Cognitive and perceptual-motor indicators of lateralized vs. diffuse brain damage in adults.

Cognitive and perceptual-motor indicators of lateralized vs. diffuse brain damage in adults.

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Date: December 2002
Creator: Gregory, Erin Kathleen Taylor
Description: Among the goals of the neuropsychological assessment are to detect the presence of brain damage, localize which areas of the brain may be dysfunctional and describe subsequent functional impairments. The sensitivity of neuropsychological instruments in carrying out these functions is a question of some debate. The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of lateralizing indicators from the WAIS-III, McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) and Haptic Visual Discrimination Test (HVDT), from the McCarron-Dial System Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (MDS), in ascertaining the presence or absence of brain damage as well as location of lesion. The classification accuracies of using performance level indicators from these tests and lateralizing indicators, alone and together, were compared.
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The cross-validation of AD/HD instruments and the relationship to neurocognitive and behavioral measures

The cross-validation of AD/HD instruments and the relationship to neurocognitive and behavioral measures

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Hudson, Christine V.
Description: The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine the construct validities of comparable AD/HD instruments that were developed according to our current, DSM-IV classification system for AD/HD; and to identify potential +neurocognitive and socioemotional markers for AD/HD. The sample consisted of 145 children ages 8 to 11 years of age who were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), or Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD). Children were administered a battery of neurocognitive tests and completed a self-report measure of personality. Parents completed several, AD/HD instruments pertaining to their children. The AD/HD instruments used in this study were the Attention Deficit Disorder Evaluation Scale-Home Version (ADDES), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test (ADHDT), and the Attention Problems and Hyperactivity scales from the BASC-Monitor (BASC-M). Of interest was how each AD/HD instrument compared to the DSM-IV, particularly in terms of the cross-consistency of AD/HD subtype classifications. The findings showed that the AD/HD instruments classified participants differently from the initial, DSM-IV entry diagnosis. Rates of agreement were better for some of the AD/HD instruments than for others yet there was little overall consistency. The neurocognitive measures used in the study were the Cognitive Assessment System-Basic Battery scales. The socioemotional measures used in the ...
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QEEG and MMPI-2 patterns of adults reporting childhood sexual abuse: Determining differences and predictor models.

QEEG and MMPI-2 patterns of adults reporting childhood sexual abuse: Determining differences and predictor models.

Date: December 2003
Creator: Townsend, Alicia
Description: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been linked to a number of adult psychological maladies. The MMPI-2 has shown specific patterns such as an inverted V in the validity scales, a floating profile, and a 4-5-6 configuration to be present more often in adults who have experienced childhood trauma. Both children and adults who have experienced trauma have shown a number of neurophysiological differences when compared to non-traumatized individuals. However, little research has looked at differences in quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) patterns in these individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine differences seen in the MMPI-2 and the QEEG when comparing adults who report CSA to adults who deny any history of childhood abuse. Differences between the two groups in MMPI-2 basic scales and supplementary scales PK and PS were determined. This study also examined the ability to correctly classify individuals into the two groups using three patterns seen in the MMPI-2 basic scale profiles (inverted V, floating profile, and 4-5-6 configuration). In addition, this research included exploratory analyses to develop predictor models for CSA group membership. Predictors in the models were derived from MMPI-2 scales, alpha relative power at each of the 19 sites in the International 10/20 electrode ...
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Spirituality, health locus of control, and wellness in organizational health promotion and wellness programs

Spirituality, health locus of control, and wellness in organizational health promotion and wellness programs

Date: August 2001
Creator: Gauthier, Janine E.
Description: The relationship between an individual's level of spirituality, health locus of control, and participating in wellness activity was investigated. The relationship between spirituality, health locus of control on physical health was also investigated. The research question was based on prior studies that reported people who are more spiritual are healthier. Does their spirituality lead to increased levels of health, or are individual's who are more spiritual more likely to proactively take control of their health and engage in health promoting behaviors? One hundred and fifteen male and female employees completed The Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS), a spirituality measure, The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, a measure of locus of control related to health and healthcare, and The Center for Disease Control's (CDC) Health Risk Appraisal, a self-report measure of participation in health behaviors. Physical measures of health were obtained by obtaining Body Mass Index, blood pressure readings, and a cholesterol screening. The current study looked at level of spirituality (internal, external), level of health locus of control (internal, powerful other, chance) and participation in wellness/health promoting behaviors and health. Correlational analyses were performed on the relationship between spirituality and health locus of control. Hierarchical multiple regressions were ...
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Neuropsychologic correlates of a normal EEG variant: The mu rhythm.

Neuropsychologic correlates of a normal EEG variant: The mu rhythm.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Simms, Lori A.
Description: Although the mu rhythm is traditionally defined as a normal EEG variant, recent evidence suggests that mu may have functional significance in a variety of disorders such as autism, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. While an increasing number of articles have focused on the blocking mechanism of mu in relation to various cognitive processes and disorders, few have examined the significance of a prominent mu rhythm in the background EEG. A few studies have examined the relationship between the mu rhythm and psychological disturbance, such as attentional and affective disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that EEG and qEEG variables may be useful in classifying psychiatric disorders, presenting a neurophysiological alternative to traditional symptom-based diagnosis and classification. Thus, the intention of the present study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological variables, gathered from multiple assessment sources, and the presence of a prominent mu rhythm in the EEG. Results did not show a statistically significant difference between individuals with and without a prominent mu rhythm on the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA); although individuals in the mu group showed a pattern of increased impulsivity and performance decrement over time. For adults, no significant differences were observed between groups on psychological variables ...
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The effects of sequential versus referential montage neurofeedback amplitude training on QEEG measures of phase and coherence.

