Regional Breakability in Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) Eggshells

Regional Breakability in Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) Eggshells

Date: 2002
Creator: Khorrami, Sheva
Description: Thesis written by a student in the UNT Honors College discussing the soundness of emu eggshells.
Contributing Partner: UNT Honors College
Influence of parental swimming stamina on the cardiac and metabolic performance of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Influence of parental swimming stamina on the cardiac and metabolic performance of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Date: May 2007
Creator: Gore, Matthew R.
Description: Superior swimming stamina in adult fish is presumably passed on to their offspring, but the ontogeny of the appearance of superior stamina and the requisite enhanced cardio-respiratory support for locomotion in larval fishes has not been determined. Is the expression of the suite of parental traits enabling superior swimming stamina in their offspring dependent upon their achieving juvenile/adult morphology, or does it appear earlier in their larvae? To answer this, adults were classified into three groups based on swimming stamina, followed by measurement of length, mass, and width. Larval offspring from the two parental groups -high stamina larvae (HSL) and low stamina larvae (LSL)- were reared at 27°C in aerated water (21% O2). Routine and active heart rate, routine and active mass specific oxygen consumption were recorded through 21dpf, and cost of transport (COT) and factorial aerobic scope were derived from oxygen consumption measurements. Routine heart rate at 2dpf of LSL was 164 ± 1 b·min-1, compared to only 125 ± 2 b·min-1 for HSL. Routine heart rate subsequently peaked at 203 ± 1 b·min-1 at 5dpf in the HSL group, compared to 207 ± 1 b·min-1, at 4dpf in the LSP larvae. Active heart rate at 5 dpf of ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Beta-adrenergic Blockade Via Atenolol and Its Effects on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Renal Morphology in the Developing Chicken Gallus Gallus Domesticus

Beta-adrenergic Blockade Via Atenolol and Its Effects on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Renal Morphology in the Developing Chicken Gallus Gallus Domesticus

Date: December 2012
Creator: Rossitto Lopez, Josie Jovita
Description: Chicken embryos were chronically exposed to the ?1- blocker atenolol during one of three stages: mesonephros (E7-E9), mesonephros-metanephros (E11-E13), or metanephros (E15-E17). Mesonephros group hearts were larger than all other groups (P < 0.01). Mesonephros and metanephros group kidneys were larger than all remaining groups (P < 0.0001). The mesonephros group nephron number was ~40% lower than control values (P = 0.002). Glomerular areas were 26% and 18% larger than the control group in the mesonephros and metanephros groups, respectively (P < 0.001). These data suggest an E7-E9 critical window of cardiovascular and renal development for atenolol. Acute atenolol exposure in E15 embryos showed an increase in mean arterial pressure with all but the highest dose. All doses significantly decreased heart rate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Retinoic acid Treatment Affects Kidney Development and Osmoregulatory System in the Developing Chicken (Gallus Gallus)

Retinoic acid Treatment Affects Kidney Development and Osmoregulatory System in the Developing Chicken (Gallus Gallus)

Date: May 2011
Creator: Alvine, Travis Douglas
Description: Development is a dynamic process characterized by critical periods in which organ systems are sensitive to changes in the surrounding environment. In the current study, critical windows of embryonic growth and kidney development were assessed in the embryonic chicken. All&#8208;trans retinoic acid (tRA) influences not only organogenesis and cell proliferation, but also targets metanephric kidney nephrogenesis. Embryonic chickens were given a single injection of tRA on embryonic day 8. tRA decreased embryo, kidney, and heart mass from day 16 to day 18. However, mass specific kidney and heart masses showed no differences. Whole blood, plasma, and allantoic fluid osmolality were altered in tRA treated embryos from day 16 to day 18. In addition, hematocrit, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration were altered in tRA treated embryos. The results suggest that although nephrogenesis was not affected by tRA, the developing osmoregulatory system was altered in tRA treated embryos.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
The role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide and oxygen in the ductus arteriosi of the pre-term chicken embryo (Gallus domesticus).

The role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide and oxygen in the ductus arteriosi of the pre-term chicken embryo (Gallus domesticus).

