A Wireless Traffic Surveillance System Using Video Analytics

A Wireless Traffic Surveillance System Using Video Analytics

Date: May 2011
Creator: Luo, Ning
Description: Video surveillance systems have been commonly used in transportation systems to support traffic monitoring, speed estimation, and incident detection. However, there are several challenges in developing and deploying such systems, including high development and maintenance costs, bandwidth bottleneck for long range link, and lack of advanced analytics. In this thesis, I leverage current wireless, video camera, and analytics technologies, and present a wireless traffic monitoring system. I first present an overview of the system. Then I describe the site investigation and several test links with different hardware/software configurations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. The system development process was documented to provide guidelines for future development. Furthermore, I propose a novel speed-estimation analytics algorithm that takes into consideration roads with slope angles. I prove the correctness of the algorithm theoretically, and validate the effectiveness of the algorithm experimentally. The experimental results on both synthetic and real dataset show that the algorithm is more accurate than the baseline algorithm 80% of the time. On average the accuracy improvement of speed estimation is over 3.7% even for very small slope angles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Anchor Nodes Placement for Effective Passive Localization

Anchor Nodes Placement for Effective Passive Localization

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Pasupathy, Karthikeyan
Description: Wireless sensor networks are composed of sensor nodes, which can monitor an environment and observe events of interest. These networks are applied in various fields including but not limited to environmental, industrial and habitat monitoring. In many applications, the exact location of the sensor nodes is unknown after deployment. Localization is a process used to find sensor node's positional coordinates, which is vital information. The localization is generally assisted by anchor nodes that are also sensor nodes but with known locations. Anchor nodes generally are expensive and need to be optimally placed for effective localization. Passive localization is one of the localization techniques where the sensor nodes silently listen to the global events like thunder sounds, seismic waves, lighting, etc. According to previous studies, the ideal location to place anchor nodes was on the perimeter of the sensor network. This may not be the case in passive localization, since the function of anchor nodes here is different than the anchor nodes used in other localization systems. I do extensive studies on positioning anchor nodes for effective localization. Several simulations are run in dense and sparse networks for proper positioning of anchor nodes. I show that, for effective passive localization, the ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Effective and Accelerated Informative Frame Filtering in Colonoscopy Videos Using Graphic Processing Units

Effective and Accelerated Informative Frame Filtering in Colonoscopy Videos Using Graphic Processing Units

Date: August 2010
Creator: Karri, Venkata Praveen
Description: Colonoscopy is an endoscopic technique that allows a physician to inspect the mucosa of the human colon. Previous methods and software solutions to detect informative frames in a colonoscopy video (a process called informative frame filtering or IFF) have been hugely ineffective in (1) covering the proper definition of an informative frame in the broadest sense and (2) striking an optimal balance between accuracy and speed of classification in both real-time and non real-time medical procedures. In my thesis, I propose a more effective method and faster software solutions for IFF which is more effective due to the introduction of a heuristic algorithm (derived from experimental analysis of typical colon features) for classification. It contributed to a 5-10% boost in various performance metrics for IFF. The software modules are faster due to the incorporation of sophisticated parallel-processing oriented coding techniques on modern microprocessors. Two IFF modules were created, one for post-procedure and the other for real-time. Code optimizations through NVIDIA CUDA for GPU processing and/or CPU multi-threading concepts embedded in two significant microprocessor design philosophies (multi-core design and many-core design) resulted a 5-fold acceleration for the post-procedure module and a 40-fold acceleration for the real-time module. Some innovative software modules, ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Arithmetic Computations and Memory Management Using a Binary Tree Encoding af Natural Numbers

Arithmetic Computations and Memory Management Using a Binary Tree Encoding af Natural Numbers

Date: December 2011
Creator: Haraburda, David
Description: Two applications of a binary tree data type based on a simple pairing function (a bijection between natural numbers and pairs of natural numbers) are explored. First, the tree is used to encode natural numbers, and algorithms that perform basic arithmetic computations are presented along with formal proofs of their correctness. Second, using this "canonical" representation as a base type, algorithms for encoding and decoding additional isomorphic data types of other mathematical constructs (sets, sequences, etc.) are also developed. An experimental application to a memory management system is constructed and explored using these isomorphic types. A practical analysis of this system's runtime complexity and space savings are provided, along with a proof of concept framework for both applications of the binary tree type, in the Java programming language.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
The Design Of A Benchmark For Geo-stream Management Systems

The Design Of A Benchmark For Geo-stream Management Systems

Date: December 2011
Creator: Shen, Chao
Description: The recent growth in sensor technology allows easier information gathering in real-time as sensors have grown smaller, more accurate, and less expensive. The resulting data is often in a geo-stream format continuously changing input with a spatial extent. Researchers developing geo-streaming management systems (GSMS) require a benchmark system for evaluation, which is currently lacking. This thesis presents GSMark, a benchmark for evaluating GSMSs. GSMark provides a data generator that creates a combination of synthetic and real geo-streaming data, a workload simulator to present the data to the GSMS as a data stream, and a set of benchmark queries that evaluate typical GSMS functionality and query performance. In particular, GSMark generates both moving points and evolving spatial regions, two fundamental data types for a broad range of geo-stream applications, and the geo-streaming queries on this data.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Kalman Filtering Approach to Optimize OFDM Data Rate

