Development of the Trauma Play Scale: Comparison of children manifesting a history of interpersonal trauma with a normative sample.

Development of the Trauma Play Scale: Comparison of children manifesting a history of interpersonal trauma with a normative sample.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Myers, Charles Edwin
Description: Experts in traumatology have postulated traumatized children play differently than non-traumatized children. These differences are called posttraumatic play and include the behaviors of intense play, repetitive play, play disruption, avoidant play and negative affect. The purpose of this study is the continued development of the Trauma Play Scale through the addition of a normative sample. The Trauma Play Scale is an observation-based instrument designed to distinguish the play behaviors of children in play therapy with a history of interpersonal trauma when compared to non-traumatized children. The present study compares two samples of children. One group (n=6) currently in play therapy with a history of interpersonal trauma and another group (n=7) considered normally developing (cognitively, emotionally, socially, and physically) by their parents with no known history of interpersonal trauma. Trained raters blind to the trauma history of the children rated a series of eight consecutive video-recorded play therapy sessions for each participant. One-way analysis of variance statistics, including effect sizes were compute to determine the discriminant validity of the Trauma Play Scale. Traumatized children scored significantly higher on the Trauma Play Scale than non-traumatized children on all domains of the scale as well as the overall Average Trauma Play Scale score. ...
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The relationship between Adlerian personality priorities of clients and counselors and the therapeutic working alliance.

The relationship between Adlerian personality priorities of clients and counselors and the therapeutic working alliance.

Date: May 2007
Creator: Shojaian, Gina Christine
Description: The purpose of this research was to determine if a relationship exists between quality of the therapeutic working alliance and counselors' and clients' Adlerian personality priorities. Variables included counselors' and clients' Adlerian personality priorities and ratings of working alliance. Information for counselors' and clients' Adlerian personality priorities was obtained on the Allen Assessment for Adlerian Personality Priorities (AAAPP; Allen, 2005). Working alliance was measured with the Working Alliance Inventory- short revised (WAI-SR; Hatcher & Gillaspy, 2006). Participants included 14 counselors and 31 clients from a community counseling clinic on a university campus in the southwest United States. Results suggested that match between counselors' and clients' Adlerian personality priorities is related to counselors' perceptions of quality of the therapeutic working alliance. Statistically significant values were found on one hypothesis, as well as large effect sizes.
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Effects of Three Interventions with International College Students Referred for Adjustment and Language Difficulties: A Preliminary Study

Effects of Three Interventions with International College Students Referred for Adjustment and Language Difficulties: A Preliminary Study

Date: May 2007
Creator: Lee, Eunah Kim
Description: This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of three interventions with international college students referred for adjustment and language difficulties. Fifty-four international students were assigned to treatment groups including expressive group counseling (n = 14), group speech therapy (n = 14), interdisciplinary counseling/speech intervention (n = 13), and the no treatment control (n = 13). Three null hypotheses were analyzed using a two factor repeated measures analysis of variance to determine whether the four treatment groups behaved differently across time according to pre- and posttest results of the ASR Total and Internalizing Problems scales and the CCSR total scores. Two null hypotheses were rejected at the alpha .05 level of statistical significance with large treatment effects. Post hoc analyses were conducted when a statistically significant interaction effect was found. The no treatment control group was established as a baseline to examine how each intervention group performed over time when compared to the no treatment control group. Results of the post hoc analysis for Total Problems indicated that international students in all three treatment groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in total behavior problems at the alpha .025 level (Expressive counseling: p = .002, Speech: p = .01, and Interdisciplinary: p = .003) ...
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Relationship between child centered play therapy and developmental levels of young children: A single case analysis.

Relationship between child centered play therapy and developmental levels of young children: A single case analysis.