Date: December 2007
Creator: Greyner, Henry José
Description: The chicken ductus arteriosi (DA) are two embryonic blood vessels that shunt blood away from the non-ventilated lungs and towards the body and chorioallantoic membrane. I show that prostaglandins have a diminished role in maintaining chicken DA patency and nitric oxide inhibits oxygen induced contraction of the day 19 proximal DA in a time dependent manner. The pathways governing oxygen induced contraction in the chicken DA are similar to those found in mammals and include contributions from ROS, Kv channels, L-type Ca2+ channels, and the Rho kinase pathway. Longer exposure to high oxygen generates increased oxygen induced constriction of the day 19 DA that may be mediated through the Rho kinase pathway.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
A morphological study of the avian (Gallus domesticus) ductus arteriosi during hatching.

A morphological study of the avian (Gallus domesticus) ductus arteriosi during hatching.

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Belanger, Candace
Description: The ductus arteriosi (DA) are two blood vessels connecting the pulmonary arteries to the descending aorta in the avian embryo. Following hatching, the DA closes, separation of the systemic and pulmonary circulation. I present the morphological changes that occur in the chicken DA during prepipping, internal pipping, external pipping, and hatching. The avian DA consists of two distinct tissue types, a proximal and a distal portion. Histological examination shows developmental differences between the proximal and distal portions of the DA with regard to lumen occlusion, endothelial cells, smooth muscle and elastin. Endothelial cell proliferation begins to occur as early as external pipping, with the lumen almost completely occluded by the 3rd day of post-hatching life. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases in avian endothelial cells during hatching. I provide a morphological timeline of changes in the DA as the chicken develops from embryo to hatchling.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Morphological and Hematological Responses to Hypoxia During Development in the Japanese quail,  Coturnix coturnix

Morphological and Hematological Responses to Hypoxia During Development in the Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix

Date: May 2003
Creator: Elmonoufy, Nourhan
Description: Hypoxic responses in quail development differ depending upon stage, duration and level of oxygen partial pressure of embryo. Incubation was switched to/from 110mmHg partial pressure (hypoxia), to/from 150mmHg (normoxia) during different stages in development, and control was incubated in normoxia throughout. Hatchability and embryo survival resulted in no hatchlings in continuous hypoxia. Responses to various hypoxic exposures throughout development resulted in recovery/repair of hypoxic damage by hatch. Heart and body mass, beak and toe length, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were measured to determine embryo responses to hypoxia during development at days 10, 15, and hatch. Hypoxia seemed to have the most deleterious effects on eggs in continuous hypoxia. Collectively, data indicate critical developmental windows for hypoxia susceptibility, especially during mid-embryonic development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Chronic Hypoxia and Hyperoxia Modifies Morphology and Vegf Expression of the Lungs of the Developing Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus)

Chronic Hypoxia and Hyperoxia Modifies Morphology and Vegf Expression of the Lungs of the Developing Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus)

Date: December 2012
Creator: Lewallen, Melissa Anjanette
Description: This study determines effects of oxygen levels on morphology and VEGF expression of developing chicken lungs following incubation in normoxia (21% O2), hypoxia (15% O2) or hyperoxia (30% O2), until developmental days 16 or 18. Lung morphology was assessed using light microscopy, while VEGF expression was determined with ELISA. In hypoxia, the proportion of parabronchial tissue and parabronchi including lumina increased from day 16 to 18 (61 to 68% and 74.2 to 82.2%, respectively). Non-parabronchial tissue was higher in hypoxia than in hyperoxia on day 16 (26 to 20%). However, by day 18, there were no differences between groups. VEGF expression was 33% higher in hypoxia than in hyperoxia on day 16 (736 vs. 492 pg/ml). On day 18, VEGF expression was 43% higher in hyperoxia than in normoxia (673 to 381pg/ml), and remained elevated by 40% in hypoxia over normoxia (631 pg/ml). VEGF may be a mechanism by which parabronchial tissue is stimulated from day 16 to 18 following exposure to chronic hypoxia.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Unique applications of cultured neuronal networks in pharmacology, toxicology, and basic neuroscience

