Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Date: 2010
Creator: European Commission
Description: This paper analyze the possible effects of implementing all high end pledges put forward by countries under the Copenhagen Accord. Among other analysis, the report predict that, (if the Copenhagen Accord would be fully implemented), the world could bridge a major part of the required efforts by 2020 in order to keep average global temperature increase below 2ºC. However, the report also argue that most high end targets are conditional on others taking similar action, on a legally binding international agreement or on the need for further international financial or technical support making their degree of implementation uncertain.
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Towards an Analytical Capacity in Costing of Abatement Options for Forestry and Agricultural Carbon Sinks

Towards an Analytical Capacity in Costing of Abatement Options for Forestry and Agricultural Carbon Sinks

Date: December 2002
Creator: Eurocare
Description: This document is part of Technical Report (ref: EUR 21758 EN) from the Joint Research Centre and presents part of the modelling work conducted by DG JRC/IPTS as a contribution to the DG ENV Communication on post-2012 climate policy analysis (June 2005). The analysis with the POLES and GEM-E3 models show that the costs of abatement policies, both in marginal terms and total terms, can be significantly reduced if emissions trading and project based mechanisms are used.
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Kyoto Protocol Implementation

Kyoto Protocol Implementation

Date: May 2003
Creator: Criqui, Patrick & Kitous, Alban
Description: This report analyze the impacts of linking JI and CDM to the future European Emission Allowance Trading System (ETSy). The result indicate that the volume of credits obtained through JI and CDM projects by the enlarged EU Emission Allowance Trading Scheme, as well as the magnitude of cost savings and allowance price impacts will crucially depend on how much competition there will be from EU Member States and other countries in JI and CDM credits.
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Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Date: 2010
Creator: European Commission
Description: Since the EU took its historic decisions on combating climate change in 2008, the economic crisis has brought some fundamental changes to the political and economic landscape of the EU's climate policy. The pressure on the EU economy is intense. The EU, however, remains deeply committed to action on climate change. Arresting the rise in global temperature remains one of the biggest challenges facing this generation. This Communication has set out how changed global circumstances have impacted on the targets set in 2008. While the absolute costs of meeting a 20% target have been reduced, representing a welcome relief for businesses facing the uphill battle of recovery, it also represents a risk that the effectiveness of the 20% target as a motor for change diminishes.
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Analysis of Post-2012 Climate Policy Scenarios with Limited Participation

Analysis of Post-2012 Climate Policy Scenarios with Limited Participation

Date: 2005
Creator: Russ, P.; Ciscar, J. C. & Szabó, L.
Description: This document is part of Technical Report (ref: EUR 21758 EN) from the Joint Research Centre and presents part of the modelling work conducted by DG JRC/IPTS as a contribution to the DG ENV Communication on post-2012 climate policy analysis (June 2005). The analyses with the POLES and GEM-E3 models show that the costs of abatement policies, both in marginal terms and total terms, can be significantly reduced if emissions trading and project based mechanisms are used.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Evaluation of Alternative Initial Allocation Mechanisms in a European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme

Evaluation of Alternative Initial Allocation Mechanisms in a European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme

Date: 2010
Creator: NERA Economic Consulting
Description: This report is intended to provide background to assist Member States and the European Commission ("Commission") in determining the allocation mechanism to use in conjunction with the Commission's proposed emissions trading programme for carbon dioxide ("CO2") and other greenhouse gases ("GHGs"). The Commission in October 2001 adopted a major package of initiatives to combat climate change. This package includes a proposed Directive on GHG emission trading ("proposed Directive") as well as a proposal for the EC to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and a Communication setting out further methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond the Directive on emissions trading. This report provides descriptions and evaluations of alternative mechanisms for initial allocation of allowances. The report has the following specific objectives: - Provide a typology of alternative initial allocation mechanisms. - Describe the allocation mechanisms that have been used in previous emissions trading programmes. - Develop criteria for evaluating alternative mechanisms. - Evaluate the alternative mechanisms in light of these criteria. - Develop plant-level data that allow one to simulate various initial allocation alternatives and thus shed light on key empirical issues, including feasibility and sector- and plantlevel effects. - Provide an overview of major conclusions and implications.
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Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Date: 2010
Creator: European Commission
Description: This paper responds to the mandate given in the Emissions Trading Directive (EU ETS directive, Article 10b) to the Commission to submit by end of June 2010 an analytical report assessing the situation of energy-intensive sectors that have been determined to be exposed to significant risks of carbon leakage in the light of the international negotiations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Streamlining climate change and air pollution reporting: Final Report