Date: December 2007
Creator: Garofano-Brown, April
Description: This study used a single case design to explore the relationship between individual child-centered play therapy on children with developmental delays by examining its effectiveness in: 1) increasing measured developmental age; 2) reducing problematic behaviors related to developmental delays; and 3) increasing developmentally appropriate behaviors. Three participants were assessed weekly with both developmental and behavioral measures during the three phases of the study: baseline, intervention, and follow up. Additionally, parents of the participants completed behavioral measures at pretest, midpoint, and posttest administrations. The participant's weekly standard scores were graphed and results were examined separately using visual analyses. Changes between phases: non-intervention baseline, intervention, and non-intervention follow-up were examined; specifically, the level, trend, and variability of the data across the phases were examined. Each of the three participants served as their own control group in this single case analysis and their results, and all three of the participants demonstrated improvement on the developmental measures after receiving the play therapy intervention. Results from this single case analysis suggest the need for further replication, use and reporting of single case interventions and designs, to promote the efficacy of counseling interventions and to potentially enhance the literature and research base for evidence based interventions.
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The effects of a human developmental counseling application curriculum on content integration, application, and cognitive complexity for counselor trainees.

The effects of a human developmental counseling application curriculum on content integration, application, and cognitive complexity for counselor trainees.

Date: December 2007
Creator: Muro, Lamar
Description: Although professional counselors have distinguished themselves among helping professionals through a focus and foundational framework in normal human growth and development over the life-span, a majority of programs neglect to incorporate training opportunities enabling students to translate developmental theory to clinical practice. In this mixed-method study, the researcher explored the effects of a human developmental counseling application curriculum and examined cognitive complexity levels among counselor trainees. Qualitative results support gains in both the integration and application of developmental content while quantitative results offer partial support for cognitive complexity gains among trainees. This study identifies a curricular training experience in which counselor trainees' integration and application human developmental theory as well as cognitive complexity, are notably enhanced.
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Effects of culturally responsive child-centered play therapy compared to curriculum-based small group counseling with elementary-age Hispanic children experiencing externalizing and internalizing behavior problems: A preliminary study.

Effects of culturally responsive child-centered play therapy compared to curriculum-based small group counseling with elementary-age Hispanic children experiencing externalizing and internalizing behavior problems: A preliminary study.

Date: December 2004
Creator: Garza, Yvonne
Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of culturally responsive child-centered play therapy when compared to a curriculum-based small group counseling intervention as a school-based intervention for Hispanic children experiencing behavioral problems that place them at risk for academic failure. Specifically, this study measured the effects of the experimental play therapy treatment, compared to Kids' Connection, on reducing Externalizing and Internalizing behavior problems of elementary school-age Hispanic children. Twenty-nine volunteer Hispanic children were randomized to the experimental group (n=15) or the comparison group (n=14). Subjects participated in a weekly 30 minute intervention for a period of 15 weeks. Pre- and posttest data were collected from parent and teachers using the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC). A two factor mixed repeated measures analysis of variance was computed for each hypothesis, to determine the statistical and practical significance of the difference in the pretest to posttest behavior scores of children in the two groups. According to parents' reports, the children receiving play therapy showed statistically significant decreases in externalizing behaviors problems, specifically conduct problems, and moderate improvements in their internalizing behavior problems, specifically anxiety. Teacher BASC results showed no statistical significance and negligible-to- small practical significance between the two groups ...
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School-based child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) with low income first generation immigrant Hispanic parents: Effects on child behavior and parent-child relationship stress.

School-based child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) with low income first generation immigrant Hispanic parents: Effects on child behavior and parent-child relationship stress.

Date: May 2008
Creator: Ceballos, Peggy
Description: This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of child-parent relationship therapy (CPRT) with low income first generation immigrant Hispanic parents. Forty-eight parents were randomly assigned by school site to the experimental group (n=24) and to the no treatment control group (n=24). A two factor (Time x Group) repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the effects of group membership (experimental, control) and time (pretest, posttest) on each of the six hypotheses. Dependent variables for the Spanish version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) included Externalizing Problems, Internalizing Problems, and Total Problems. Dependent variables for the Spanish version of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) included Child Domain, Parent Domain, and Total Stress. Results indicated that from pre-test to post-test, parents who participated in the CPRT treatment group reported a statistically significant improvement on their children's behaviors at the alpha .025 level (Internalizing Problems p< .001; Externalizing Problems p< .001; Total Problems p<.001) when compared to children whose parents did not participate in CPRT. Partial eta squared (ηp2) further indicated that the effects of CPRT treatment on the experimental group compared to the control group from pre-test to post-test was large (ηp2 = .56; ηp2 = .59; and ηp2 = .68, ...
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Effects of a Play-Based Teacher Consultation (PBTC) Program on Interpersonal Skills of Elementary School Teachers in the Classroom

