Epidemiological Evaluation of Pain Among String Instrumentalists

Epidemiological Evaluation of Pain Among String Instrumentalists

Date: May 2011
Creator: Meidell, Katrin Liza
Description: Pain and performance anxiety (PA) are common problems among string players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess and compare PA and prevalence rates and locations of pain in violinists, violists, cellists, and bassists. Subjects completed a questionnaire that included sections on demographics, musical background, practice habits, musculoskeletal problems, non-musculoskeletal problems, and PA. Anthropometric data were gathered on all 115 subjects. Results show that there are differences in both pain and PA across instrument groups. Violinists reported the highest number of pain sites, followed by violists, bassists, and cellists. The left shoulder was the most-often reported pain site, followed by the neck and right shoulder. Aching was the most cited term selected to describe pain. Several anthropometric indices were significantly correlated with pain, notably right thumb to index finger span in both cellists and bassists. In all instrument groups, at least one pain site was significantly correlated with one of four PA questions. Results warrant the development of intervention strategies and further study of the relationship between pain and performance anxiety.
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Risk Factors for Flute-Related Pain among High School and College Students

Risk Factors for Flute-Related Pain among High School and College Students

Date: May 2008
Creator: Thompson, LeeAnne
Description: Flutists have reported musculoskeletal pain from practicing and performing their instrument. This study was a statistical approach to investigate potential causal risk factors for flute related pain among high school and college students. The study focused on the relationship between flute related pain and musical background or anthropometric measurements including size, strength and flexibility. Subjects included thirty high school and college-aged flutists who were assessed using a questionnaire, bi-lateral anthropometric measurements of the upper-extremities, upper-extremity performance tests for range of motion, isometric strength and rotation speed, and instrument specific questions. Four questions regarding pain associated with flute playing were treated as dependent variables and used for correlation and regression analyses with other independent variables. A six-factor regression model was created and each model was statistically significant. Results of this study show that strength, flexibility, pain spots, and exposure are risk factors for flute related pain. Both left and right pinch strength and right isometric pronation strength were significantly correlated to flutists experiencing pain while playing. Knowledge of these factors in relationship to pain is needed in flute pedagogy to help teachers and performers understand why flutists report pain during and after playing. Additional studies are warranted for replication of this ...
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Electronic Sound Analysis with Hardware System and Remote Internet Display

Electronic Sound Analysis with Hardware System and Remote Internet Display

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2010
Creator: McCord, Cameron Forrest
Description: Currently, standards from government agencies such as the National Institute for Occupation Safety and Health exist to aid in safeguarding individuals’ capacity for hearing, but only in factory settings in which large machines often produce loud levels of sound. Neglecting the fact that these preventative measures are only in place in the most limited of settings, no system currently exists to observe and report sound exposure levels in a manner timely or easily recognizable enough to adequately serve its purpose of hearing conservation. Musicians may also incur significant levels of risk for hearing loss in their day-to-day rehearsals and concerts, from high school marching bands to university wind bands. As a result, music school accrediting organizations such as the National Association of Schools of Music and even the European Union have begun taking steps meant to determine the risks associated with music. To meet these goals and improve upon current technologies, a system has been developed that electronically records sound levels utilizing modern hardware, increases the speed of reporting by transmitting data over computer networks and the Internet, and displays measures calculated from these data in a web browser for a highly viewable, user-friendly interface.
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A Real-Time Electronic Sound Analysis System with Graphical User Interface

A Real-Time Electronic Sound Analysis System with Graphical User Interface

Date: August 2011
Creator: Brgulja, Amir
Description: Noise-induced hearing loss is a serious problem common to musical environments. Current dosimetry technology is primarily designed for industrial environments and not suited for musical settings. At present, there are no government regulations that apply to the educational music environment as it relates to monitoring and prevention of hearing loss. Also, no system exists than can serve as a proactive tool in observation and reporting of sound exposure levels with the goal of hearing conservation. Newly proposed system takes a software based approach in designing a proactive dosimetry system that can assess the risk of sound noise exposure. It provides real-time feedback trough a graphical user interface that is capable of database storage for further study.
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A Scientific Characterization of Trumpet Mouthpiece Forces in the Context of Pedagogical Brass Literature

A Scientific Characterization of Trumpet Mouthpiece Forces in the Context of Pedagogical Brass Literature

Date: December 2007
Creator: Ford, James
Description: Embouchure dysfunctions, including those from acute injury to the obicularis oris muscle, represent potential and serious occupational health problems for trumpeters. Forces generated between the mouthpiece and lips, generally a result of how a trumpeter plays, are believed to be the origin for such problems. In response to insights gained from new technologies that are currently being used to measure mouthpiece forces, belief systems and teaching methodologies may need to change in order to resolve possible conflicting terminology, pedagogical instructions, and performance advice. As a basis for such change, the purpose of this study was to investigate, develop and propose an operational definition of mouthpiece forces applicable to trumpet pedagogy. The methodology for this study included an analysis of writings by selected brass pedagogues regarding mouthpiece force. Finding were extracted, compared, and contrasted with scientifically derived mouthpiece force concepts developed from scientific studies including one done at the UNT Texas Center for Music & Medicine. Results characterized five mouthpiece force principles as the basis for an operational definition of mouthpiece force. This definition recognizes the relationships between average mouthpiece force and mouthpiece force variability. Mouthpiece force principles as presented in this study may contribute to a better understanding of mouthpiece ...
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The Application of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model to Perceptions Community Music School Faculty Have Towards Their Job

