Trends in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances, Ozone Layer Recovery, and Implications for Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

Trends in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances, Ozone Layer Recovery, and Implications for Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

Date: November 2008
Creator: US Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research.
Description: This Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP 2.4) focuses on the Climate models. Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer by human-produced ozone-depleting substances has been recognized as a global environmental issue for more than three decades, and the international effort to address the issue via the United Nations Montreal Protocol marked its 20-year anniversary in 2007. Scientific understanding underpinned the Protocol at its inception and ever since. As scientific knowledge advanced and evolved, the Protocol evolved through amendment and adjustment. Policy-relevant science has documented the rise, and now the beginning decline, of the atmospheric abundances of many ozone-depleting substances in response to actions taken by the nations of the world. Projections are for a return of ozone-depleting chemicals (compounds containing chlorine and bromine) to their "pre-ozone-depletion" (pre-1980) levels by the middle of this century for the midlatitudes; the polar regions are expected to follow suit within 20 years after that. Since the 1980s, global ozone sustained a depletion of about 5 percent in the midlatitudes of both the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere, where most of the Earth's population resides; it is now showing signs of turning the corner towards increasing ozone. The large seasonal depletions in the polar regions are ...
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Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols

Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols

Date: September 2008
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Description: This report focuses on the Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios. The influence of greenhouse gases and particle pollution on our present and future climate has been widely examined. While both long-lived (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived (e.g., soot) gases and particles affect the climate, other projections of future climate, such as the IPCC reports focus largely on the long-lived gases. This U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product provides a different emphasis. The authors examine the effect of long-lived greenhouse gases on the global climate based on updated emissions scenarios produced by another CCSP Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP 2.1a). In these scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of the long-lived greenhouse gases leveled off, or stabilized, at predetermined levels by the end of the twenty-first century (unlike in the IPCC scenarios). However, the projected future temperature changes fall within the same range as those projected for the latest IPCC report. The authors confirm the robust future warming signature and other associated changes in the climate.
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Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations

Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations

Date: July 2008
Creator: Climate Change Science Program (U.S.). Subcommittee on Global Change Research.
Description: This Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP 3.1) focuses on the Climate models. Scientists extensively use mathematical models of Earth's climate, executed on the most powerful computers available, to examine hypotheses about past and present-day climates. Development of climate models is fully consistent with approaches being taken in many other fields of science dealing with very complex systems. These climate simulations provide a framework within which enhanced understanding of climate-relevant processes, along with improved observations, are merged into coherent projections of future climate change. This report describes the models and their ability to simulate current climate.
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Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations

Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations

Date: 2007
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Description: This and a companion report constitute one of twenty-one Synthesis and Assessment Products called for in the Strategic Plan for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. These studies are structured to provide high-level, integrated research results on important science issues with a particular focus on questions raised by decision-makers on dimensions of climate change directly relevant to the U.S. One element of the CCSP's strategic vision is to provide decision support tools for differentiating and evaluating response strategies. Scenario-based analysis is one such tool. The scenarios in this report explore the implications of alternative stabilization levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, and they explicitly consider the economic and technological foundations of such response options. Such scenarios are a valuable complement to other scientific research contained in the twenty-one CCSP Synthesis and Assessment Products. The companion to the research reported here, Global-Change Scenarios: Their Development and Use, explores the broader strategic frame for developing and utilizing scenarios in support of climate decision making.
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Reanalysis of Historical Climate Data for Key Atmospheric Features: Implications for Attribution of Causes of Observed Chan

Reanalysis of Historical Climate Data for Key Atmospheric Features: Implications for Attribution of Causes of Observed Chan

Date: 2008
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Description: This Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product addresses current capabilities to integrate observations of the climate system into a consistent description of past and current conditions through the method of reanalysis. In addition, the Product assesses present capabilities to attribute causes for climate variations and trends over North America during the reanalysis period, which extends from the mid-twentieth century to the present. This Product reviews the strengths and limitations of current atmospheric reanalysis products. It finds that reanalysis data play a crucial role in helping to identify, describe, and understand atmospheric features associated with weather and climate variability, including high-impact events such as major droughts and floods. Reanalysis data play an important role in assessing the ability of climate models to simulate the average climate and its variations. The data also help in identifying deficiencies in representations of physical processes that produce climate model errors.
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Report of the Sixth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Report of the Sixth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Date: October 1991
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Description: The Sixth session of the IPCC approved the report of the fifth session and agreed on many issues including establishing an IPCC Task force to make proposals on the future structure of IPCC. The Panel also decided on an interim expansion of the IPCC Bureau.
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Report of the Fifth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Report of the Fifth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Date: October 1991
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Description: The Fifth session of the IPCC discussed on the IPCC work program for 1991 and beyond and provided objective analysis of scientific and technical assessment of the issue of climate change. The Panel also approved the report of the fourth session.
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Report of the Eleventh Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Report of the Eleventh Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Date: December 1995
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Description: The panel discussed and adopted various draft reports including the report of the tenth session and the IPCC Synthesis Report. The Panel also accepted contributions of Working Group to its Second Assessment. Among other issues, the Panel considered the budget and assessed the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program (IPCC NGGIP). Also, special report on Land use Change and Forestry provided
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Report of the Fourth Session of the WMO/UNEP Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Report of the Fourth Session of the WMO/UNEP Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Date: August 1990
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Description: The Fourth session of the IPCC highlighted that developed (industrialized) countries are responsible for some 75% of the total emission of carbon dioxide and a clear commitment to stabilize and then reduce greenhouse gas emission is necessary. Also, the Panel emphasized the need for massive expansion of research and development in new energy sources and more efficient resource management procedures. discussed on the IPCC work program for 1991 and beyond and provided objective analysis of scientific and technical assessment of the issue of climate change. The Panel also approved the report of the fourth session.
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Report of the Eighth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Report of the Eighth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Date: November 1992
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Description: The major tasks of the eighth session of the IPCC included deciding on the future IPCC structure, and agreeing on work plans of working Groups and Subgroups. The panel discussed and adopted various draft reports.
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