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House Conferees: Selection

House Conferees: Selection

Date: February 7, 2003
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Description: A conference committee is composed of a House and a Senate delegation appointed to reconcile the differences between the versions of a measure passed by the two chambers. Congress usually uses a conference committee to resolve such disagreements on the more important, controversial, or complex measures. The members of each chamber’s delegation are known as its conferees or, more formally, “managers.” This report discusses how House conferees are selected.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fast Track for Trade Agreements: Procedural Controls for Congress and Proposed Alternatives

Fast Track for Trade Agreements: Procedural Controls for Congress and Proposed Alternatives

Date: October 31, 1997
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Description: This report discusses the fast track trade procedures in the Trade Act of 1974 operate as procedural rules of the House and Senate, and the statute itself declares them to be enacted as an exercise of the constitutional authority of each house to determine its own rules. These procedures prevent Congress from altering an implementing bill or declining to act, but permit it to enact or reject the bill. By these means Congress retains authority to legislate in the areas covered, yet affords the President conditions for effective negotiation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration

Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration

Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report first sketches the procedures prescribed by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) for congressional action in relation to agreements of this kind, then summarizes legislative proceedings occurring in relation to the proposed agreement with Russia, beginning with its recent submission. Thereafter, the report addresses several questions of the implementation and intent of these statutory requirements that are raised by their application to the proposed agreement with the Russian Federation. Special attention is given to the definition of "days of continuous session" and possible implications of this definition depending on whether or not the requisite period ends before the end of the 110th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Procedures for Considering Changes in Senate Rules

Procedures for Considering Changes in Senate Rules

Date: January 22, 2013
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report discusses procedures and related issues involved in considering changes to Senate rules.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Date: December 2, 2010
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: When Congress seeks to pass a law, it uses a bill or joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval. This report briefly describes this process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind is Used

Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind is Used

Date: January 27, 1999
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Description: This report provides background information regarding the bill and joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills, Resolutions, Nominations, and Treaties: Origins, Deadlines, Requirements, and Uses

Bills, Resolutions, Nominations, and Treaties: Origins, Deadlines, Requirements, and Uses

Date: January 22, 1999
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Description: In addition to bill and/or joint resolution this report presents two other acts of congress; 1) nominations and 2) treaties. It also discusses the characteristics and uses of six different kind of business before Congress, such as designation, origin, deadline for action, requirements for approval, and use.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mandates Information Act: Implications for Congressional Action on Legislation Containing Private Sector Mandates

Mandates Information Act: Implications for Congressional Action on Legislation Containing Private Sector Mandates

Date: May 15, 1998
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mandates Information Act: Action in the 106th Congress

Mandates Information Act: Action in the 106th Congress

Date: February 8, 1999
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Filibusters and Cloture in the Senate

Filibusters and Cloture in the Senate

Date: March 28, 2003
Creator: Beth, Richard S & Bach, Stanley
Description: This report discusses major aspects of Senate procedure related to filibusters and cloture. The two, however, are not always as closely linked in practice as they are in popular conception. Even when opponents of a measure resort to extended debate or other tactics of delay, supporters may not decide to seek cloture (although this situation seems to have been more common in earlier decades than today). In recent times, conversely, the Senate leadership has increasingly utilized cloture as a routine tool to manage the flow of business, even in the absence of any apparent filibuster.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration and Their Implementation

Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration and Their Implementation

Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report sketches the procedures prescribed by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) for congressional action in relation to nuclear cooperation agreements, then summarizes legislative proceedings occurring in relation to the proposed agreement with Russia, beginning with its recent submission. It also addresses several questions regarding the implementation and intent of these statutory requirements related to the proposed agreement with the Russian Federation. Special attention is given to the definition of "days of continuous session" and possible implications of this definition depending on whether or not the requisite period ends before the end of the 110th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Discharge Rule in the House: Principal Features and Uses

The Discharge Rule in the House: Principal Features and Uses

Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report discusses the "discharge rule" of the House of Representatives, which allows a measure to come to the floor for consideration, even if the committee of referral does not report it and the leadership does not schedule it. The rule permits either (1) the committee of referral to be discharged from the measure itself; or (2) the Committee on Rules to be discharged from a special rule for considering the measure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Congressional Review Act and Possible Consolidation into a Single Measure of Resolutions Disapproving Regulations