Unique applications of cultured neuronal networks in pharmacology, toxicology, and basic neuroscience

Date: May 2001
Creator: Keefer, Edward W.
Description: This dissertation research explored the capabilities of neuronal networks grown on substrate integrated microelectrode arrays in vitro with emphasis on utilizing such preparations in three specific application domains: pharmacology and drug development, biosensors and neurotoxicology, and the study of burst and synaptic mechanisms. Chapter 1 details the testing of seven novel AChE inhibitors, demonstrating that neuronal networks rapidly detect small molecular differences in closely related compounds, and reveal information about their probable physiological effects that are not attainable through biochemical characterization alone. Chapter 2 shows how neuronal networks may be used to classify and characterize an unknown compound. The compound, trimethylol propane phosphate (TMPP) elicited changes in network activity that resembled those induced by bicuculline, a known epileptogenic. Further work determined that TMPP produces its effects on network activity through a competitive inhibition of the GABAA receptor. This demonstrates that neuronal networks can provide rapid, reliable warning of the presence of toxic substances, and from the manner in which the spontaneous activity changes provide information on the class of compound present and its potential physiological effects. Additional simple pharmacological tests can provide valuable information on primary mechanisms involved in the altered neuronal network responses. Chapter 3 explores the effects produced ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Genetic and Cellular Analysis of Anoxia-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Caenorhabditis elegans

Genetic and Cellular Analysis of Anoxia-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Caenorhabditis elegans

Date: December 2008
Creator: Hajeri, Vinita A.
Description: The soil-nematode Caenorhabditis elegans survives oxygen deprivation (anoxia < 0.001 kPa of O2, 0% O2) by entering into a state of suspended animation during which cell cycle progression at interphase, prophase and metaphase stage of mitosis is arrested. I conducted cell biological characterization of embryos exposed to various anoxia exposure times, to demonstrate the requirement and functional role of spindle checkpoint gene san-1 during brief anoxia exposure. I conducted a synthetic lethal screen, which has identified genetic interactions between san-1, other spindle checkpoint genes, and the kinetochore gene hcp-1. Furthermore, I investigated the genetic and cellular mechanisms involved in anoxia-induced prophase arrest, a hallmark of which includes chromosomes docked at the nuclear membrane. First, I conducted in vivo analysis of embryos carried inside the uterus of an adult and exposed to anoxic conditions. These studies demonstrated that anoxia exposure prevents nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) in prophase blastomeres. Second, I exposed C. elegans embryos to other conditions of mitotic stress such as microtubule depolymerizing agent nocodazole and mitochondrial inhibitor sodium azide. Results demonstrate that NEBD and chromosome docking are independent of microtubule function. Additionally, unlike anoxia, exposure to sodium azide causes chromosome docking in prophase blastomeres but severely affects embryonic viability. ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Induced Bradycardia Effects on Angiogenesis, Growth and Development in Early Development in Chicken Embryos, Gallus Domesticus

Induced Bradycardia Effects on Angiogenesis, Growth and Development in Early Development in Chicken Embryos, Gallus Domesticus

Date: December 2010
Creator: Ruck, Sylvia A.
Description: Cardiac performance, angiogenesis and growth was investigated during early chicken development. Heart rate, and thus arterial pulse pressure and cardiac output, were altered with the bradycardic drug ZD7288. Heart rates at 72 h of development of control embryos and those dosed with chicken Ringer were not different at 171 bpm. Acute and chronic application of ZD7288 caused significant bradycardia. Chronic dosing of Ringer and ZD7288 changed neither eye diameter nor development rate. Chronic dosing of ZD7288 did not significantly alter CAM vessel density close to the embryo (2, 3 and 4 mm) but at farther distances (5 and 6 mm) chronic dosing with both Ringer and ZD7288 decreased vessel density by 13 - 16%. Chronic dosing with ZD7288 also reduced body mass by 20%. Thus, lowered heart rate and cardiac output had little effect on vessel density or developmental stage, but did reduce embryo growth.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Morphological and physiological developmental consequences of parental effects in the chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the zebrafish larva (Danio rerio).

