Ego Mechanisms of Defense among Child Victims of Sexual Abuse: a TAT Analysis

Ego Mechanisms of Defense among Child Victims of Sexual Abuse: a TAT Analysis

Date: December 1994
Creator: Sadler, Lyn M.
Description: Using the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, 1991), Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) stories of 29 sexually abused female subjects and 28 non-abused female clinical control subjects were rated for the frequency of use of denial, projection, and identification.
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Optimism, Health Locus of Control, and Quality of Life of Women with Recurrent Breast Cancer

Optimism, Health Locus of Control, and Quality of Life of Women with Recurrent Breast Cancer

Date: December 1998
Creator: Graci, Gina M.
Description: The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that specific factors play in the quality of life (QL) for women with recurrent breast cancer.
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Longitudinal Evaluation of a Child/Adolescent Psychiatric Program

Longitudinal Evaluation of a Child/Adolescent Psychiatric Program

Date: December 1994
Creator: Harvey, Diane D. (Diane Dawn)
Description: Children and adolescent psychiatric inpatients (n = 25) versus staff (n = 35) milieu perceptions were measured with the Ward Atmosphere Scale (WAS) Form K (Kids). The perceptions were compared with previous data collected in 1981, 1982, and 1984 on the same unit. The 1993 staff and patients continued to perceive the unit as a therapeutic environment despite recent restrictions on length of stay due to health care reform. The views of the staff and patients were found to be divergent but less so than in previous years. Additionally, the more seriously ill a patient was determined to be, the more negatively he or she perceived the environment. Differences in perceptions between day shift versus night shift and administrative versus non-administrative staff were also found and discussed. Staff perceptions versus their ideal conceptions were also investigated and compared with those of the 1984 staff. The 1994 staff was found to more closely approximate their ideals than the 1984 staff.
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Training Condom Use Skills for Sexually Active College Students

Training Condom Use Skills for Sexually Active College Students

Date: December 1994
Creator: Smith, Teresa E. (Teresa Elizabeth)
Description: Eighty-nine single, sexually active, heterosexual college students (ages 17-24) participated in one of two intervention conditions. Experimental groups were taught skills specific to condom use and sexual communication via a multimedia presentation. Control groups viewed a video on an unrelated topic. Individuals in the experimental conditions were expected to show higher levels of self-efficacy, greater knowledge concerning diseases, and improved attitudes about condoms immediately following the intervention. They were also expected to report safer sexual practices at the one month follow-up. Findings reveal that improved attitude and knowledge scores did not translate into behavioral changes.
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The Influence of Relationship Quality and Preventability of Death on Perceptions of Funerals in Bereaved Adults

The Influence of Relationship Quality and Preventability of Death on Perceptions of Funerals in Bereaved Adults

Date: August 1995
Creator: Pinkenburg, Lisa
Description: Four hundred and thirty-eight participants who had lost a close friend or family in the last 2 years completed questionnaires regarding their experiences with the funeral. Results indicated individuals emotionally close to the deceased person reported higher levels of participation in funeral rituals and greater levels of bereavement adjustment. Those emotionally distant from the deceased person reported greater satisfaction with the funeral. Individuals who viewed the deceased person as a central figure in their lives had greater participation in the funeral. Those who viewed the deceased person as a peripheral figure had higher levels of bereavement adjustment. Additionally, those who viewed the death as unpreventable reported greater satisfaction with the funeral, and had higher levels of bereavement adjustment.
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Inhibition of Return in Schizophrenia

Inhibition of Return in Schizophrenia

Date: August 1996
Creator: Hinds, Jeffrey D. (Jeffrey Dale)
Description: The present study was designed to look at inhibition of return within a schizophrenic population for the first time. Inhibition of return is an attentional phenomenon that has been studied with a number of populations, and has been shown to be present in normal individuals. Based on the disattention hypothesis put forth by Cromwell and colleagues (e.g., Cromwell & Dokecki, 1968), it was hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia would show an impaired inhibition of return. Twenty-eight inpatients with schizophrenia, and 19 normal comparisons were evaluated on a visual inhibition of return task. Consistent with hypotheses, schizophrenia patients have significant impairments in inhibition of return compared to normal comparison participants. Further, the relative lack of inhibition of return in the schizophrenic group was found to be strongest to stimuli in the left visual field. These results provide initial support for a reconceptualization of the disattention hypothesis.
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Comparing Quality of Life: American and Portuguese Cancer Patients with Hematological Malignancies