The Congressional Review Act and Possible Consolidation into a Single Measure of Resolutions Disapproving Regulations

Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report briefly describes the Congressional Review Act (CRA) provisions for disapproval of rules issued in a preceding Congress and considers their implications for congressional action at the beginning of a new presidential administration. This report discusses some procedural means to address the difficulty of CRA requirements for resolutions and disapproval of rules.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration and Their Implementation

Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration and Their Implementation

Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report sketches the procedures prescribed by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) for congressional action in relation to agreements of this kind.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Private Bills: Procedure in the House

Private Bills: Procedure in the House

Date: October 21, 2004
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report briefly discusses private bills, which are bills providing benefits to specified individuals (including corporate bodies). Individuals sometimes request relief through private law when administrative or legal remedies are exhausted, but Congress seems more often to view private legislation as appropriate when no other remedy is available, and when enactment would, in a broad sense, afford equity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report briefly describes the process by which Congress seeks to pass a law. During this process Congress uses a bill or joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, that is then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
How Special Rules Regulate Calling up Measures for Consideration in the House

How Special Rules Regulate Calling up Measures for Consideration in the House

Date: December 5, 2005
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This fact sheet describes how a special rule -- a House resolution that regulates consideration of a specific legislative measure named in the resolution -- may set terms for consideration by Representatives. It includes information about the system of privilege, forms of consideration, and how the rules are used to manage the agenda.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Discharge Rule in the House: Recent Use in Historical Context

The Discharge Rule in the House: Recent Use in Historical Context

Date: April 17, 2003
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report discusses the "discharge rule" of the House of Representatives, which provides a means by which a majority of Members may bring to the floor for consideration a measure that has not been reported from committee.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Disapproval of Regulations by Congress: Procedure Under the Congressional Review Act

Disapproval of Regulations by Congress: Procedure Under the Congressional Review Act

Date: October 10, 2001
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report discusses the Congressional Review Act of 1996, which established expedited (or "fast track") procedures by which Congress may disapprove a broad range of regulatory rules issued by federal agencies by enacting a joint resolution of disapproval. For initial floor consideration, the Act provides an expedited procedure only in the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the House

Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the House

Date: November 5, 2004
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report briefly discusses procedures regarding conference reports in the House of Representatives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Obtaining a Record Vote on the House Floor

Obtaining a Record Vote on the House Floor

Date: December 8, 2006
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: The House of Representatives uses two kinds of votes in which the names and positions of individual Members are recorded: (1) the recorded vote, used chiefly in Committee of the Whole, though also in order in the House, and (2) the yea and nay vote, in order only in the House proper. Both kinds together are referred to as record votes or, more informally, as “roll call votes,” and both are normally taken by electronic device. This report illustrates forms commonly used for obtaining each kind of vote.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Evolution of the Meaning of "Waters of the United States" in the Clean Water Act

Evolution of the Meaning of "Waters of the United States" in the Clean Water Act

Date: August 12, 2016
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report outlines how the Bipartisan Congressional Trade Priorities and Accountability Act of 2015 (BCTPAA) regulates the eligibility of covered trade agreements for expedited consideration, describes the operation of the statutory expedited procedures for considering implementing bills, and discusses how Congress may use the procedural mechanisms established by the act, as well as other pertinent rules of each chamber, to retain a substantial measure of control over legislation to implement covered trade agreements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sessions, Adjournments, and Recesses of Congress

Sessions, Adjournments, and Recesses of Congress

Date: February 27, 2013
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report first describes how pertinent rules and practices regulate the daily sessions of Congress and their adjournments and recesses, including discussion of the "legislative day." It then develops a corresponding discussion for the annual sessions of Congress, which addresses, among other things, the use of "pro forma sessions." The report clarifies certain situations in which terms may simultaneously apply in different ways in relation to the daily session and to the annual session. Finally, the report notes some of the most important implications of the occurrence of sessions, adjournments, and recesses in relation to such matters as presidential action on legislation, recess appointments by the President, the operation of statutory expedited procedures ("fast track" procedures), and "lame duck" (post-election) sessions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2012 (74th-112th Congresses)

Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2012 (74th-112th Congresses)

Date: September 19, 2014
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report discusses how lame duck sessions occur, and the background of the lame duck sessions between 1940 and 2012. A "lame duck" session of Congress occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the term of the current Congress ends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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