Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Date: September 8, 2014
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations

Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations

Date: March 16, 2010
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report discusses how an interim continuing resolutions (CRs), provisions and requirements may impact directly upon an agency. Second, the report analyzes Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency documents that have provided guidance or requirements for how an agency should navigate through periods of interim CRs. Third, the report analyzes brief mentions of claims of impact contained in Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports from a 20-year span.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations

Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations

Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: Continuing appropriations acts, commonly known as continuing resolutions (CRs), have been an integral component of the annual appropriations process for decades. When Congress and the President do not reach final decisions about one or more regular appropriations acts, they often negotiate and enact a CR. One type of CR used is an "interim" CR, which provides agencies with stopgap funding for a period of time until final appropriations decisions are made, or until enactment of another interm CR. This report analyzes three major potential impacts that interim CRs might have on agency operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Funding Gaps and Government Shutdowns: CRS Experts

Funding Gaps and Government Shutdowns: CRS Experts

Date: April 6, 2011
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report is a table providing names and contact information for CRS (Congressional Research Service) experts on policy concerns relating to funding gaps and the processes and effects that may be associated with a government shutdown.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Date: September 25, 2013
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Date: August 6, 2013
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report discusses the causes, processes, and effects of federal government shutdowns, including potential issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Date: February 18, 2011
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Date: September 27, 2010
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reexamination of Agency Reporting Requirements: Annual Process Under the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 (GPRAMA)

Reexamination of Agency Reporting Requirements: Annual Process Under the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 (GPRAMA)

Date: April 18, 2012
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: On January 4, 2011, the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 (GPRAMA) became law. The acronym "GPRA" in the act's short title refers to the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA 1993), a law that GPRAMA substantially modified. Some of GPRAMA's provisions require agencies to produce plans and reports for a variety of audiences that focus on goal-setting and performance measurement. Other provisions, by contrast, establish an annual process to reexamine the usefulness of certain reporting requirements. The report concludes by looking potential issues for Congress in two categories.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
General Management Laws: A Compendium

General Management Laws: A Compendium

Date: May 19, 2004
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report is a companion to CRS Report RL32388, General Management Laws: Major Themes and Management Policy Options. In combination, these reports have three main objectives: (1) to identify and describe the major management laws under which the executive branch of the federal government is required to operate, including their rationale, design, and scope; (2) to assist Members of Congress and their staff in oversight of executive branch management; and (3) to help Congress when considering potential changes to the management laws themselves, as well as other legislation, including authorization statutes and appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
OMB Controls on Agency Mandatory Spending Programs: "Administrative PAYGO" and Related Issues for Congress

OMB Controls on Agency Mandatory Spending Programs: "Administrative PAYGO" and Related Issues for Congress

Date: August 19, 2010
Creator: Brass, Clinton T. & Monke, Jim
Description: This CRS report focuses first on the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) May 2005 memorandum and the process it outlines. The report then discusses one case where the process appears to have been implemented. It then discusses other potential implications, if the OMB process were widely utilized in practice. Next, the report discusses potential options for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Independent Evaluators of Federal Programs: Approaches, Devices, and Examples

Independent Evaluators of Federal Programs: Approaches, Devices, and Examples

Date: August 16, 2010
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M. & Brass, Clinton T.
Description: Congress and the executive, as well as outside organizations, have long been attentive to the evaluation of federal programs, with frequent interest paid to the independent status of the evaluator. This interest continues into the current era, with numerous illustrations of the multifaceted approaches adopted and proposed. This report focuses on examples of independent evaluators (IEs): when an evaluation is to be conducted by an entity outside the immediate organization that is responsible for policy implementation, and the entity also is intended to have one or more dimensions of independence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Crosscut Budgets in Ecosystem Restoration Initiatives: Examples and Issues for Congress

Crosscut Budgets in Ecosystem Restoration Initiatives: Examples and Issues for Congress

Date: January 22, 2008
Creator: Sheikh, Pervaze A. & Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report discusses typical and potential elements of a crosscut budget, provides examples of enacted legislation that authorizes the use of crosscut budgets, and examines some crosscut budgeting issues that Congress might consider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hiring and Pay Authorities for Federal Scientific and Technical (S&T) Personnel

Hiring and Pay Authorities for Federal Scientific and Technical (S&T) Personnel

Date: May 29, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D. & Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report provides an illustrative overview of statutory authorities relating to the hiring of, and pay for, federal scientific and technical (S&T) personnel.The report then analyzes several key factors that are affecting the S&T workforce, both overall in the United States and in the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sequestration at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): Air Traffic Controller Furloughs and Congressional Response

Sequestration at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): Air Traffic Controller Furloughs and Congressional Response

