Analysis of S. 2198: Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014

Analysis of S. 2198: Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014

Date: April 7, 2014
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Carter, Nicole T. & Sheikh, Pervaze A.
Description: This report discusses S. 2198, which would address drought impacts in California and other states, and assist with drought response.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Water Assistance During Drought: Federal Non-Agricultural Programs

Emergency Water Assistance During Drought: Federal Non-Agricultural Programs

Date: February 26, 2014
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.; Cowan, Tadlock & Barrett, Joanna
Description: This report discusses droughts in relation to several issues for Congress, including how to measure and predict drought, how to prepare, and how to coordinate federal agency actions responding to drought.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drought in the United States: Causes and Current Understanding

Drought in the United States: Causes and Current Understanding

Date: February 26, 2014
Creator: Folger, Peter & Cody, Betsy A.
Description: This report discusses how drought is defined (e.g., why drought in one region of the country is different from drought in another region) and why drought occurs in the United States. It briefly describes periods of drought in the country's past that equaled or exceeded drought conditions experienced during the 20th century. This is followed by a discussion of the nature and extent of recent droughts that affected Texas and the U.S. midcontinent, and the current drought in California. Lastly, the report discusses future prospects for a climate in the western United States that might be drier than the average 20th-century climate and the possible influence of human-induced climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Analysis of S. 2198: Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014

Analysis of S. 2198: Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014

Date: April 24, 2014
Creator: Cody, Betsy A. & Sheikh, Pervaze A.
Description: This report discusses the Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014, which would address drought impacts in California and other states, and assist with drought response.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NDPC (National Drought Policy Commission) Home

NDPC (National Drought Policy Commission) Home

Date: June 12, 2001
Creator: National Drought Policy Commission
Description: The National Drought Policy Commission was established under the National Drought Policy Act of 1998, P.L.105-199. The Act charged the Commission with conducting a thorough study of drought and its impacts and submitting a report on its findings discussing the feasibility for creating a national drought policy. The NDPC report and accompanying materials is posted on this website and can be downloaded by the public.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Analysis of H.R. 5781, California Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014

Analysis of H.R. 5781, California Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014

Date: December 11, 2014
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Sheikh, Pervaze A. & Stern, Charles V.
Description: This report provides a description and analysis of H.R. 5781, the California Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014, which passed the House December 9, 2014. It includes a summary of key provisions of the bill, and compares it with two other bills from the 113th Congress aiming to address different aspects of drought and water management in California.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Resource Issues in the 114th Congress

Water Resource Issues in the 114th Congress

Date: January 23, 2015
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Stern, Charles V. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report discusses recent congressional activity and possible topics for the 114th Congress. It provides an overview of the federal role in water resources development, management, and protection, with a focus on projects of the two major federal water resources agencies--Reclamation and the U.S. Army Corps--and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues

California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues

Date: December 7, 2009
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Folger, Peter & Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report discusses California's current hydrological situation and provides background on regulatory restrictions affecting California water deliveries, as well as on the long-established state water rights system, which also results in uneven water deliveries in times of shortages.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Date: March 2, 2009
Creator: Folger, Peter; Cody, Betsy A. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report discusses how drought is defined (e.g., why drought in one region of the country is different from drought in a different region), and why drought occurs in the United States. The report briefly describes periods of drought in the country's past that equaled or exceeded drought conditions experienced during the 20th century, including periods during earlier centuries where the American West was substantially drier, on average, than it is today.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Date: August 15, 2012
Creator: Folger, Peter; Cody, Betsy A. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report describes the physical causes of drought, drought history in the United States, and policy challenges related to drought. It also provides examples of recurrent regional drought conditions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Date: June 12, 2012
Creator: Folger, Peter; Cody, Betsy A. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report defines drought and discusses its background and cause in the United States. It looks in detail at the 2007-2009 California drought as well as drought in the American West in general. Lastly, it discusses the future of U.S. drought and how congressional policy can affect drought.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Date: March 2, 2009
Creator: Folger, Peter; Cody, Betsy A. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report discusses how drought is defined, and why drought occurs in the United States. How droughts are classified, and what is meant by moderate, severe, and extreme drought classification, are also discussed. The report concludes with a description of policy challenges for Congress, such as the existing federal/non-federal split in drought response and management, and the patchwork of drought programs subject to oversight by multiple congressional committees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interactive effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, drought and high temperature on plant water use efficiency

