Signals of Human-induced Climate Warning, USGCRP Seminar, 10 October 1995.

Signals of Human-induced Climate Warning, USGCRP Seminar, 10 October 1995.

Date: October 10, 1995
Creator: Karl, Thomas
Description: There is increasing evidence that the global climate is changing: global temperatures have risen about 1 F over the past century, mountain glaciers are melting back, sea level is rising. But how is the climate of the United States changing? Are these changes like others being experienced around the world? Is the US climate becoming more or less variable? Are we having more or fewer climatic extremes? This USGCRP seminar addresses these questions in the context of the anthropogenic influences on atmospheric composition and climate
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New Source of Natural Fertilizer Discovered in Oceans

New Source of Natural Fertilizer Discovered in Oceans

Date: August 8, 2001
Creator: National Science Foundation Office of Legislative and Public Affairs
Description: New findings suggest that the deep ocean is teeming with organisms that produce essential natural fertilizers. A National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded research team led by Jonathan Zehr, a marine scientist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has discovered a previously unknown type of photosynthetic bacteria that fixes nitrogen, converting nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form other organisms can use.
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The U.S. Climate Change Science Program Vision for the Program and Highlights of the Scientific Strategic Plan

The U.S. Climate Change Science Program Vision for the Program and Highlights of the Scientific Strategic Plan

Date: July 2003
Creator: Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Description: The vision document provides an overview of the Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) long-term strategic plan to enhance scientific understanding of global climate change.This document is a companion to the comprehensive Strategic Plan for the Climate Change Science Program.
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Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan Executive Summary: Building a Course for Greater Climate Understanding

Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan Executive Summary: Building a Course for Greater Climate Understanding

Date: July 2003
Creator: Climate Change Science Program
Description: This document describes a research strategy for developing improved knowledge of climate variability and change and the potential impacts on the environment and on human lives. It also provides for the development of resources and tools that will empower policy-makers with the knowledge necessary for making decisions.
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Climate Change Science Program Overview and Management

Climate Change Science Program Overview and Management

Date: December 11, 2003
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program
Description: This program identifies the following criteria of interest: scientific or technical quality; relevance to reducing uncertainties and improving decision support tools; track record of consistently good past performance and identified metrics for evaluating future progress; and cost and value.
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Assessment of Knowledge on Impacts of Climate Change - Contribution to the Specification of Art. 2 of the UNFCCC: Impacts on Ecosystems, Food Production, Water and Socio-economic Systems

Assessment of Knowledge on Impacts of Climate Change - Contribution to the Specification of Art. 2 of the UNFCCC: Impacts on Ecosystems, Food Production, Water and Socio-economic Systems

Date: November 2003
Creator: Hare, William
Description: The purpose of this report is to compile and summarise the present knowledge on impacts of climate change as a basis for a consideration of what may constitute dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system under Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). An attempt will be made to associate projected global mean surface temperature and/or sea level changes with specific identified impacts and effects in order to assist a discussion on the operationalization of Article 2. The main emphasis will be on ecosystem effects, food production, water resources, and sustainable development.
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WMO Statement on the Status of the Global Climate in 1995

WMO Statement on the Status of the Global Climate in 1995

Date: 1995
Creator: World Meteorological Organization
Description: There is continuing international concern about global warming and its potential to cause serious disruption to vulnerable social and economic sectors of society as well as to sustainable development efforts. As recently as December 1995, scientists of the World Meteorological Organization/United Nations Environment Programme (WMO/UNEP) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated that "the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate", through emissions of greenhouse gases. At the same time, there is a developing capability within national Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) to provide comprehensive information on past, present, and future (seasons to a year ahead) climate and its variations, to a wide spectrum of users. The rapid development of global communications systems means that such information can be provided on a timely basis and is, therefore, of great use to national decision makers.
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Science Perspectives on the CCSP Strategic Plan

Science Perspectives on the CCSP Strategic Plan

Date: 2003
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program
Description: Scientists offer comments on the Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan
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NOAA Reports Potent Greenhouse Gas Levels Off

