Asian Soybean Rust: Background and Issues

Asian Soybean Rust: Background and Issues

Date: January 12, 2005
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report discusses the background and issues regarding Asian soybean rust (ASR) that was discovered in the United States in an experimental field in Louisiana. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is coordinating a plan to deal with ASR that encompasses various USDA agencies, state land-grant universities, and industry participants. The arrival of ASR has implications for several public policies including pest control research (particularly the development of resistant varieties), pesticide regulation, disaster assistance, and crop insurance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1990 Annual Report.

Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1990 Annual Report.

Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: Schreck, Carl
Description: The objectives of the present contract study were to select and evaluate up to 10 candidate fungicides. Evaluations of Goal 1 involve laboratory studies on efficacy of candidate compounds on cultured Saprolegniales, and on eggs of rainbow trout and chinook salmon that were previously infected with the fungus. The main objective this year of Goal 2 was to determine the degree of fungal infection in untreated, control fish to establish the extent of the problem.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pesticide Use and Water Quality: Are the Laws Complementary or in Conflict?

Pesticide Use and Water Quality: Are the Laws Complementary or in Conflict?

Date: October 13, 2010
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report provides background on the conflict over interpretation and implementation of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Clean Water Act. A brief discussion of the two laws is followed by a review of the major litigation of interest. EPA's efforts to clarify its policy in this area and the November 2006 rule and the 2009 federal court ruling are discussed, as well as possible options for EPA and Congress to further address the FIFRA-CWA issues. In June, EPA proposed a draft general CWA permit that it intends to finalize by April 2011 in response to the court ruling.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Veil, J.; Rice, J.K. & Raivel, M.E.S.
Description: Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion ...
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Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

Date: January 4, 1999
Creator: Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P. & Meier, K.
Description: Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Troiano, Richard
Description: The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how ...
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Selecting an Algicide for Use with Aluminum Alloys

Selecting an Algicide for Use with Aluminum Alloys

Date: March 15, 2001
Creator: Wilde, E.W.
Description: This paper discusses the testing and results of five relatively noncorrosive commercially available compounds compared with one another and with sodium hypochlorite for their potential applicability as algicides in water systems containing aluminum alloys.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The biofilm ecology of microbial biofouling, biocide resistance and corrosion

The biofilm ecology of microbial biofouling, biocide resistance and corrosion

Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: White, D.C.; Kirkegaard, R.D.; Palmer, R.J. Jr.; Flemming, C.A.; Chen, G.; Leung, K.T. et al.
Description: In biotechnological or bioremediation processes it is often the aim to promote biofilm formation, and maintain active, high density biomass. In other situations, biofouling can seriously restrict effective heat transport, membrane processes, and potentate macrofouling with loss of transportation efficiency. In biotechnological or bioremediation processes it is often the aim to promote biofilm formation, and maintain active, high density biomass. In other situations, biofouling can seriously restrict effective heat transport, membrane processes, and potentate macrofouling with loss of transportation efficiency. Heterogeneous distribution of microbes and/or their metabolic activity can promote microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) which is a multibillion dollar problem. Consequently, it is important that biofilm microbial ecology be understood so it can be manipulated rationally. It is usually simple to select organisms that form biofilms by flowing a considerably dilute media over a substratum, and propagating the organisms that attach. To examine the biofilm most expeditiously, the biomass accumulation, desquamation, and metabolic activities need to be monitored on-line and non-destructively. This on-line monitoring becomes even more valuable if the activities can be locally mapped in time and space within the biofilm. Herein the authors describe quantitative measures of microbial biofouling, the ecology of pathogens in drinking water distributions systems, ...
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Catalytic photooxidation of pentachlorophenol using semiconductor nanoclusters

Catalytic photooxidation of pentachlorophenol using semiconductor nanoclusters

Date: April 17, 2000
Creator: WILCOXON,JESS P.
Description: Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a toxic chlorinated aromatic molecule widely used as fungicide, a bactericide and a wood preservation, and thus ubiquitous in the environment. The authors report photo-oxidation of PCP using a variety of nanosize semiconductor metal oxides and sulfides in both aqueous and polar organic solvents and compare the photo-oxidation kinetics of these nanoclusters to widely studied bulk powders like Degussa P-25 TiO{sub 2} and CdS. They study both the light intensity dependence of PCP photooxidation for nanosize SnO{sub 2} and the size dependence of PCP photooxidation for both nanosize SnO{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}. They find an extremely strong size dependence for the latter which they attribute to its size-dependent band gap and the associated change in redox potentials due to quantum confinement of the hole-electron pair. The authors show that nanosize MoS{sub 2} with a diameter of d=3.0 nm and an absorbance edge of {approximately}450 nm is a very effective photooxidation catalyst for complete PCP mineralization, even when using only visible light irradiation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1991 Annual Report.

Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1991 Annual Report.

Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Schreck, Carl
Description: This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990). The objectives of the present study was to evaluate up to 10 candidate fungicides.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1992 Annual Report.

Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1992 Annual Report.

Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Schreck, Carl
Description: This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990 and Schreck et al. 1991). The objectives of the present study were to select and evaluate up to 10 candidate fungicides.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1993 Annual Report.

Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1993 Annual Report.

Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Schreck, Carl
Description: This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990, 1991, and 1992). The objectives of the present study were to select and evaluate candidate fungicides.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interspecific Comparison and annotation of two complete mitochondrial genome sequences from the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola

Interspecific Comparison and annotation of two complete mitochondrial genome sequences from the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola

Date: December 7, 2007
Creator: Millenbaugh, Bonnie A; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Torriani, Stefano F.F.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H.J. & McDonald, Bruce A.
Description: The mitochondrial genomes of two isolates of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola were sequenced completely and compared to identify polymorphic regions. This organism is of interest because it is phylogenetically distant from other fungi with sequenced mitochondrial genomes and it has shown discordant patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial genome of M. graminicola is a circular molecule of approximately 43,960 bp containing the typical genes coding for 14 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, one RNA polymerase, two rRNA genes and a set of 27 tRNAs. The mitochondrial DNA of M. graminicola lacks the gene encoding the putative ribosomal protein (rps5-like), commonly found in fungal mitochondrial genomes. Most of the tRNA genes were clustered with a gene order conserved with many other ascomycetes. A sample of thirty-five additional strains representing the known global mt diversity was partially sequenced to measure overall mitochondrial variability within the species. Little variation was found, confirming previous RFLP-based findings of low mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial sequence of M. graminicola is the first reported from the family Mycosphaerellaceae or the order Capnodiales. The sequence also provides a tool to better understand the development of fungicide resistance and the conflicting pattern of high nuclear and low ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department