An estimate of the roughness length and displacement height of Sonoran Desert vegetation, south-central Arizona

An estimate of the roughness length and displacement height of Sonoran Desert vegetation, south-central Arizona

Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Claassen, H.C. & Riggs, A.C.
Description: A somewhat unconventional technique using a tethered balloon was used to estimate the roughness length for momentum (z{sub m}) and displacement height (d) for typical Sonoran Desert vegetation. It has been suggested that measurements of the meteorological fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are best done at heights above ground level determined by either the roughness length (z{sub m}) or the size and shape of vegetation. Therefore, estimates of z{sub m} and vegetation characteristics are a desirable prerequisite to developing a flux-measurement protocol. Because the literature contains little information on z{sub m} for Sonoran Desert vegetation, it is desirable to measure z{sub m} and the displacement height (d) associated with Sonoran Desert vegetation.
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Feasibility study of the seismic reflection method in Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

Feasibility study of the seismic reflection method in Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Brocher, T.M.; Hart, P.E. & Carle, S.F.
Description: The US Geological Survey (USGS) working under an Interagency agreement with the Department of Energy is engaged in a broad geoscience program to assess and identify a potential repository for high level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The USGS program, referred to as the Yucca Mountain Project, or YMP, consists of integrated geologic, hydrologic and geophysical studies which range in nature from site specific to regional. This report is an evaluation of different acquisition methods for future regional seismic reflection studies to be conducted in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, located in the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In January 1988, field studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using the common-depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to map subsurface geological horizons within the Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada. The goal of the field study was to investigate which seismic reflection method(s) should be used for mapping shallow to lower-crustal horizons. Therefore, a wide-variety of field acquisition parameters were tested, included point versus linear receiver group arrays; Vibroseis (service and trademark of Conoco, Inc.) versus explosive sources; Vibroseis array patterns; and Vibroseis sweep and frequency range. 31 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs.
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Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Draft of Rev. 0

Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Draft of Rev. 0

Date: September 28, 1999
Creator: U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office
Description: This plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329: Area 22, Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), 22-44-01, which encompasses an area contaminated by three recorded spills from a 25,000-gallon underground fuel storage tank. The tank was installed in 1980 and was imbedded in sand and gravel approximately 16 feet below the ground surface. Historically, the DRA consisted of a single runway, several portable buildings, two underground storage tanks containing aviation jet fuel, and plumbing to several refueling areas on the ramp. The constituents of potential concern from the spill were total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline or JP-4. This provides the methodology for sampling contaminated soil-vapor and soil to determine what activities, if any, are required for closure of this si te. In addition, there is sufficient process knowledge of the tank's historical use to recommend closure of CAU 329 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objectives process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct ...
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Case Studies of integrated hydrogen systems. International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Final report for Subtask A of task 11 - Integrated Systems

Case Studies of integrated hydrogen systems. International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Final report for Subtask A of task 11 - Integrated Systems

Date: December 31, 1999
Creator: Schucan, T.
Description: Within the framework of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Task 11 was undertaken to develop tools to assist in the design and evaluation of existing and potential hydrogen demonstration projects. Emphasis was placed on integrated systems, from input energy to hydrogen end use. Included in the PDF document are the Executive Summary of the final report and the various case studies. The activities of task 11 were focused on near- and mid-term applications, with consideration for the transition from fossil-based systems to sustainable hydrogen energy systems. The participating countries were Canada, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United States. In order for hydrogen to become a competitive energy carrier, experience and operating data need to be generated and collected through demonstration projects. A framework of scientific principles, technical expertise, and analytical evaluation and assessment needed to be developed to aid in the design and optimization of hydrogen demonstration projects to promote implementation. The task participants undertook research within the framework of three highly coordinated subtasks that focused on the collection and critical evaluation of data from existing demonstration projects around the world, the development and testing of computer models of hydrogen components and integrated systems, and ...
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Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, November 2000)

Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, November 2000)

Date: November 3, 2000
Creator: /NV, DOE
Description: This addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to determine the extent of contamination existing at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321. This addendum was required when the extent of contamination exceeded the estimate in the original Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Located in Area 22 on the Nevada Test Site, Corrective Action Unit 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, consists of Corrective Action Site 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area, was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility. This facility was operational from 1951 to 1958 and dismantled after 1958. Based on site history and earlier investigation activities at CAU 321, the contaminant of potential concern (COPC) was previously identified as total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics). The scope of this corrective action investigation for the Fuel Storage Area will include the selection of biased sample locations to determine the vertical and lateral extent of contamination, collection of soil samples using rotary sonic drilling techniques, and the utilization of field-screening methods to accurately determine the extent of COPC contamination. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of ...
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Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Date: January 28, 1999
Creator: /NV, DOE
Description: This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 ...
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Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Nevada Test Site Development Corporations's Desert Rock Sky Park at the Nevada Test Site