Streamlining climate change and air pollution reporting: Final Report

Date: July 2009
Creator: Pulles, Tinus; Goodwin, Justin; Kruijd, Jeroen; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Janssen, Katleen; Vandenbroucke, Danny et al.
Description: The environmental policies currently being negotiated are likely to require Member State (MS) to control and report their emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) and air pollutants (AP) more precisely. While there are likely to be associated costs, it is also likely that the cost of timely and targeted action will be less than the longer term cost of inaction. A number of European Union (EU) legal instruments are used to regulate emissions - several of these are under review. The review not only needs to anticipate future policy needs but also assess the alignment of the various instruments and whether the burden on users can be further minimized.
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Greenhouse Gas Reduction Pathways: In the UNFCCC Process up to 2025

Greenhouse Gas Reduction Pathways: In the UNFCCC Process up to 2025

Date: October 2003
Creator: Criqui, P.; Kitous, A.; Berk, M.; den Elzen, M.; Eickhout, B.; Lucas, P. et al.
Description: Meeting the EU objective of limiting global average temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels requires a peak in global greenhouse gas emissions within the next two decades. This means that early participation of developing countries in global emission control is needed, even under a significant strengthening of the commitments of Annex I countries under the Kyoto Protocol. The study has shown that it is possible to design a set of consistent rules for the attribution of the long-term emission endowments of the different world regions. The gains from participating in global emission trading and from reduced air pollution damage and/or abatement costs does substantially enhance, from a developing country perspective, the attractiveness of an early participation in a regime based on greenhouse gas reduction pathways, provided that the level and the form of their commitment is well designed so as to minimise economic risks.
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The Economic Effects of EU-Wide Industry-Level Emission Trading to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: Results from PRIMES Energy Systems Model

The Economic Effects of EU-Wide Industry-Level Emission Trading to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: Results from PRIMES Energy Systems Model

Date: May 2000
Creator: Capros, P. & Manzos, L.
Description: In preparation of the Green Paper on greenhouse gas emissions trading within the European Union, the cost implications of EU-wide emissions trading carbon dioxide were estimated by E3-Lab with their PRIMES energy systems model. According to the report, if each EU member States implemented its target under the Burden sharing agreement individually, the total annual cost for the EU to reach the Kyoto target would be 9.0 billion Pound.
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Establishing the Leakage Rates of Mobile Air Conditioners

Establishing the Leakage Rates of Mobile Air Conditioners

Date: April 17, 2003
Creator: Schwarz, Winfried & Harnisch, Jochen
Description: The purpose of the study is to - based on field measurements - determine the average annual leakage rate of HFC-134a from MACs in the European Union of a "second generation"1 air conditioner. From November 2002, to January 2003 300 measurements of HFC-134a leakage were carried out on air conditioners of cars up to seven years age. The measurements were carried out on vehicles of all EU relevant makes at 19 garages in Germany (Osnabrück), Portugal (Rio Maior) and Sweden (Helsingborg) reflecting different climatic conditions.
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Radioactive Waste Management in the European Union: Initiatives for New Legislation

Radioactive Waste Management in the European Union: Initiatives for New Legislation

Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Taylor, D.
Description: Improving the management of radioactive waste in the European Union is a major theme of the ''nuclear package'' recently adopted by the European Commission. Included in the package are proposals for new legislation that would bring about the development of common safety standards in Europe covering the full nuclear sector, segregated funds to cover all nuclear liabilities that remain after the operating lifetime of an installation and clearly defined waste programs for radioactive waste management in each of the Member States of the Union. Included in these programs must be firm dates for a number decision points leading to disposal of all forms of radioactive waste. The package also puts significant emphasis on more, and better coordinated, research on radioactive waste management as the present levels are thought to be inadequate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Allocation and Related Issues for Post-2012 Phases of the EU ETS