Comparing Quality of Life: American and Portuguese Cancer Patients with Hematological Malignancies

Date: December 1997
Creator: Forjaz, Maria João
Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences and similarities of quality of life (QoL) in American and Portuguese cancer patients with hematological malignancies as well as the robustness of the measures cross-culturally. Portuguese participants were 98 patients and 49 accompanying persons and the American participants were 55 patients and 22 accompanying persons. Fifty (Portuguese sample) to 40% (American sample) of the patients came with an accompanying person who answered the questionnaire concerning the patient's QoL. The two cultural groups were characterized in terms of QoL (measured by the SF-36 and the FLIC), social support (Social Support Scale), socio-demographic and clinical variables. Portuguese patients reported a higher QoL. However, this result could be attributable to the fact that the two cultural samples differ in socio-economic status. The measures seem to be comparable for the Portuguese and American samples, at least in what concerns reliability and concurrent validity.
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A Comparison between the Self-concept of Visually-impaired Adults and Sighted Adults

A Comparison between the Self-concept of Visually-impaired Adults and Sighted Adults

Date: May 1995
Creator: Martinez, Ramiro, 1964-
Description: Self-concept scores of 19 visually-impaired adults were compared to those of 19 matched sighted adults using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS). All participants attended the University of North Texas. Scores were examined against the Vocabulary and Information subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R).
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The Relationship between Hardiness and Responses to Life Events in Adulthood

The Relationship between Hardiness and Responses to Life Events in Adulthood

Date: December 1997
Creator: Crowley, Barbara Jo
Description: The relationship between psychological hardiness and individuals' coping with two life events, involuntary job loss and post-parental launching of adolescent children, was investigated in a sample of 146 adults, 83 of which had experienced job loss and 61 of which had experienced the empty nest. Volunteers completed questionnaires which measured hardiness, distress, coping strategies, neuroticism, and extraversion. Multivariate analyses were performed, both with and without covariates, for overall hardiness as well as the hardiness subscales of control, commitment, and challenge. Significant hardiness by life event interactions on escape-avoidance coping were found in both sets of analyses. Main effects for hardiness, however, disappeared when controls for neuroticism and extraversion were utilized. Findings underscore the necessity of employing neuroticism controls in future hardiness research.
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The Relationship between Cause of Death, Perceptions of Funerals, and Bereavement Adjustment

The Relationship between Cause of Death, Perceptions of Funerals, and Bereavement Adjustment

Date: August 1995
Creator: Ragow, Dina P. (Dina Paige)
Description: Although funerals are seen as universal rituals to honor the death of a loved one, their value in facilitating the grief process is not known. The present study explored the relationships between cause of death, feelings and attitudes toward the funeral, and subsequent bereavement adjustment.
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The Relationship Between the Grief Process and the Family System: The Role of Affect, Communication, and Cohesion

The Relationship Between the Grief Process and the Family System: The Role of Affect, Communication, and Cohesion

Date: August 1999
Creator: Schoka, Elaine
Description: Sixty-six people who had recently experienced the death of a parent or a spouse completed a questionnaire packet to assess their current grief symptomatology and some characteristics of the relationships within their family. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire 4-5 weeks after the death and then again six months later. The present study compared two competing models to explain whether the grief process affects the characteristics of relationships within the family system or that family characteristics affect the experienced grief symptoms.
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Alcohol Use, Violence, and Psychological Abuse in Intimate Relationships

