The Hexagon, Volume 92, Number 2, Summer 2001

The Hexagon, Volume 92, Number 2, Summer 2001

Date: Summer 2001
Creator: Alpha Chi Sigma
Description: Quarterly publication of the Alpha Chi Sigma chemistry fraternity containing articles related to chemistry research and the activities of the organization, including local chapters and groups.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Rediscovery of the Elements: Germanium

Rediscovery of the Elements: Germanium

Date: Summer 2001
Creator: Marshall, James L., 1940- & Marshall, Virginia R.
Description: Article recounting the history of the element Germanium, including background material on mining in Germany and the isolation of Germanium by Clemens A. Winkler. Tourist information is provided regarding Winkler's laboratory and mines open to the public as museums.
Contributing Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences
Final report

Final report

Date: August 7, 2002
Creator: Simmons, Joseph H. & Bukowski, Tracie J.
Description: This grant was a continuation of research conducted at the University of Florida under Grant No. DE-FG05-91ER45462 in which we investigated the energy bandgap shifts produced in semiconductor quantum dots of sizes between 1.5 and 40 nm. The investigated semiconductors consisted of a series of Column 2-6 compounds (CdS, CdSe, CdTe) and pure Column IV elements (Si and Ge). It is well-known of course that the 2-6 semiconductors possess a direct-gap electronic structure, while the Column IV elements possess an indirect-gap structure. The investigation showed a major difference in quantum confinement behavior between the two sets of semiconductors. This difference is essentially associated with the change in bandgap energy resulting from size confinement. In the direct-gap semiconductors, the change in energy (blue shift) saturates when the crystals approach 2-3 nm in diameter. This limits the observed shift in energy to less than 1 eV above the bulk value. In the indirect-gap semiconductors, the energy shift does not show any sign of saturation and in fact, we produced Si and Ge nanocrystals with absorption edges in the UV. The reason for this difference has not been determined and will require additional experimental and theoretical studies. In our work, we suggest, but ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Synthesis and Gas Phase Thermochemistry of Germanium-Containing Compounds

Synthesis and Gas Phase Thermochemistry of Germanium-Containing Compounds

Date: December 31, 2002
Creator: Classen, Nathan Robert
Description: The driving force behind much of the work in this dissertation was to gain further understanding of the unique olefin to carbene isomerization observed in the thermolysis of 1,1-dimethyl-2-methylenesilacyclobutane by finding new examples of it in other silicon and germanium compounds. This lead to the examination of a novel phenylmethylenesilacyclobut-2-ene, which did not undergo olefin to carbene rearrangement. A synthetic route to methylenegermacyclobutanes was developed, but the methylenegermacyclobutane system exhibited kinetic instability, making the study of the system difficult. In any case the germanium system decomposed through a complex mechanism which may not include olefin to carbene isomerization. However, this work lead to the study of the gas phase thermochemistry of a series of dialkylgermylene precursors in order to better understand the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of dialkylgermylenes. The resulting dialkylgermylenes were found to undergo a reversible intramolecular {beta} C-H insertion mechanism.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
High Growth Rate Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films and Devices Using ECR-PECVD

High Growth Rate Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films and Devices Using ECR-PECVD

Date: May 31, 2002
Creator: Liu, Yong
Description: Hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium films (a-SiGe:H) and devices have been extensively studied because of the tunable band gap for matching the solar spectrum and mature the fabrication techniques. a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells have great potential for commercial manufacture because of very low cost and adaptability to large-scale manufacturing. Although it has been demonstrated that a-SiGe:H thin films and devices with good quality can be produced successfully, some issues regarding growth chemistry have remained yet unexplored, such as the hydrogen and inert-gas dilution, bombardment effect, and chemical annealing, to name a few. The alloying of the SiGe introduces above an order-of-magnitude higher defect density, which degrades the performance of the a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells. This degradation becomes worse when high growth-rate deposition is required. Preferential attachment of hydrogen to silicon, clustering of Ge and Si, and columnar structure and buried dihydride radicals make the film intolerably bad. The work presented here uses the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECR-PECVD) technique to fabricate a-SiGe:H films and devices with high growth rates. Helium gas, together with a small amount of H{sub 2}, was used as the plasma species. Thickness, optical band gap, conductivity, Urbach energy, mobility-lifetime product, I-V curve, and quantum ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Magnetic, Caloric and Crystallographic Properties of Dy5(SixGe1-x)4 Alloys

