1997. This issue brief describes House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Date: November 13, 1996
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources "for additional reading" are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Date: October 20, 1997
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources “for additional reading” are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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