Alcohol Use, Violence, and Psychological Abuse in Intimate Relationships

Date: August 1998
Creator: Falla, Karen M.
Description: Women in distressed relationships who had sustained severe psychological abuse and either no, moderate, or severe violence from their partner were included (N = 93). Men's and women's alcohol use did not differ with level of violence. Different patterns were found in the moderate violence group regarding women's beliefs about their partner's substance problem, men's psychological abuse, and the relationship of men's and women's quantity of alcohol use and times intoxicated. Uncertainty resulting from moderate violence may strengthen the emotional impact of psychological abuse. Even when psychological abuse is exacerbated by violence, women may use active coping techniques rather than drinking to cope with abusive relationships. The findings suggest that an inordinate focus on alcohol abuse may be ineffective in combating the problem of domestic violence.
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Effects of Family of Origin Violence on Partner Violence: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis

Effects of Family of Origin Violence on Partner Violence: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis

Date: May 1998
Creator: VanHorn, Barbara
Description: Meta-analyses with 144 correlations from 44 studies to assess the relationship between experienced, father-to-mother, and mother-to-father violence in the family of origin and partner violence for males and females in clinical, community and student samples.
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A Study of Anxiety Reducing Teaching Methods and Computer Anxiety among Community College Students

A Study of Anxiety Reducing Teaching Methods and Computer Anxiety among Community College Students

Date: August 1992
Creator: Taylor, Bernard Wayne
Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between anxiety reducing teaching methods and computer anxiety levels and learning gain of students in a college level introductory computer course. Areas examined were the computer anxiety levels of students categorized by selected demographic variables, the learning gain of students categorized by selected demographic variables, and anxiety levels and learning gain of students after completion of the course. Data for the investigation were collected via the Standardized Test of Computer Literacy (STCL) and the Computer Opinion Survey (CAIN), developed by Michael Simonson et al. at Iowa State University. The nonequivalent pretest/posttest control group design was used. The statistical procedure was the t test for independent groups, with the level of significance set at the .05 level. The data analysis was accomplished using the StatPac Gold statistical analysis package for the microcomputer. Based upon the analysis of the data, both hypotheses of the study were rejected. Research hypothesis number one was that students in a class using computer anxiety reducing teaching methods would show a greater reduction in computer anxiety levels than students in a traditional class. Hypothesis number two was that students in a class using computer anxiety reducing methods ...
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Differences between Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Rape: Occurrence of PTSD

Differences between Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Rape: Occurrence of PTSD

Date: August 1994
Creator: Ovaert, Lynda B.
Description: This study examined the relation between level of rape acknowledgement and levels of PTSD symptoms reported in female college students. Subjects were administered the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES), the PTSD Interview, and a demographics questionnaire. Subjects were then grouped into the following categories based on their responses to the SES: reported rape victims, acknowledged rape victims, unacknowledged rape victims, and a control group of non-rape subjects. Small sample analyses did not reveal the expected linear relation between the two variables. Only the acknowledged group showed greater PTSD symptoms. The unacknowledged and control groups did not significantly differ on overall PTSD symptom severity, or on any cluster of PTSD symptoms. Naturalistic selection factors are discussed that could have affected the outcome of the study.
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Standardization of the Assessment of Competency to Stand Trial

Standardization of the Assessment of Competency to Stand Trial

Date: August 1994
Creator: Ustad, Karen L. (Karen Lee)
Description: Evaluations of the Georgia Court Competency Test - Mississippi Version Revised (GCCT-MSH) and the Competency Screening Test (CST) have supported their use with pretrial defendants. The present study evaluated the efficacy of the measures with an inpatient population. Both measures were factor analyzed in an attempt to replicate; previously identified factor structures. Neither factor structure was replicated however, a distinct factor structure was identified for the GCCT-MSH. In addition, the relationship between sociodemographic variables, clinical variables, current symptomatology, and competency status were evaluated using discriminant functions analyses. The results suggest that the best predictors of incompetency in this sample are a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder or a non-psychotic affective disorder and a low measured IQ. Current symptomatology, as measured by the SCL-90-R, was not an effective predictor of competency status in this sample.
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Comparing Stress Buffering and Main Effects Models of Social Support for Married and Widowed Older Women

