Date: August 1957
Creator: McCain, Eula Louise
Description: To summarize in general the use of modes by Vaughan Williams, it could be said that the works that have been analyzed are characterized by frequent use of the traditional modes, but in a very free manner. The "Kyrie" of the Mass, "Pretty Bess," "Jolly Rutterkin" and Te Deum are confined somewhat closely to given modes, with some changes of mode, changes of tonality and use of altered chords. The "Gloria," "Credo," "Sanctus," "Osanna I," "Benedictus," "Osanna II" and "Agnus Dei" of the Mass, however, contain many striking chromaticisms. These chromaticisms are the result of use of many altered chords, a good deal of modulation and much combining of modes, often with startling cross-relations. The use of seventh chords in "Pretty Bess," "Jolly Rutterkin" and Te Deum further complicates the picture from that of the sixteenth century.
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