Date: May 7, 2013
Creator: Elias, Bart; Brass, Clinton T. & Kirk, Robert S.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of FAA's implementation of the sequester in April 2013, as it relates to air traffic control operations and staff furloughs. It then considers the congressional response, including the potential impact of the funds transfers authorized under P.L. 113-9 on FAA's Airport Improvement Program (AIP).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Date: May 18, 2011
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.; Brass, Clinton T. & Nicola, Thomas J.
Description: The gross federal debt, which represents the federal government's total outstanding debt, consists of two types of debt: (1) debt held by the public and (2) debt held in government accounts, also known as intragovernmental debt. Federal government borrowing increases for two primary reasons: (1) budget deficits and (2) investments of any federal government account surpluses in Treasury securities, as required by law. Nearly all of this debt is subject to the statutory limit. The federal debt limit currently stands at $14,294 billion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bush Administration Policy Regarding Congressionally Originated Earmarks: An Overview

Bush Administration Policy Regarding Congressionally Originated Earmarks: An Overview

Date: September 4, 2008
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.; Hatch, Garrett L. & Petersen, R. E.
Description: This report focuses on Bush Administration policy regarding earmarks originated by Congress and related issues. Specific definitions for the term earmark (and related terms, like congressional earmark, presidential earmark, and others) vary considerably and are controversial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Date: November 21, 2013
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.; Brass, Clinton T.; Nicola, Thomas J. & Nuschler, Dawn
Description: This report examines the possibility of the federal government reaching its statutory debt limit and not raising it, with a particular focus on government operations. First, the report explains the nature of the federal government's debt, the processes associated with federal borrowing, and historical events that may influence prospective actions. It also includes an analysis of what could happen if the federal government may no longer issue debt, has exhausted alternative sources of cash, and, therefore, depends on incoming receipts or other sources of funds to provide any cash needed to liquidate federal obligations.2 Finally, this report lays out considerations for increasing the debt limit under current policy and what impact fiscal policy could have on the debt limit going forward.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Appropriations Process: FAQs Regarding Potential Legislative Changes and Effects of a Government Shutdown

Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Appropriations Process: FAQs Regarding Potential Legislative Changes and Effects of a Government Shutdown

Date: October 2, 2013
Creator: Redhead, C. S.; Tollestrup, Jessica; Liu, Edward C. & Brass, Clinton T.
Description: This report provides background information on the Affordable Care Act (ACA). It discusses the ACA and the annual appropriations process and the potential impact of a shutdown on ACA implementation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Date: September 19, 2013
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.; Brass, Clinton T.; Nicola, Thomas J. & Nuschler, Dawn
Description: This report examines the possibility of the federal government reaching its statutory debt limit and not raising it, with a particular focus on government operations. First, the report explains the nature of the federal government's debt, the processes associated with federal borrowing, and historical events that may influence prospective actions. It also includes an analysis of what could happen if the federal government may no longer issue debt, has exhausted alternative sources of cash, and, therefore, depends on incoming receipts or other sources of funds to provide any cash needed to liquidate federal obligations.2 Finally, this report lays out considerations for increasing the debt limit under current policy and what impact fiscal policy could have on the debt limit going forward.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Date: May 31, 2012
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.; Brass, Clinton T.; Nicola, Thomas J.; Nuschler, Dawn & Shelton, Alison M.
Description: The gross federal debt, which represents the federal government's total outstanding debt, consists of two types of debt: (1) debt held by the public and (2) debt held in government accounts, also known as intragovernmental debt. Federal government borrowing increases for two primary reasons: (1) budget deficits and (2) investments of any federal government account surpluses in Treasury securities, as required by law. Nearly all of this debt is subject to the statutory limit. The federal debt limit currently stands at $14,294 billion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Date: February 11, 2011
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.; Brass, Clinton T.; Nicola, Thomas J.; Nuschler, Dawn & Shelton, Alison M.
Description: This report examines the possibility of the federal government reaching its statutory debt limit and not raising it, with a particular focus on government operations. First, the report explains the nature of the federal government's debt, the processes associated with federal borrowing, and historical events that may influence prospective actions. It also includes an analysis of what could happen if the federal government may no longer issue debt, has exhausted alternative sources of cash, and, therefore, depends on incoming receipts or other sources of funds to provide any cash needed to liquidate federal obligations. Finally this report lays out considerations for increasing the debt limit under current policy and what impact fiscal policy could have on the debt limit going forward.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Date: April 27, 2011
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.; Brass, Clinton T.; Nicola, Thomas J. & Shelton, Alison M.
Description: This report examines the possibility of the federal government reaching its statutory debt limit and not raising it, with a particular focus on government operations. First, the report explains the nature of the federal government's debt, the processes associated with federal borrowing, and historical events that may influence prospective actions. It also includes an analysis of what could happen if the federal government may no longer issue debt, has exhausted alternative sources of cash, and, therefore, depends on incoming receipts or other sources of funds to provide any cash needed to liquidate federal obligations. Finally this report lays out considerations for increasing the debt limit under current policy and what impact fiscal policy could have on the debt limit going forward.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department