Morphological and physiological developmental consequences of parental effects in the chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the zebrafish larva (Danio rerio).

Date: August 2008
Creator: Ho, Dao H.
Description: Cardiac, metabolic and growth response of early-stage chicken embryos to perturbations in yolk environment was investigated. Also, effects of parental hypoxia exposure on hypoxia resistance, thermal tolerance and body length of zebrafish larvae were investigated. In the first study, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and testosterone produced differential effects on heart rate and development rate of chicken embryos during the first 4 days of development. Triiodothyronine caused a dose-dependent increase in heart rate when applied at 40 or 70 hours of age, while thyroxine caused a dose-dependent increase in heart rate when applied at 40 hours only. Testosterone and propyl-thiouracil (deiodinase antagonist) did not have an effect on heart rate. Development rate was not changed by thyroxine, triiodothyronine, testosterone or propyl-thiouracil, which suggested that heart rate changes did not result from changes in embryo maturity. In the second study, chicken embryos exposed to yolks of different bird species during early-stage embryonic development showed changes in heart rate, mass-specific oxygen consumption and body mass that scaled with the egg mass, incubation period length, and yolk triiodothyronine and testosterone levels of the species from which yolk was derived. In the third study, this phenomenon was investigated between layer and broiler chickens. Heart rate, oxygen consumption ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Genetic Analysis of Development and Behavior in Hypoxia and Cellular Characterization of Anoxia Induced Meiotic Prophase Arrest in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Genetic Analysis of Development and Behavior in Hypoxia and Cellular Characterization of Anoxia Induced Meiotic Prophase Arrest in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Date: August 2011
Creator: Little, Brent Ashley
Description: It was hypothesized that chronic hypoxia will affect various biological processes including developmental trajectory and behavior. To test this hypothesis, embryos were raised to adulthood in severe hypoxic environments (0.5% O2 or 1% O2, 22°C) and analyzed for survival rate, developmental progression, and altered behaviors. Wildtype hermaphrodites survive chronic hypoxia yet developmental trajectory is slowed. The hermaphrodites raised in chronic hypoxia had different phenotypes in comparison to the normoxic controls. First, hermaphrodites exposed to chronic hypoxia produced a significantly lower number of embryos and had a slight increase in male progeny. This suggests that chronic hypoxia exposure during development affects the germline. Second, animals raised in chronic hypoxia from embryos to young adults have a slight increase in lifespan when re-exposed to a normoxic environment, indicating that chronic hypoxia does not negatively decrease lifespan. Finally, hermaphrodites that were raised in hypoxia will lay the majority of their eggs on the area of the agar plate where the bacterial lawn is not present. This is in contrast to animals in normoxia, which lay the majority of their eggs on the bacterial lawn. One hypothesis for this hypoxia-induced egg-laying behavior is that the animal can sense microenvironments in hypoxia. To examine if ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Hematocrit, hematocrit Regulation and its effect on oxygen consumption in the late stage chicken embryo (Gallus domesticus).

Hematocrit, hematocrit Regulation and its effect on oxygen consumption in the late stage chicken embryo (Gallus domesticus).

Date: August 2004
Creator: Khorrami, Sheva
Description: Hematocrit and hematocrit regulation have the potential to affect developing embryos. To examine the ability of chicken embryos at day 15 to regulate hematocrit, they were subjected to either repeated saline injections (5% of total blood volume) or repeated blood removal (5% of total blood volume). Embryos showed an ability to maintain hematocrit (~20%) despite blood volume increases up to 115% of initial blood volume. Embryos were not able to maintain hematocrit in the face of dramatic blood volume loss. Oxygen consumption of embryos could be affected by their level of hematocrit. To examine this, chicken embryos at day 15, 16, and 17 of incubation were given a high hematocrit (~50-60%) sample of blood (400 μl) to artificially increase the hematocrit of the embryos (~10-12%). Despite the increase in oxygen availability, when monitored over a period of six hours, embryos showed no difference (0.36 ± 0.01 (ml O2 - min-1- egg-1) in metabolism from baseline measurements at day 15, 16 and 17.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Heart rate and oxygen consumption during the critical prenatal period in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus): Influence of light cues and the onset of pulmonary ventilation.