NOAA Reports Potent Greenhouse Gas Levels Off

Date: November 17, 2003
Creator: NOAA News Online
Description: This document provides a summary of a study by NOAA researchers and National Institute for Space Research in the Netherlands. According to the study, one of the atmosphere's most potent greenhouse gases, methane, may now have leveled off. Scientists aren't sure yet if this "leveling off" is just a temporary pause in two centuries of increase or a new state of equilibrium.
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NOAA Makes New Tree Ring Data Available

NOAA Makes New Tree Ring Data Available

Date: October 17, 2001
Creator: NOAA News
Description: New data from tree rings from 500 sites around the world are now available from NOAA. These data are important because they provide climate scientists and resource managers with records of past climatic variability extending back thousands of years.
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NOAA Sets the El Niño Prediction Straight

NOAA Sets the El Niño Prediction Straight

Date: September 7, 2001
Creator: NOAA News
Description: El Niño is an abnormal warming of the ocean temperatures across the eastern tropical Pacific that affects weather around the globe. El Niño episodes usually occur approximately every four-five years. NOAA researchers and scientists are presently monitoring the formation of a possible weak El Niño and predict that the United States could experience very weak-to-marginal impacts late winter to early spring 2002.
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Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group I

Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group I

Date: 1995
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Description: Greenhouse gas concentrations have continued to increase. Anthropogenic aerosols tend to produce negative radiative forcings. Climate has changed over the past century. The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate. Climate is expected to continue to change in the future. There are still many uncertainties.
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Fiscal Year 2005- 2006 Accelerated Research on Global Climate Observations Fact Sheet

Fiscal Year 2005- 2006 Accelerated Research on Global Climate Observations Fact Sheet

Date: 2003
Creator: Climate Change Science Program
Description: Coincident with the release of the Climate Change Science Program strategic plan, the Administration announces plans for the acceleration of select high priority research projects and climate observations. These activities contribute to filling critical knowledge gaps identified in the plan (aerosols, oceans and the natural carbon cycle). The selected investments have been coordinated among the agencies to maximize the overall impact. Funding will be reallocated from lower priority areas to enable these critical investments.
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How Will Climate Change Affect the Mid-Atlantic Region?

How Will Climate Change Affect the Mid-Atlantic Region?

Date: June 2001
Creator: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3
Description: Average temperature has risen 1 degree F over the last century in the Mid-Atlantic Region as well as across the globe. Climate science is developing rapidly and many studies project additional warming. Although the future is uncertain and difficult to predict, our best science suggests the following changes are likely. The Mid-Atlantic Region will be somewhat warmer and perhaps wetter, resulting in a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans. Human activities that release heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere will continue to accelerate the observed warming trend. Climate change will compound existing stresses from population density and development. The region's overall economy is quite resilient, but impacts will be more severe for some economic activities and localities.
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Understanding ecosystems

Understanding ecosystems

Date: 2003
Creator: British Antactic Survey
Description: Plants and animals live in environments which change over different periods of time. Some changes happen each year with the seasons, whilst others take hundreds or even millions of years. As these changes occur, living organisms respond in different ways. To cope with the changing seasons, individuals can change their physiology or behaviour, for instance by hibernating or migration. In response to longer-scale change, species may adapt through evolutionary change. If they cannot, they must either move away or become extinct.
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Climate change

Climate change

Date: 2003
Creator: British Antactic Survey
Description: The Earth's climate has not been constant over geological time. This record is contained in ice, which has built up as snowfall accumulated in distinct yearly layers. Pockets of air trapped between the snow crystals contain traces of past atmospheres, which in turn tell us about the climate at the time the snow formed. Glaciologists collect this record by drilling ice cores and then use sensitive chemical techniques to analyse the layers.
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The Interplay between Climate Change, Forests, and Disturbances