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Nevada Test Site Development Corporations's Desert Rock Sky Park at the Nevada Test Site

Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: /A, N
Description: The United States Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1300) (EA) which analyzes the potential environmental effects of developing operating and maintaining a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site, between Mercury Camp and U.S. Highway 95 and east of Desert Rock Airport. The EA evaluates the potential impacts of infrastructure improvements necessary to support fill build out of the 512-acre Desert Rock Sky Park. Two alternative actions were evaluated: (1) Develop, operate and maintain a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site, and (2) taking no action. The purpose and need for the commercial industrial park are addressed in Section 1.0 of the EA. A detailed description of the proposed action and alternatives is in section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the affected environment. Section 4.0 the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternative. Cumulative effects are addressed in Section 5.0. Mitigation measures are addressed in Section 6.0. The Department of Energy determined that the proposed action of developing, operating and maintaining a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site would best meet the needs of the agency.
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Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, June 2002)

Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, June 2002)

Date: June 6, 2002
Creator: /NV, NNSA
Description: There was an increase in total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentrations at all three depths within Borehole DRA-0. The oxygen concentration at 40 ft below ground surface (bgs) decreased. There was also an increase in carbon dioxide concentration at that depth. The decrease in oxygen concentrations and the increase in carbon dioxide concentration at the 40 ft bgs level could be possible indicators of natural attenuation. It is not possible to determine trends or biodegradation rates with the limited amount of data collected from the site. The sample results from this first monitoring period did not correlate with the baseline results collected in August 2000. Additional samples will be collected and the results will be compared to previously collected samples to determine if the site was at equilibrium in August 2000. Continued annual monitoring will be conducted as specified in the Closure Report to determine trends at the site. As natural attenuation occurs, the TPH concentrations should decrease. The TPH concentrations will be compared over successive monitoring events to determine trends and approximate rates. As natural attenuation occurs, oxygen will be consumed and carbon dioxide will be produced. The oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide concentrations will also be evaluated to determine ...
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Performance of stem flow gauges in greenhouse and desert environments

Performance of stem flow gauges in greenhouse and desert environments

Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Levitt, D.G.; Simpson, J.R. & Tipton, J.L.
Description: This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and general performance of a heat balance method for estimating transpirational sap flow through plant stems on two tree species in greenhouse and field experiments in Tucson, Arizona. Sap flow through 20-mm diameter stems of oak (Quercus virginiana `Heritage`) and mesquite (Prosopis alba `Colorado`.) trees in containers was measured using stem flow gauges and a precision balance, from January to October, 1991. Overall gauge accuracy, and the effects of gauge location on the tree stem, gauge ventilation, gauge insulation, sheath conductance factor (Ksh) selection method, and increased numbers of vertical thermocouple pairs on gauge performance were evaluated.
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Seismic Absorption and Modulus Measurements in Porous Rocks Under Fluid and Gas Flow-Physical and Chemical Effects: a Laboratory Study

Seismic Absorption and Modulus Measurements in Porous Rocks Under Fluid and Gas Flow-Physical and Chemical Effects: a Laboratory Study

Date: November 28, 2005
Creator: Spetzler, Harmut
Description: This paper describes the culmination of a research project in which we investigated the complex modulus change in partially fluid saturated porous rocks. The investigation started with simple flow experiments over ''clean'' and ''contaminated'' surfaces, progressed to moduli measurements on partially filled single cracks, to measurements in ''clean'' and ''contaminated'' porous rocks and finally to a feasibility study in the field. For the experiments with the simple geometries we were able to measure fundamental physical properties such as contact angles of the meniscus and time dependent forces required to get the meniscus moving and to keep it moving at various velocities. From the data thus gathered we were able to interpret the complex elastic moduli data we measured in the partially saturated single cracks. While the geometry in real rocks is too complex to make precise calculations we determined that we had indeed identified the mechanisms responsible for the changes in the moduli we had measured. Thus encouraged by the laboratory studies we embarked on a field experiment in the desert of Arizona. The field site allowed for controlled irrigation. Instrumentation for fluid sampling and water penetration were already in place. The porous loosely consolidated rocks at the site were ...
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