Heart rate and oxygen consumption during the critical prenatal period in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus): Influence of light cues and the onset of pulmonary ventilation.

Date: December 2004
Creator: Brown, Jessie W.
Description: To examine if a rhythm can be entrained in either heart rate or oxygen consumption in late stage embryos (days 17-19.5) with light as a zeitgeber, chicken embryos were incubated in complete darkness (D:D) and 12:12 light:dark cycle (L:D). Light had no impact on oxygen consumption (390 µL O2∙min-1∙egg-1) but increased heart rate for non-internally pipped embryos (260 to 270 beats∙min-1 during light cycle). Oxygen consumption increased independent of pipping while heart rate increased (255 to 265 beats∙min-1) in D:D embryos due to pipping. A light-induced rhythm or effect occurred in heart rate but not oxygen consumption, suggesting heart rate and oxygen consumption may be uncoupled.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Hypoxic and hyperoxic incubation affects the ductus arteriosus in the developing chicken embryo (Gallus gallus).

Hypoxic and hyperoxic incubation affects the ductus arteriosus in the developing chicken embryo (Gallus gallus).

Date: December 2009
Creator: Copeland, Jennifer
Description: Developing chicken embryos have two ductus arteriosus (DA) that shunt blood away from the lungs and to the chorioallantoic membrane, the embryonic gas exchanger. In mammals, DA closure is stimulated by an increase in blood gas O2 that occurs as the animal begins to breathe with its lungs. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of O2 levels during incubation on the vascular reactivity and morphology of the O2-sensitive DA and to examine the effects of changing O2 levels during late incubation on the morphology of the DA from chicken embryos. In comparison to normoxia, hypoxia (15%) reduced venous O2 levels in day 16 and day 18 embryos and reduced aircell O2 values in day 16, day 18, and internally pipped (IP) embryos, whereas hyperoxia (30%) increased venous O2 levels and aircell O2 level in day 16, day 18, and IP embryos. In comparison to normoxia, hypoxia delayed closure of the DA, whereas hyperoxia accelerated DA closure. In comparison to the left DA from externally pipped (EP) normoxic embryos, the left DA from EP hypoxic embryos exhibited a significantly weaker contractile response to O2. The DA from day 18 hypoxic embryos exhibited a significantly weaker contractile response ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Thermal Stress During Pre-Incubation Induces Subsequent Developmental Plasticity in Northern Bobwhites

Thermal Stress During Pre-Incubation Induces Subsequent Developmental Plasticity in Northern Bobwhites

Date: August 2010
Creator: Reyna, Kelly Shane
Description: Northern bobwhite populations have declined concurrent with global warming. The focal period of this study was the 12-d pre-incubation period, when bobwhite eggs remain in the nest without the thermal protection of the incubating parent. This study first established the storage and thermal limits of bobwhite eggs, then investigated how global warming may impact oviparous embryos and how bobwhite embryos react to acute and chronic doses of simulated drought temperatures during pre-incubation. First, the maximum storage limit of bobwhite eggs was determined by storing eggs &#8804;21 d and measuring hatching success and pH of egg albumen and yolk. Hatching success of stored eggs declined after 14 d, when yolk and albumen pH reached levels detrimental to embryonic development. Secondly, thermal limits were determined by exposing bobwhite eggs to hyperthermic temperatures (38-52 °C). Bobwhite embryos survived 50 °C for 1 h, 49 °C for 3 h and 46 °C for 6 h. Results indicate an adaptation to the naturally occurring temperature extremes that can occur in the bobwhite's southern range during pre-incubation. Subsequently, bobwhite eggs were exposed to either low constant (LC), low fluctuating (LF), high constant (HC), or high fluctuating (HF) temperatures during pre-incubation to determine if the nature of ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Relations between Child Molesters' Self-Perceptions and Treatment Engagement