Comparing Stress Buffering and Main Effects Models of Social Support for Married and Widowed Older Women

Date: August 1994
Creator: Murdock, Melissa E. (Melissa Erleene)
Description: Social support has been shown to lessen the negative effects of life stress on psychological and physical health. The stress buffering model and the main effects model of social support were compared using two samples of women over the age of 50 who were either married or recently widowed. These two groups represent low and high uncontrollable major life stress respectively. Other life stress events were also taken into account. Measures assessed current level of life stress, perceived social support, satisfaction with social support, and psychological symptomatology. Results using overall psychological health as the dependent variable support the main effects model.
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Self-Help Intervention and Locus of Control Perceptions of Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults

Self-Help Intervention and Locus of Control Perceptions of Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults

Date: August 1994
Creator: McKibbin, Christine L.
Description: Locus of Control (LOC) is operationalized as a dispositional trait remaining stable throughout life, but may also be conceptualized as a domain specific state. Widowed persons' support groups, consisting of recently conjugally bereaved older adults (N=22) and one high functioning, long-term widowed peer group leader, were utilized to test LOC malleability. A significant increase in one State measure subscale, Desire for Control, was noted. Trait LOC remained stable. The change in State and Trait LOC change did not significantly relate to psychological symptom reduction. However, Trait LOC Internality related to fewer symptoms whereas State LOC Internality related to more symptoms.
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Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Seeking Psychological Help in Younger and Older Adults

Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Seeking Psychological Help in Younger and Older Adults

Date: December 1993
Creator: Gray, Gale René, 1958-
Description: The major purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized structural model that included many of the variables that have been found to influence people's attitudes toward seeking psychological help and investigate if these variables and their inter-relationships are different for young versus older adults. This study offers a more comprehensive investigation than previous research by testing and modifying two structural models of help-seeking attitudes, one for young adults and one for older adults. This makes it possible to examine how these variables differ for the two age groups.
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Depression and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Depression and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Date: December 1994
Creator: Saunders, Roger D. (Roger Dean)
Description: Depression is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, a common feature of depression, is also a risk factor for cardiac events in patients with CAD. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects ANS activity, and reduced HRV predicts morbidity in cardiac populations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in HRV exist between depressed and nondepressed patients with CAD. Twenty-one depressed inpatients, with angiographically documented CAD were retrospectively matched to 21 nondepressed CAD patients by sex, age, and smoking status. Demographic, medical, psychological interview data, and 24-hour ECG recordings were obtained. Depressed subjects had significantly lower HRV, or trends toward lower HRV, than nondepressed subjects, even after controlling for severity of CAD. Subject groups did not differ on left ventricular ejection fraction, history of myocardial infarction, or any other relevant medical variable assessed. These results suggest that depression is associated with decreased HRV in patients with CAD, and may help to explain the increased rates of cardiac events observed in CAD patients with depression.
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The Influence of Perceived Stress on Insulin Resistance in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

The Influence of Perceived Stress on Insulin Resistance in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Date: August 2014
Creator: Phillips, Amanda S.
Description: Objective: To identify whether perceived stress is a risk-factor for higher cortisol levels and greater insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetic patients, using data from participants with and without diabetes in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), specifically MIDUS II, Project 4. The following hypotheses were tested: (H1a) greater perceived stress would be associated with higher cortisol for Type 2 diabetic participants, (H1b) the perceived stress/cortisol relationship would be stronger for people with Type 2 diabetes than for those without it, (H2) greater perceived stress would be associated with higher Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, insulin-resistance) for Type 2 diabetic participants, (H3a) subjective well-being would moderate the perceived stress/insulin resistance relationship for Type 2 diabetic participants, and (H3b) depression would moderate the perceived stress/insulin resistance relationship for Type 2 diabetic participants. Method: MIDUS, a longitudinal study of over 7,000 American adults, explores biopsychosocial factors that could contribute to variance in mental/physical health. Only complete data were utilized. Type 2 participants (n=115) consisted of 54 males and 62 females ranging in age from 36 to 81 years. Non-diabetic participants (n=1097) consisted of 470 males and 627 females ranging in age from 34 to 84 years. Results: ...
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Diabetes Status of Mexican Americans: Impact of Country of Birth