Effects of a Play-Based Teacher Consultation (PBTC) Program on Interpersonal Skills of Elementary School Teachers in the Classroom

Date: August 2011
Creator: Carlson, Sarah E.
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a play-based teacher consultation (PBTC) program on individual teachers’ interpersonal classroom behaviors and teacher-child relationships. The research questions addressed the application of child-centered play therapy principles and PBTC increasing teacher responsiveness, decreasing teacher criticism, and enhancing teachers‟ perceptions of the teacher-child relationship in elementary school classrooms. Single-case design was utilized to examine eight teachers‟ perceptions over 16 weeks. The sample included 8 White female teachers from three local elementary schools. Teacher ages ranged from 28 to 59 years old. There were 5 kindergarten, 1 first grade, and 2 second grade teachers. The teachers participated in one educational training session followed by play sessions with children of focus and interactive modeling sessions. Trained observers, blind to the study’s purpose, utilized the Interaction Analysis System in classroom observations of the teachers, three times per week, to examine teachers’ interpersonal skills. Additionally, the teachers completed the Student Teacher Relationship Scale for the children of focus before and after the play session phase to examine change in the teacher-child relationship. Visual analysis of the data indicated the PBTC’s overall positive impact. 5 out of 8 teachers demonstrated increases in teacher responding scores at ...
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Child-Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT) with Adoptive Families: Effects on Child Behavior, Parent-Child Relationship Stress, and Parental Empathy

Child-Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT) with Adoptive Families: Effects on Child Behavior, Parent-Child Relationship Stress, and Parental Empathy

Date: May 2010
Creator: Carnes-Holt, Kara
Description: This randomized controlled study is a preliminary investigation on the effects of Child-Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT) with 61 adoptive parents. The participants in this study identified themselves as the following: 54 European American, 3 Black American, 3 Hispanic/Latino, and 1 individual who chose not to indicate ethnicity. The study included 23 couples and 15 individual mothers. The CPRT is a structured, time limited approach that trains caregivers to be an active participant as a therapeutic change agent in their child's life. Results from a two (group) by two (measures) split plot ANOVA indicated that adoptive parents who participated in 10 weeks of CPRT reported statistically significant decreases in child behavior problems and parent child-relationship stress. Statistically significant increases in parent empathy were also reported by raters blinded to the study. CPRT demonstrated a medium to large treatment effect on reducing children's behavior problems and parent-child relationship stress. In addition, CPRT demonstrated a large treatment effect on increasing parental empathy. The results of the study provide preliminary support for CPRT as a responsive intervention for adoptive parents and their children.
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The impact of child teacher relationship training on teachers' and aides' use of relationship-building skills and the effect on student classroom behavior.

The impact of child teacher relationship training on teachers' and aides' use of relationship-building skills and the effect on student classroom behavior.

Date: December 2006
Creator: Helker, Wendy Pretz
Description: This study examined the impact of child teacher relationship training (CTRT) on teachers' and aides' use of relationship- building skills in the classroom and the correlation between teachers' and aides' demonstration of relationship- building skills and the effect on student behavior. CTRT was modeled after Landreth and Bratton's (2006) 10-session filial therapy model titled child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) which is based on the principles and procedures of child -centered play therapy. The CPRT manual was adapted slightly for use with teachers and aides for this project. In this quasi-experimental design, 12 teacher aide dyads (n = 24) were assigned to the experimental (n = 12) or active control groups (n = 12). Children who scored in the Borderline/Clinical range on at least one scale of the Child Behavior Checklist-Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) at pretest qualified for the study (N = 32). During the first phase of treatment, teachers and aides participated in the equivalent of 10 training/supervision sessions consistent with the principles and procedures of CPRT. During CTRT Phase II, teachers and aides participated in 10 weeks of coaching/modeling to facilitate the use of CTRT skills in the classroom environment and continued to participate in weekly 1-hour group training/supervision ...
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