Magnetic, Caloric and Crystallographic Properties of Dy5(SixGe1-x)4 Alloys

Date: July 19, 2002
Creator: Ivchenko, Vitaliy Vladislavovich
Description: Polycrystals of the intermetallic compound of the Dy{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} system, where x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.625, 0.675, 0.725, 0.75, 0.775, 0.825, 0.875, and 1, have been prepared by electric-arc-melting on water-cooled copper hearth in an argon atmosphere. A study of phase relationships and crystallography in the pseudobinary system Dy{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} using X-ray powder diffraction data and optical metallography was completed. It revealed that silicides in the composition range from 0.825 to 1 crystallize in the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type crystal structure: germanides in the composition range from 0 to 0.625 crystallize in the Sm{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type structure, and alloys with intermediate composition range from 0.675 to 0.775 crystallize in the monoclinic Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}-type structure. The -{Delta}S{sub m} values were determined from magnetization measurements for 7 alloys. The alloys with a monoclinic crystal structure which belong to an intermediate phase region have large MCE value, which exceeds those observed in the other two phase regions by 300 to 500%. The nature of the observed magnetic and structural transformations in the Dy{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} system seems to be similar with those reported for the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} system. However, the ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A high energy phase retarder for the simultaneous production of right- and left-handed circularly polarized x-rays

A high energy phase retarder for the simultaneous production of right- and left-handed circularly polarized x-rays

Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Venkataraman, C.T.; Lang, J.C.; Nelson, C.S.; Srajer, G.; Haeffner, D.R. & Shastri, S.D.
Description: The authors have fabricated and characterized the performance of a monolithic Ge Bragg-Laue phase retarder capable of simultaneously producing both right- and left-handed circularly polarized x rays. The energy range of operation of the phase retarder is between 50 and 100 keV making it well suited to the measurement of spin-dependent Compton profiles within the impulse approximation, primarily because of the increased momentum resolution and larger Compton scattering cross section available at these higher incident energies. Although the phase retarder was optimized for operation at 86 keV, it can produce highly circularly polarized x rays over a substantial energy range. The performance of the phase retarder was tested via magnetic Compton scattering measurements on an Fe sample at the undulator A of the Advanced Photon Source. It was found to perform well in terms of flux and degree of circular polarization thereby greatly reducing the data collection times required for this inherently weak scattering process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Effect of uniaxial stress on gallium, beryllium, and copper-doped germanium hole population inversion lasers

Effect of uniaxial stress on gallium, beryllium, and copper-doped germanium hole population inversion lasers

Date: May 1998
Creator: Chamberlin, D. R.
Description: The effects of stress on germanium lasers doped with single, double, and triple acceptors have been investigated. The results can be explained quantitatively with theoretical calculations and can be attributed to specific changes in the energy levels of acceptors in germanium under stress. In contrast to previous measurements, gallium-doped Ge crystals show a decrease in lasing upon uniaxial stress. The decrease seen here is attributed to the decrease in heavy hole effective mass upon application of uniaxial stress, which results in a decreased population inversion. The discrepancy between this work and previous studies can be explained with the low compensation level of the material used here. Because the amount of ionized impurity scattering in low-compensated germanium lasers is small to begin with, the reduction in scattering with uniaxial stress does not play a significant role in changing the laser operation. Beryllium-doped germanium lasers operate based on a different mechanism of population inversion. In this material it is proposed that holes can transfer between bands by giving their energy to a neutral beryllium atom, raising the hole from the ground to a bound excited state. The free hole will then return to zero energy with some probability of entering the other ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Concentration increases in the isotopic germanium carrier solutions inferred from solution weights

Concentration increases in the isotopic germanium carrier solutions inferred from solution weights

Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Rowley, J.K.
Description: Concentration increases in the isotopic germanium carrier solutions via evaporation would produce weight losses in the carrier solutions. Since the bottle containing each carrier is usually weighed before and after the removal of carrier for a given run, the possibility exists of finding evidence for increasing carrier concentration in this record. With few exceptions the weighings were performed on the same top-loading balance in the external chemistry lab. The primary purpose was to monitor carrier usage, not to look for evidence for increasing carrier concentration. However, in order to look for this evidence, it is necessary only to compare the weights of the closed bottles between the times of carrier removal. This comparison has been performed and is reported here. Bear in mind that there is some evidence that the bottle containing carrier was not always weighted in the same way (e.g. perhaps a plastic bag was not removed from the bottle or the bottle cap was removed before weighing). Another possible source of weighing errors is the occasional buildup of static charges, especially on dry winter days. Such problems of static electricity were easily recognized and overcome. For the most part, the resulting record agrees with the assumption that ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Research in chemical kinetics. Annual report, September 1, 1989--December 31, 1990

Research in chemical kinetics. Annual report, September 1, 1989--December 31, 1990

Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Rowland, F.S.
Description: This report describes the progress in several projects: gas phase substitution reactions of thermal chlorine atoms with tetramethyl metallo-organic compounds; abstraction reactions by thermal chlorine atoms with tetramethyl metallo-organic compounds; gas phase thermal {sup 38}Cl reactions with M(CH{double_bond}CH{sub 2}){sub n}: non-RRKM decomposition of excited radicals (M = Sn, Si, n = 4; M = Sb, n = 3; M = Hg, n = 2); quantitative product identification for reactions of hydroxyl with {sup 14}CS{sub 2}; and statistical analysis of ground-based measurements of total ozone with Dobson spectrometers. The report also contains a research proposal for work from May, 1991 through April, 1992.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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