Relations between Child Molesters' Self-Perceptions and Treatment Engagement

Date: December 2001
Creator: Altman, Adrianne
Description: Researchers emphasize the role of cognitions in sex offenders' molesting behaviors. Although cognitions are important, little research has examined child molesters' thoughts about themselves in relation to their engagement in treatment. In this study, the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was administered to 67 child molesters. Child sexual offenders rated themselves and their view of a typical child molester using two NEO-PI-R versions. The degree to which child sex offenders identify themselves with their view of a typical child molester, and this agreement's relation with engagement in treatment, were investigated. The view that child sex offenders hold about themselves in relation to a typical child molester showed no relation to treatment engagement or length of time in treatment. However, this self-perception was related to the number of children abused.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
A Contravention of Established Principles of Interspecific Allometric Metabolic Scaling in Developing Silkworms, Bombyx Mori.

A Contravention of Established Principles of Interspecific Allometric Metabolic Scaling in Developing Silkworms, Bombyx Mori.

Date: May 2007
Creator: Blossman-Myer, Bonnie
Description: Established interspecific metabolic allometric relationships do not adequately describe the complexity and variable physiological states of developing animals. Consequently, intraspecific allometric relationships of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production as a function of body mass; the respiratory quotient; the function of the silk cocoon; and body composition were investigated for each distinct developmental stage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Whole animal O2 consumption in Bombyx ranged from 0.00064 + 0.000047 ml O2 .hr-1 at larval instar I to 0.77 + 0.06 ml O2 .hr-1 in pre-pupal, falling to 0.21+ 0.01 ml O2 .hr-1 in the pupae. Those instars having a significant relationship between O2 consumption as a function of body mass, the slope of the line relating O2 consumption to body mass varied between 0.99 and 1.02, while across all instars the slope was 0.82. Developmental allometry should be presented for individual developmental stages because the individual allometric exponents of the stages can be significantly different from the overall allometric exponent throughout development and in some cases, the overall allometric exponent can be a statistical artifact. The first larval instar of Bombyx mori has the lowest cross sectional area of high metabolic tissue of the midgut (27%) and had one ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Developmental Patterns of Metabolism and Hematology in the Late Stage Chicken Embryo (Gallus Domesticus) at Two Incubation Temperatures.

Developmental Patterns of Metabolism and Hematology in the Late Stage Chicken Embryo (Gallus Domesticus) at Two Incubation Temperatures.

Date: May 2003
Creator: Black, Juli
Description: How temperature affects physiological development in the chicken embryo is unknown. Embryos incubated at 38°C or 35°C showed no difference in growth or survival. The time to hatching was longer in 35°C than 38°C embryos (23.7 vs. 20.6 days), but unaffected was the relative timing of appearance of developmental landmarks (internal, external pipping). At stage 43-44, 38°C embryos maintained oxygen consumption around 1 mL/g/h despite acute temperature reduction (suggesting thermoregulatory maturation), unlike 35°C embryos. In 35°C embryos the lower oxygen-carrying capacity and temperature insensitive blood O2 affinity (P50 about 30 mmHg) may restrict O2 delivery to tissues, limiting metabolism during decreased ambient temperature. Reduced incubation temperature retards normal hematological and thermoregulatory development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
The Developmental Physiology of the Zebrafish: Influence of Environment and Cardiovascular Attributes

The Developmental Physiology of the Zebrafish: Influence of Environment and Cardiovascular Attributes

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Bagatto, Brian
Description: Temperature effects on the development of the zebrafish embryos and larvae and adults were examined. It was found that the earlier in development a temperature change was performed on an embryo, the more significant the change in survival and/or subsequent development. Thus, viable temperature ranges for zebrafish widened significantly as development proceeded. Adults reared and bred at 25oC produced embryos that were significantly more successful at the lower range of rearing temperatures compared to embryos produced from adults reared at 28oC. The majority of this study focused on the physiological effects of swim training during development in the zebrafish. The earlier in development the zebrafish larvae were trained, the greater the mortality. Trained free swimming larvae had a significantly higher routine oxygen consumption after 11 days of training, and a higher mass specific routine metabolic rate after 8 and 11 days of training. Trained free swimming larvae consumed significantly less oxygen during swimming and were more efficient at locomotion, compared to control larvae. Training enhanced survival during exposure to extreme hypoxia in all age groups. Performance aspects of training were investigated in attempt to quantify training effects and in most cases, trained fish performed significantly better than controls. As blood ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Effects of Triclosan, Triclocarban, and Caffeine Exposure on the Development of Amphibian Larvae.