Interactive effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, drought and high temperature on plant water use efficiency

Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Hsiao, Theodore C.
Description: Water use efficiency (WUE) by plants is a key determinant of productivity and survival of plants under water limiting or drought conditions. The aim of this project was to develop a mechanistic basis for predicting WUE without the prohibitive task of studying every plant species under a range of environmental conditions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

Date: August 1, 2004
Creator: DiFilippo, Michael N.
Description: The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: DEFALCO, L. A.; FERNANDEZ, G. C.; SMITH, S. D. & NOWAK, R. S.
Description: Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
How plant functional-type, weather, seasonal drought and soil physical properties alter water and energy fluxes of an oak-grass savanna and an annual grassland.

How plant functional-type, weather, seasonal drought and soil physical properties alter water and energy fluxes of an oak-grass savanna and an annual grassland.

Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Baldocchi, DD, Xu L, Kiang N.
Description: Savannas and open grasslands often co-exist in semi-arid regions. Questions that remain unanswered and are of interest to biometeorologists include: how do these contrasting landscapes affect the exchanges of energy on seasonal and annual time scales; and, do biophysical constraints imposed by water supply and water demand affect whether the land is occupied by open grasslands or savanna? To address these questions, and others, we examine how a number of abiotic, biotic and edaphic factors modulate water and energy flux densities over an oak-grass savanna and an annual grassland that coexist in the same climate but on soils with different hydraulic properties. The net radiation balance was greater over the oak woodland than the grassland, despite the fact that both canopies received similar sums of incoming short and long wave radiation. The lower albedo and lower radiative surface temperature of the transpiring woodland caused it to intercept and retain more long and shortwave energy over the course of the year, and particularly during the summer dry period. The partitioning of available energy into sensible and latent heat exchanged over the two canopies differed markedly. The annual sum of sensible heat exchange over the woodland was 40% greater than that over ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Ehleringer, J.R.
Description: On the Colorado Plateau, precipitation comes either from winter storms generated in the Gulf of Alaska or from summer convection storms generated by the Arizona monsoon system. Understanding the current seasonal and regional patterns of precipitation inputs into an ecosystem has ramifications at several levels: on carbon and mineral cycling at the ecosystem level, on biodiversity at the community level, and on productivity and adaptation at the population and species levels. The interior deserts of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah represent the driest regions of western North America, resulting from a combination of rainshadow effects and either the southern limits of winter moisture input or the northern limits of summer moisture input or both. Shifts in strengths of storm-generating conditions in the Pacific and in the Gulf influence both the magnitude and seasonality of soil moisture availability and therefore constrain periods of primary productivity activity in these aridland ecosystems. One major consequence predicted by global climate change scenarios is a change in monsoonal (summer) precipitation; it will increase in some areas and decrease in others. A second is increased soil temperatures and increased interior drought associated with ocean-land temperature disequilibrium. This project focused on the influence of variations in summer moisture ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Engineering the production of sugar alcohols in transgenic plants: Extending the limits of photosynthesis. Final technical report

Engineering the production of sugar alcohols in transgenic plants: Extending the limits of photosynthesis. Final technical report