The Application of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model to Perceptions Community Music School Faculty Have Towards Their Job

Date: August 2001
Creator: Lawrence, Robert M.
Description: Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model was applied to study of perceptions community music school faculty hold towards their job. The research questions addressed core job characteristics of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback, critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility, and knowledge of results); personal and work outcomes of satisfaction and motivation; need for professional growth. The results were compared to the national norms for nine different job families provided by Oldham, Hackman, and Stepina. Thirty-three schools, all members of the National Guild of Community Schools of the Arts, located in every geographical region of the United States, yielded 437 faculty responses (64% return rate). Of the core job characteristics, dealing with others and autonomy received the highest ratings; feedback and task significance received the lowest ratings. Of the psychological states, experienced responsibility yielded the highest rating and experienced meaningfulness yielded the lowest ratings. Of the personal/work outcomes, personal development and colleague relations received the highest ratings; pay satisfaction and overall general satisfaction received the lowest ratings. A comparison to the professional job family norms, using a one-sample ttest, found significant differences in 16 out of the 18 variables measured by the Job Characteristic Model. Strong ...
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Blueline Concerto: Critical Essay

Blueline Concerto: Critical Essay

Date: August 2013
Creator: Lamb, Christopher
Description: The purpose of this critical essay is two-fold. First, the essay presents a detailed critical analysis of my original composition, Blueline Concerto for bass trombone and wind ensemble. Second, using Blueline Concerto, the essay presents preliminary findings of my study to develop an approach to composing that takes into account the musicians' health, specifically regarding noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Through various hypothesized composition- and orchestral-based approaches, I test effectiveness on changes in NIHL risk while also noting that artistic merit and compositional integrity is preserved.
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Risk factors for piano-related pain among college students and piano teachers: Possible solutions for reducing pain by using the ergonomically modified keyboard.

Risk factors for piano-related pain among college students and piano teachers: Possible solutions for reducing pain by using the ergonomically modified keyboard.

Date: August 2009
Creator: Yoshimura, Eri
Description: Playing‐related pain is a common and serious problem among pianists. Information on cause and prevention is extremely limited due to a lack of scientific research. The purpose of this study was to (1) review and describe risk factors for piano‐related pain among college students and piano teachers that were reported in my previous two research studies, (2) justify the use of an ergonomically modified keyboard as a potential solution for reducing playing‐related pain, and (3) test and evaluate the effectiveness of an ergonomically modified keyboard for alleviating pianists' pain. Both study populations reported high prevalence rates for playing‐related pain: 86 % for college students (n = 35), 91 % for piano teachers (n = 47). For both populations, statistical analyses confirmed that pianists with small physical size (hand size) were more prone to pain. This finding helped rationalize the use of an ergonomically modified keyboard (the key width is 1/16 narrower than the standard) for small‐handed pianists as an ergonomic intervention. To test the effectiveness of an ergonomically modified keyboard, 35 college students played identical music on both the reduced-sized keyboard and the standard keyboard. Observations of video‐recorded performances revealed that small-handed pianists can avoid extreme stretching of their hands ...
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Polystylistic Features of Schnittke's Cello Sonata (1978)

Polystylistic Features of Schnittke's Cello Sonata (1978)

Date: August 2010
Creator: Kleinmann, Johannes
Description: Polystylism in Alfred Schnittke's music has been considered by scholars as a central aspect of his music. Although there are many published analyses of his choral music, symphonies, concerti and violin sonatas, there is no known published research for Schnittke's first cello sonata. Alfred Schnittke grew up in a culturally diverse environment influenced by many different composers and compositional styles under the restrictions of a communist Russian government. These aspects influenced the development of Schnittke's polystylism, characteristically represented by his Cello Sonata (1978). The detailed musical analysis of this sonata in this study serves the purpose to reveal Schnittke's polystylistic tendencies and his use of cyclic elements. These polystylistic elements in the sonata illustrate how Schnittke de-familiarizes listeners from rules commonly accepted as unavoidable and re-familiarizes listeners with the expressive qualities of tonal, twelve-tone and atonal music. Although Schnittke introduces polystylistic materials in de-familiarized contexts in this sonata, this study finds that Schnittke particularly re-familiarizes the audience's musical and stylistic perception through the reappearance of sections, textures and motifs. Abrupt polystylistic conflicts contrast with the repetition of previous materials, thereby forming a combination of traditional styles with features of discontinuity in 20th century music.
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Rebecca Clarke: A Viola Duo Transcription of the Prelude, Allegro, and Pastorale

Rebecca Clarke: A Viola Duo Transcription of the Prelude, Allegro, and Pastorale

Date: August 2010
Creator: Stevens, Daniel Brent
Description: Throughout centuries of great classical music, many viola compositions have been crafted from a wealth of literature for instruments of similar range. Clarinet, violin, and cello concerti and ensemble literature often adapt into challenging literature for the viola. In November 2009, Oxford Music Publishing gave me permission to transcribe and perform the Prelude, Allegro, and Pastorale by Rebecca Clarke in New York's famed Carnegie Hall - Weill Recital Hall. This dissertation explains the process by which I transcribed the Prelude, Allegro, and Pastorale from an original Bb-clarinet/viola duo, to a new arrangement for two violas (approved by Oxford Music Press arrangement license #7007940), and discusses challenges faced throughout the transcription process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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