Effects of Triclosan, Triclocarban, and Caffeine Exposure on the Development of Amphibian Larvae.

Date: August 2009
Creator: Palenske, Nicole Marie
Description: Triclosan and triclocarban are antimicrobials found in numerous consumer products, while caffeine is the most commonly consumed stimulant by humans. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of triclosan, triclocarban, and caffeine on the development and physiology of amphibian larvae. LC50 values of triclosan and triclocarban were determined after 96 hours for three North American larval species: Acris crepitans blanchardii, Bufo woodhousii woodhousii, Rana sphenocephala, and for a common amphibian developmental model: Xenopus laevis. Amphibian larvae were most sensitive to triclosan and triclocarban exposure during early development based upon 96-hour LC50 values. Heart rates for X. laevis and North American larvae exposed to triclosan were variable throughout development. However, significantly lower heart rates were observed in all larvae exposed to triclocarban. Metabolic rates of X. laevis and R. sphenocephala larvae exposed to triclosan were significantly affected in larvae exposed to ½ LC50 and the LC50 concentration. Metabolic rates of X. laevis larvae exposed to triclocarban were significantly affected by exposure to ½ LC50 concentrations in three of four stages investigated. No significant differences were observed in North American larvae exposed to triclocarban. Tissue uptake, lipid uptake, tissue bioconcentration factor (BCF) and lipid BCF of triclosan and triclocarban were investigated ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
The Effect of Punishment Threat on Children's Ability to Resist Temptation to Transgress and Lie

The Effect of Punishment Threat on Children's Ability to Resist Temptation to Transgress and Lie

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Collins, Michelle
Description: Children's response to a resistance-to-temptation (RTT) task was investigated under three punishment threat conditions: negative consequence, removing an anticipated reward, and no explicit punishment. Ninety first and second graders participated in the RTT task and seventy-three parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children and the Psychopathy Screening Device. As only 4% of children transgressed, results are unclear. Hypotheses tested using approximations of transgression showed no differences in RTT. Children with temperaments characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, attention problems, and conduct problems (HIA-CP) had the highest levels of psychopathic traits compared to all others. In addition, spanked children were rated as having significantly more behavioral problems than non-spanked children. Limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Development of Cardiovascular Regulation in Embryos of the Domestic Fowl (Gallus Gallus), with a Partial Comparison to Embryos of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus Agassizii)

Development of Cardiovascular Regulation in Embryos of the Domestic Fowl (Gallus Gallus), with a Partial Comparison to Embryos of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus Agassizii)

Date: August 1999
Creator: Crossley, Dane Alan
Description: In adult vertebrates, cardiovascular regulation is accomplished by numerous systems with neural, hormonal and local components responsible for the majority of regulation. These regulatory components work in concert to maintain the essential function of blood perfusion to adult tissues. Given the essential nature of this function it is therefore surprising that the development of cardiovascular regulation during gestation is poorly understood. The majority of what is known is based on a single vertebrate model, the fetal lamb. The fetal lamb has been used in multiple studies due to the clear clinical applications and has been pivotal in understanding the onset of regulation in developing vertebrates. However, study on the fetal lamb is limited to the latter 40% of gestation and has the added complication of an in-utero developmental strategy. Therefore the primary focus of this dissertation was to characterize basic cardiovascular regulation in the chicken embryo to provided the needed information for it's use an alternative to the fetal lamb. Developing chicken embryos rely on both alpha and beta adrenergic tones to maintain normal heart rate and arterial blood pressure during incubation. However, on day 21, just prior to hatch, these animals lose both tones on arterial pressure suggesting the ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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