Date: March 31, 1997
Creator: unknown
Description: In the different tobacco lines expressing different polyols, the authors have investigated how the presence of polyols affects ion uptake during short periods of stress. In addition, they began investigations on recovery from short periods of stress, e.g. eight days of drought and/or five days in 400 mM NaCl. The transgenic plants take up sodium more slowly. The next set of experiments, modeled after the experiments done with Mesembryanthemum will investigate ion transport and partitioning in control and transgenic tobacco. Photosynthetic activities of drought-stressed mannitol/ononitrol tobacco were investigated. Measurements of fluorescence, carbon fixation rates and electron transport indicated that the polyol-containing plants loose photosynthetic competence more slowly than controls. Transfer of the mtlD gene (mannitol production) into Arabidopsis has been accomplished. The transgenic plants are phenotypically normal. They survive 300 mM NaCl when the stress is started when the plants are mature--in contrast to wild type which is killed at 150 mM. Seeds from mannitol-containing plants germinate (100%) in 100 mM NaCl while germination rate of wild type is about 20%. In 200 mM NaCl n wild type germinates, while in some transgenic lines still 50% of the seeds germinated. At 250 mM NaCl during germination, the transgenic seeds are ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
California Agricultural Production and Irrigated Water Use

California Agricultural Production and Irrigated Water Use

Date: June 30, 2015
Creator: Johnson, Renée & Cody, Betsy A.
Description: This report provides an overview of California's farm economy, specifically examining the current state of the water supply and the use of irrigation water.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues

California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues

Date: August 14, 2015
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Folger, Peter & Brown, Cynthia
Description: This report provides a summary of California's 2012-2015 drought including: comparisons, where applicable, to previous droughts; a summary of the key regulatory requirements that at certain times limit water deliveries (or exports) from the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers' Delta; and a brief discussion of California water rights with their relation to different types of federal contracts and their associated water allocations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Seasonal trend of photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature

Seasonal trend of photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature

Date: September 1, 2003
Creator: Xu, L & Baldocchi, DD
Description: OAK-B135 Understanding seasonal changes in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance is crucial for modeling long-term carbon uptake and energy fluxes of ecosystems. Gas exchange measurements of CO{sub 2} and light response curves on blue oak leaves (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) were conducted weekly throughout the growing season to study the seasonality of photosynthetic capacity (V{sub cmax}) and Ball-Berry slope (m) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature. A leaf photosynthetic model was used to determine V{sub cmax}. There was a pronounced seasonal pattern in V{sub cmax}. The maximum value of V{sub cmax}, 127 {micro}molm{sup -2} s{sup -1},was reached shortly after leaf expansion in early summer, when air temperature was moderate and soil water availability was high. Thereafter, V{sub cmax} declined as the soil water profile became depleted and the trees experienced extreme air temperatures, exceeding 40 C. The decline in V{sub cmax} was gradual in midsummer, however, despite extremely low predawn leaf water potentials ({Psi}{sub pd}, {approx} -4.0 MPa). Overall, temporal changes in V{sub cmax} were well correlated with changes in leaf nitrogen content. During spring leaf development, high rates of leaf dark respiration (R{sub d}, 5-6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were observed. Once a leaf reached maturity, ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The effect of drought on four plant communities in the northern Mojave Desert

The effect of drought on four plant communities in the northern Mojave Desert

Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Schultz, B.W. & Ostler, W.K.
Description: Desert plant communities contain many perennial plant species that are well adapted to arid environments; therefore, one would intuitively believe that perennial desert species readily survive drought conditions. Abundant research on plant-soil-water relationships in North American deserts has shown that many species can maintain water uptake and growth when the soil-water potential is low. Little research, however, has focused on how prolonged drought conditions affect plant species in vegetation associations in desert ecosystems. A prolonged and widespread drought occurred in much of the western United States, including the Northern Mojave Desert, from 1987 through 1991. During this drought period vegetation characterization studies, initiated in 1990, by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, allowed EG and G Energy Measurements to collect data that could be used to infer how both desert vegetation associations and desert plant species reacted to a prolonged drought. This paper presents the preliminary results.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

Date: August 1, 2004
Creator: DiFilippo, Michael N.
Description: The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: APPLE, M. E.; THEE, C. I.; SMITH-LONGOZO, V. L.; COGAR, C. R.; WELLS, C. E. & NOWAK, R. S.
Description: The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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