The effects of sequential versus referential montage neurofeedback amplitude training on QEEG measures of phase and coherence.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Ramezani, Amir
Description: An important clinical research question to be answered in the field of neurofeedback (NF) is whether amplitude training affects connectivity between cortical sites. This study hypothesizes that, following NF amplitude training, there will be a difference in QEEG coherence and phase measures between NF training done using referential montages and using sequential montages. The study examined case files of 16 adult clients from the University of North Texas Neurotherapy Lab who had received NF training that consisted of either referential or sequential placement amplitude training (no coherence training) and who received both pre- and post- treatment QEEGs. Sixty-eight percent of the cases consisted of referential placements, while 34% of the cases consisted of sequential placements. All frontal site phase and coherence abnormal z-scores at pre-treatment were converted to deviation scores and compared by general linear model analysis of variance to post-treatment deviation scores. Effect size r-values and eta square values indicate that differences between referential and sequential electrode placements after NF amplitude training are moderately high. This study shows that referential placements tend to increase phase scores and decrease coherence scores, while sequential placements tend to decrease phase scores and increase coherence scores.
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Association between folate, vitamin B12 and cognitive performance in demented elderly.

Association between folate, vitamin B12 and cognitive performance in demented elderly.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Serova, Svetlana
Description: Dementia is prevalent among elderly people. As the world population ages, it is projected that the number of people affected by dementia may triple in the next 50 years. Over the last two decades, research has focused on identifying potentially modifiable risk factors in development and progression of dementia, such as vitamin B12 and folate. Results concerning the effects of low folate and vitamin B12 on cognitive performance are mixed. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of vitamin deficiency on cognitive functioning in a clinical sample of elderly individuals with cognitive problems using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. A retrospective chart-review was performed on the 102 records of patients from the Geriatrics Clinic at the University of North Texas Health Science Center who presented with cognitive deficits. Charts were reviewed to obtain data on vitamin supplementation, vitamin status, history of chronic conditions and other biochemical data. The available database was used to obtain data on neuropsychological assessment. The study demonstrated mild association between vitamin B12 and folate status and cognitive deficits. There appeared to be a higher cut-off level that is above the traditionally used levels for vitamin B12 and folate deficiency concentrations at which ...
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Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback-assisted stress management training on pregnant women and fetal heart rate measures.

Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback-assisted stress management training on pregnant women and fetal heart rate measures.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Keeney, Janice E.
Description: This study examined effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback-assisted stress management training in reducing anxiety and stress in pregnant women and the effect of maternal stress management skills practice on fetal heart rate measures in real time. Participants were seven working pregnant women who volunteered in response to recruitment announcements and invitations from cooperating midwives. Reported state and trait anxiety and pregnancy specific stress were measured during five 45- to 50-minute training sessions. Training included bibliotherapy, instruction in the use of emotion-focused stress management techniques, and HRV biofeedback. Subjects used portable biofeedback units for home practice and were encouraged to practice the skills for 20 minutes a day and for short periods of time during stressful life events. At the end of training, fetal heart rate was monitored and concurrent maternal HRV measures were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired samples t-test analysis of study data revealed no statistically significant reductions in state or trait anxiety measures or in pregnancy specific stress measures. Partial eta squared (n²) and Cohen's d calculations found small to medium effect sizes on the various test scales. Friedman's analysis of variance of biofeedback measures showed a statistically significant decrease in low HRV coherence scores ...
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Psychological characteristics contributing to performance on neuropsychological tests and effort testing.

Psychological characteristics contributing to performance on neuropsychological tests and effort testing.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Hilborn, Robert Scott
Description: The issue of effortful patient performance has been an area of clinical interest in individuals with minor traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Clinical attention to this area has increased largely because of an increase in the number of worker's compensation claims, injury-related lawsuits and/or insanity defense pleas. As patients are presented with the opportunity for secondary gain, the issue of optimum performance on neuropsychological measures becomes salient. In addition to neurocognitive deficits, there are psychological characteristics associated with mTBI including depression, emotional disturbance, personality changes, and other psychopathology. This study utilized the MSVT, a set of standard neuropsychological instruments, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) to investigate the relationships between effort, psychological characteristics, and neuropsychological functioning in individuals with minor traumatic brain injuries. The first objective of this study was to determine which psychological factors were related to effort in mTBI. The second objective was to determine if there were differences between groups that performed poorly on effort testing and groups that performed adequately on effort testing, based on relevant psychological characteristics. The results of the analyses supported the first hypothesis. Hysteria was inversely related to effort, and Mania was positively related to effort on one of five measures of effort. ...
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Heart rhythm variability in persons with chronic pain.

Heart rhythm variability in persons with chronic pain.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Saxon, LaDonna Christine
Description: The present study evaluated the utility of heart rhythm coherence (HRC) feedback to reduce the reported pain intensity of patients enrolled in a multimodal pain management program. Participants were recruited and assigned to a usual treatment group (UT) or a heart rhythm coherence feedback group (UT+HRC). It was hypothesized that UT+HRC participants who achieved heart rhythm coherence would report a reduction of pain intensity, as measured by the McGill Pain Inventory. For those whose pain intensity decreased, it was also expected that their self reported levels of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and state anger as measured by the State Trait Anger Inventory would decrease. It is also hypothesized that with a reduction in pain levels, anger, and depression, blood pressure would also decrease among those who had high blood pressure prior to the intervention. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between treatment condition, coherence status and pain levels. A series of independent t-tests were utilized to investigate the change in pain, depression, and state anger from baseline to posttest, followed by Pearson product moment correlation coefficients on difference scores to understand the relationship between the outcome variables for Hypothesis 2. ...
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