Diabetes Status of Mexican Americans: Impact of Country of Birth

Date: December 2014
Creator: Douglas, Megan E.
Description: In order to better tailor treatment to specific populations, factors which contribute to health disparities among different racial/ethnic groups must be examined. Among Mexican American individuals, the high rate of diabetes represents a significant contributor to overall health. The present study focuses on factors affecting diabetes status among Mexican Americans born in either Mexico or the United States using the 2007 – 2008 NHANES data set. Comparisons were made between diabetes status based on self-report and clinical classification using HbA1c. Results indicated that within the diabetic subsample, Mexican Americans born in Mexico were twice as likely to be incorrectly classified as non-diabetic, when they actually were diabetic, when using a self-report method. In contrast, nativity did not result in differences in diabetes incidence using the HbA1c clinical cut-score diagnostic classification. Age, BMI, gender, nativity, and health insurance coverage were found to have varying relationships to diabetes prevalence and HbA1c levels, but time in the U.S. for Mexico-born individuals was not found to uniquely predict diabetes incidence. Analyses also demonstrated that Mexico-born males, as compared to the other groups, had significantly higher HbA1c levels. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationships among these factors. However, findings do demonstrate a ...
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Religiosity As a Coping Resource for Depression and Disease Management Among Older Diabetic Patients

Religiosity As a Coping Resource for Depression and Disease Management Among Older Diabetic Patients

Date: August 2014
Creator: Dzivakwe, Vanessa G.
Description: Compared to the general population, diabetic patients experience a higher prevalence of depression, which can often exacerbate diabetic symptoms and complicate treatment. Studies show that religion is associated with both better physical health and better psychological functioning; however, studies incorporating religion and depression among diabetic individuals are scarce. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by examining archival data from the 2008 and 2010 data waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Cross-sectional findings confirmed that stronger religiosity was positively correlated with perceived diabetes control and positive diabetes change, and negatively correlated with total number of depressive symptoms and total number of weeks depressed. Longitudinal findings confirmed that stronger religiosity in 2008 was positively correlated with perceived diabetes change in 2010 and negatively correlated with total number of depressive symptoms in 2010. Logistic regression and multiple regression analyses were performed to test four moderation models. Results showed that religiosity significantly moderated the relationship between perceived diabetes control and total number of weeks depressed. More specifically, for diabetics with low levels of religiosity, whether they believed their diabetes was under control or not did not make a significant difference in the total number of weeks depressed. However, high ...
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Evaluating the Role of C-reactive Protein on Cognition and Depressive Symptoms Among Women by Mexican American Ethnicity

Evaluating the Role of C-reactive Protein on Cognition and Depressive Symptoms Among Women by Mexican American Ethnicity

Date: August 2014
Creator: Huerta, Serina
Description: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein found in the blood that is synthesized by the liver and has been extensively studied due to its role in inflammatory and atherosclerotic processes. The importance of this biomarker in its role in vascular risk factors is increased with several lines of evidence pointing to its association with cognitive decline. The association between CRP and depression has been increasingly analyzed by various cross-sectional studies. The research between CRP and depressive symptoms in older women has yet to generate consistent trends. In the present study, a series of regression analyses was used to explore the association between CRP and both cognitive function and depressive symptomatology among a group of rural-dwelling women. Associations were evaluated through the use of data from Project FRONTIER, a rural-based research looking at both physical and cognitive aspects of health in rural-dwelling adults and elders. Comparisons were made between Mexican American women and a group of non-Hispanic Caucasian women. CRP was a significant independent predictor of total depression (beta = -.11, t = -1.99, p =.048). CRP was also a significant independent predictor of symptoms associated with meaningless within depression (beta = -.16, t = -2.94, p =.004). Contrary to prediction, ...
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