The Interplay between Climate Change, Forests, and Disturbances

Date: March 25, 2000
Creator: Dale, Virginia H.; Joyce, Linda A.; McNulty, Steve & Neilson, Ronald P.
Description: Climate change affects forests both directly and indirectly through disturbances. Disturbances are a natural and integral part of forest ecosystems, and climate change can alter these natural interactions. When disturbances exceed their natural range of variation, the change in forest structure and function may be extreme. Each disturbance affects forests differently. Some disturbances have tight interactions with the species and forest communities which can be disrupted by climate change. Impacts of disturbances and thus of climate change are seen over a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Future observations, research, and tool development are needed to further understand the interactions between climate change and forest disturbances.
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The United States National Report on Systematic Observations for Climate for 2008: National Activities with Respect to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Implementation Plan

The United States National Report on Systematic Observations for Climate for 2008: National Activities with Respect to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Implementation Plan

Date: September 2008
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program's (CCSP) Observations Working Group
Description: Long-term, high-accuracy, stable environmental observations are essential to define the state of the global integrated Earth system, its history and its future variability and change. Observations for climate include: (1) operational weather observations, when appropriate care has been exercised to establish high accuracy; (2) limited-duration observations collected as part of research investigations to elucidate chemical, dynamical, biological, or radiative processes that contribute to maintaining climate patterns or to their variability; (3) high accuracy, high precision observations to document decadal-to-centennial changes; and (4) observations of climate proxies, collected to extend the instrumental climate record to remote regions and back in time to provide information on climate change at millennial and longer time scales. This report was requested by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in order to serve as input to see how progress has been made with respect to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Implementation Plan developed in 2004 In accordance with the UNFCCC guidelines, the sections of the report delineate specific U.S. climate monitoring activities in several distinct yet integrated areas as follows: (1) common issues; (2) non-satellite atmospheric observations; (3) non-satellite oceanic observations; (4) non-satellite terrestrial observations; (5) satellite global atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial ...
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The ozone hole

The ozone hole

Date: 2003
Creator: British Antactic Survey
Description: Discovery of the hole in the ozone layer showed that human activity can have major, and often unexpected impacts on the planet. The destruction of ozone in the stratosphere high above the planet's surface has been brought about as the result of the widespread use of chemicals which under normal conditions are chemically inert and harmless
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Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

Date: July 2009
Creator: Blasing, T.J.
Description: Gases typically measured in parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb) or parts per trillion (ppt) by volume are presented separately to facilitate comparison of numbers.
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Climate Change: The Evidence Mounts Up

Climate Change: The Evidence Mounts Up

Date: August 24, 1995
Creator: MacCracken, Michael C.
Description: This article was published in Nature and summarized the presentations of a six-day symposium held 3-8 July 1995 on Climate Variability and Forcing over the past mellennium. Our present climate is unusually warm, and the pattern of warming over the past century strongly suggests an anthropogenic influence from greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. That was the message emerging from a week-long symposium examining climate variability over the past 1,000 years, which brought together results from a growing array of observational techniques, analyses of natural records and model results.
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Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop Final Report: Circles of Wisdom

Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop Final Report: Circles of Wisdom

Date: 1998
Creator: Maynard, Nancy, G.
Description: The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01, 1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. Native Peoples, with our spiritual traditions and long community histories of change, adaptation, and survival in specific regions, are providing a unique contribution to the assessment and understanding of climate change as well as to the development of sustainable economies in this country.
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NOAA Updates What Defines Normal Temperature

NOAA Updates What Defines Normal Temperature

Date: September 6, 2001
Creator: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Description: Normal temperatures and precipitation levels for your area may have changed as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climatic Data Center recently released new 'normal' data for about 8,000 weather stations. The data defines the normal temperature at locations across the United States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and U.S. Pacific Islands. These data are used as a benchmark for weather forecasters to calculate day-to-day temperature and rainfall departures from typical levels and are also used by business, government and industry for planning, design and operations.
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IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations

IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations

Date: 1994
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Description: This guideline provides a means for assessing the impacts of potential climate change and of evaluating appropriate adaptations.
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