Kalman Filtering Approach to Optimize OFDM Data Rate

Date: August 2011
Creator: Wunnava, Sashi Prabha
Description: This study is based on applying a non-linear mapping method, here the unscented Kalman filter; to estimate and optimize data rate resulting from the arrival rate having a Poisson distribution in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system. OFDM is an emerging multi-carrier modulation scheme. With the growing need for quality of service in wireless communications, it is highly necessary to optimize resources in such a way that the overall performance of the system models should rise while keeping in mind the objective to achieve high data rate and efficient spectral methods in the near future. In this study, the results from the OFDM-TDMA transmission system have been used to apply cross-layer optimization between layers so as to treat different resources between layers simultaneously. The main controller manages the transmission of data between layers using the multicarrier modulation techniques. The unscented Kalman filter is used here to perform nonlinear mapping by estimating and optimizing the data rate, which result from the arrival rate having a Poisson distribution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
1/F Baseband Noise Suppression in Ofdm Using Kalman Filter

1/F Baseband Noise Suppression in Ofdm Using Kalman Filter

Date: May 2012
Creator: Rodda, Lasya
Description: As the technology is advances the reduced size of hardware gives rise to an additive 1/f baseband noise. This additive 1/f noise is a system noise generated due to miniaturization of hardware and affects the lower frequencies. Though 1/f noise does not show much effect in wide band channels because of its nature to affect only certain frequencies, 1/f noise becomes a prominent in OFDM communication systems where narrow band channels are used. in this thesis, I study the effects of 1/f noise on the OFDM systems and implement algorithms for estimation and suppression of the noise using Kalman filter. Suppression of the noise is achieved by subtracting the estimated noise from the received noise. I show that the performance of the system is considerably improved by applying the 1/f noise suppression.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
End of Insertion Detection in Colonoscopy Videos

End of Insertion Detection in Colonoscopy Videos

Date: August 2009
Creator: Malik, Avnish Rajbal
Description: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths behind lung cancer in the United States. Colonoscopy is the preferred screening method for detection of diseases like Colorectal Cancer. In the year 2006, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) and American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) issued guidelines for quality colonoscopy. The guidelines suggest that on average the withdrawal phase during a screening colonoscopy should last a minimum of 6 minutes. My aim is to classify the colonoscopy video into insertion and withdrawal phase. The problem is that currently existing shot detection techniques cannot be applied because colonoscopy is a single camera shot from start to end. An algorithm to detect phase boundary has already been developed by the MIGLAB team. Existing method has acceptable levels of accuracy but the main issue is dependency on MPEG (Moving Pictures Expert Group) 1/2. I implemented exhaustive search for motion estimation to reduce the execution time and improve the accuracy. I took advantages of the C/C++ programming languages with multithreading which helped us get even better performances in terms of execution time. I propose a method for improving the current method of colonoscopy video analysis and also an extension for the same to ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Study of the effects of background and motion camera on the efficacy of Kalman and particle filter algorithms.

Study of the effects of background and motion camera on the efficacy of Kalman and particle filter algorithms.

Date: August 2009
Creator: Morita, Yasuhiro
Description: This study compares independent use of two known algorithms (Kalmar filter with background subtraction and Particle Filter) that are commonly deployed in object tracking applications. Object tracking in general is very challenging; it presents numerous problems that need to be addressed by the application in order to facilitate its successful deployment. Such problems range from abrupt object motion, during tracking, to a change in appearance of the scene and the object, as well as object to scene occlusions, and camera motion among others. It is important to take into consideration some issues, such as, accounting for noise associated with the image in question, ability to predict to an acceptable statistical accuracy, the position of the object at a particular time given its current position. This study tackles some of the issues raised above prior to addressing how the use of either of the aforementioned algorithm, minimize or in some cases eliminate the negative effects
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Toward a Data-Type-Based Real Time Geospatial Data Stream Management System

Toward a Data-Type-Based Real Time Geospatial Data Stream Management System

Date: May 2011
Creator: Zhang, Chengyang
Description: The advent of sensory and communication technologies enables the generation and consumption of large volumes of streaming data. Many of these data streams are geo-referenced. Existing spatio-temporal databases and data stream management systems are not capable of handling real time queries on spatial extents. In this thesis, we investigated several fundamental research issues toward building a data-type-based real time geospatial data stream management system. The thesis makes contributions in the following areas: geo-stream data models, aggregation, window-based nearest neighbor operators, and query optimization strategies. The proposed geo-stream data model is based on second-order logic and multi-typed algebra. Both abstract and discrete data models are proposed and exemplified. I further propose two useful geo-stream operators, namely Region By and WNN, which abstract common aggregation and nearest neighbor queries as generalized data model constructs. Finally, I propose three query optimization algorithms based on spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal constraints of geo-streams. I show the effectiveness of the data model through many query examples. The effectiveness and the efficiency of the algorithms are validated through extensive experiments on both synthetic and real data sets. This work established the fundamental building blocks toward a full-fledged geo-stream database management system and has potential impact in many ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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