Allocation and Related Issues for Post-2012 Phases of the EU ETS

Date: October 22, 2007
Creator: Harrison, David, Jr.; Radov, Daniel & Klevnas, Per
Description: This report provides information on major design options related to the allocation of emissions allowances under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (the EU ETS, or "the Scheme"). The report was developed to assist the European Commission in the context of the review of options for the EU ETS after 2012, during the third and subsequent phases of the Scheme. The report covers topics related to allocation alternatives as well as several other issues. All of the material contained here was developed initially as a set of briefing notes for the Commission in 2007. The topics covered in the report are divided into two major categories: (1) assessment criteria and other general features, including cap-setting; and (2) allocation alternatives and issues specifically related to allocation.
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Radioactive Waste Management - A Priority Thematic Area Within The Euratom 6th Framework Programme (2002-2006)

Radioactive Waste Management - A Priority Thematic Area Within The Euratom 6th Framework Programme (2002-2006)

Date: February 24, 2003
Creator: Raynal, M. & von Maravic, H.
Description: The European Union's Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development and the specific EURATOM Framework Programme for Research and Training in Nuclear Energy (2002-2006)-EURATOM FP6--are the major building blocks for the European Commission to strengthen the foundations of the European Research Area, an open market for knowledge and science in Europe. The absence of a broadly agreed approach for radioactive waste management and disposal in the European Union caused the European Commission to raise the issue to a priority key area of research and development within EURATOM FP6. The sub-programme is aimed at looking to a widely agreed approach to waste disposal and will explore also the technical and economic potential of concepts for nuclear energy generation able to make better use of fissile material and generate less waste. To achieve these goals, participating research institutions are invited to invest in durable and structured partnerships by implementing ''new instruments'' for projects--Integrated Projects and Network of Excellence. In 2002 the European Commission consulted the research community on its readiness to prepare actions that use these ''new instruments'' for research topics in the priority area ''management of radioactive waste'' to assist in preparation of the work programme 2002-2006 of the EURATOM ...
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EUROPEANS AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE - OPINIONS, BELIEFS AND CONCERNS

EUROPEANS AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE - OPINIONS, BELIEFS AND CONCERNS

Date: February 27, 2003
Creator: Webster, S. & Taylor, D.M.
Description: In the autumn of 1998, the European Commission conducted a public opinion survey on radioactive waste. Roughly 16,000 people across the European Union (EU) were questioned in face to face interviews. A similar survey was carried out three years later in October and November of 2001, though this time questions of a broader nature concerning nuclear issues in general were also introduced. A comparison of the results of the two surveys shows that in the intervening period there have been very few significant changes in opinion. In particular, the events of 11 September 2001 appear to have had no measurable impact on people's views. The results of the surveys have been analyzed and the key findings extracted and, where possible, interpreted. Though some of these findings might perhaps have been expected, others are somewhat surprising or even worrying, especially for the nuclear sector. However, people still seem prepared to accept that nuclear power should remain an option for electricity production in the EU, but the policy makers and the nuclear industry must demonstrate that the waste issue can be managed both safely and with respect for future generations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The European HDR project at Soultz sous forets: Stimulation of the second deep well and first circulation experiments

The European HDR project at Soultz sous forets: Stimulation of the second deep well and first circulation experiments

Date: January 24, 1996
Creator: Baumgartner, J.; Jung, R.; Gerard, A.; Baria, R. & Garnish, J.
Description: By February 1995 the European HDR project at Soultz was operating 6 boreholes: 2 deep hydraulic test wells (GPK-1, 3590 m & GPK-2, 3876 m) and 4 seismic observation wells with depths between 1500 and 2200 m. In 1993 the first section of a deep underground exchanger had been created through massive stimulation (injection of some 45000 m³ of water). Between November 1994 until January 1995 a second deep well, GPK-2, was drilled at the periphery of this exchanger. A complex test programme involving the stimulation of GPK-2 (connecting it to the existing exchanger) and various circulation experiments with different production techniques (flash throttled and unthrottled, submersible pump) and varying injection rates was performed between June and August 1995.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department