A Chart of the Gulf Stream

A Chart of the Gulf Stream

Date: 1786
Creator: Franklin, Benjamin
Description: Map of the Gulf Stream from Florida and the Bahama Islands at lower left of map, up along the coast of North America, and to Newfoundland and the Grand Banks at upper right of map, as charted by Benjamin Franklin. At left side is text describing the journey from Newfoundland west and south along the Atlantic coast. In the text, "Gulf" is spelled "Gulph" Labrador is labeled as "Land of the Eskimaux's". Inset at upper left is a map of the Atlantic Ocean, showing the Gulf Stream.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Newsmap. Monday, July 20, 1942 : week of July 10 to July 17

Newsmap. Monday, July 20, 1942 : week of July 10 to July 17

Date: July 20, 1942
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course
Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Russia, North Africa, Vichy fleet, Atlantic, Madagascar, Jugoslavia, Burma, China. Large world map is keyed to text and illustrates time zones around the world. Includes inset maps: Battle of Midway, Battleground in North Africa, Russian Front. Photographs: U.S. carrier is hit; Somewhere in Australia; Night bloom; Desert daybreak; Taken from Rommel; All-Chinese gun crew; Seagoing tractor on test; Ride through hell. Back: Text and illustrations promote the WEFT (Wing, Engine, Fuselage, Tail) method of aircraft recognition.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Newsmap. Monday, July 27, 1942 : week of July 17 to July 24

Newsmap. Monday, July 27, 1942 : week of July 17 to July 24

Date: July 27, 1942
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course
Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Southwest Pacific, China, Aleutians, Atlantic, North Africa, Western Europe, Russia. Large world map is keyed to text and illustrates time zones around the world. Includes inset maps: China front, Russian front. Includes seven photographs. Back: Photographs show a variety of tanks utilized by the British Army.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Ascension Island hydroacoustic experiment: purpose, data set features and plans for future analysis

The Ascension Island hydroacoustic experiment: purpose, data set features and plans for future analysis

Date: July 23, 1999
Creator: Harben, P E; Rock, D & Rodgers, A J
Description: Calibration of hydroacoustic and T-phase stations for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring will be an important element in establishing new operational stations and upgrading existing stations. Calibration of hydroacoustic stations is herein defined as precision location of the hydrophones and determination of the amplitude response from a known source energy. T-phase station calibration is herein defined as a determination of station site attenuation as a function of frequency, bearing, and distance for known impulsive energy sources in the ocean. To understand how to best conduct calibration experiments for both hydroacoustic and T-phase stations, an experiment was conducted in May, 1999 at Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. The experiment made use of a British oceanographic research vessel and collected data that will be used for CTBT issues and for fundamental understanding of the Ascension Island volcanic edifice.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE

Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE

Date: October 15, 1998
Creator: Weiss, R.F.
Description: All of the technical goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) field program which were supported under the Department of Energy research grant ''Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' (DE-FG03-90ER60981) have been met. This has included the measurement of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide (C0{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in both the surface ocean and the atmosphere on 24 separate shipboard expedition legs of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme. These measurements were made in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans over a six-and-a-half year period, and over a distance of nearly 200,000 kilometers of ship track. The total number of measurements, including ocean measurements, air measurements and standard gas measurements, is about 136,000 for each gas, or about 34,000 measurements of each gas in the ocean and in the air. This global survey effort is directed at obtaining a better understanding of the role of the oceans in the global atmospheric budgets of two important natural and anthropogenic modulators of climate through the ''greenhouse effect'', CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O, and an important natural and anthropogenic modulator of the Earth's protective ozone layer through catalytic processes in the stratosphere, N{sub 2}O. For both ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Carbon 14 measurements in surface water CO{sub 2} from the Atlantic, India, and Pacific Oceans, 1965--1994

Carbon 14 measurements in surface water CO{sub 2} from the Atlantic, India, and Pacific Oceans, 1965--1994

Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Nydal, R.; Brenkert, A.L. & Boden, T.A.
Description: In the 1960s, thermonuclear bomb tests released significant pulses of radioactive carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) into the atmosphere. These major perturbations allowed scientists to study the dynamics of the global carbon cycle by calculating rates of isotope exchange between the atmosphere and ocean waters. A total of 950 ocean surface water observations were made from 1965 through 1994. The measurements were taken at 30 stations in the Atlantic Ocean, 14 stations in the Indian Ocean, and 38 stations in the Pacific Ocean. Thirty-two of the 950 samples were taken in the Atlantic Ocean during the R/V Andenes research cruise. {sup 14}C was measured in 871 of the 950 samples, and those measurements have been corrected ({Delta}{sup 14}C) for isotopic fractionation and radioactive decay. The {Delta}{sup 14}C values range between {minus}113.3 and 280.9 per mille and have a mean value of 101.3 per mille. The highest yearly mean (146.5 per mille) was calculated for 1969, the lowest yearly mean value was calculated for 1990 (67.9 per mille) illustrating a decrease over time. This decrease was to be expected as a result of the ban on atmospheric thermonuclear tests and the slow mixing of the ocean surface waters with the deeper layers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Development and application of the mollusc Arctica islandica as a paleoceanographic tool for the North Atlantic Ocean

Development and application of the mollusc Arctica islandica as a paleoceanographic tool for the North Atlantic Ocean

Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Weidman, C.R.
Description: Until now there has been no tool comparable to corals for reconstructing long term high-resolution geochemical time-series for the colder, higher-latitude oceans. In this thesis, the long-lived (+100 years) boreal mollusc (Bivalvia) Arctica islandica is shown to be practical for this purpose in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. The evidence, compiled here, demonstrates that the carbonate shell of this species faithfully records the ambient dissolved inorganic carbon`s (DIC) radiocarbon ({Delta}{sup 14}C) concentration and accurately reflects the ambient temperature in its stable oxygen isotope ({delta}{sup 18}O) composition. However, the stable carbon isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C) composition of the A. islandica shell likely is not a good recorder of ambient DIC {delta}{sup 13}C, and likely responds to physiological controls. Four {Delta}{sup 14}C time histories are reconstructed from the annual bands of A. islandica shells for the higher-latitudes of the northern North Atlantic Ocean (from 41{degree}N to 70{degree}N).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, March 29 - May 12, 1994)

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, March 29 - May 12, 1994)

Date: May 9, 2002
Creator: Kozyr, A.
Description: This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and the fugacity of CO{sub 2} (fCO{sub 2}) at hydrographic stations during the R/V Meteor oceanographic cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A8). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Recife, Brazil, on March 29, 1994, and ended after 35 days at sea in Walvis Bay, Namibia, on May 12, 1994. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. TCO{sub 2} was measured using two single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMA) coupled to a coulometer for extracting and detecting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}1.17 {micro}mol/kg. For the second carbonate system parameter, the fCO{sub 2} was measured in discrete samples by equilibrating a known volume of liquid phase (seawater) with a known volume of a gas phase containing a known mixture of CO{sub 2} in gaseous nitrogen (N{sub 2}). After equilibration, the gas phase CO{sub 2} concentration was determined by flame ionization detection following the catalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methane (CH{sub 4}). The precision of these measurements was less than or equal to 1.0%. The R/V ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean

Date: June 9, 2000
Creator: Millero, F.J.
Description: This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Hesperides oceanographic cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (Section A5). Conducted as part of the Work Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Cadiz, Spain, on July 14, 1992, and ended in Miami, Florida, on August 15, 1992. Measurements made along WOCE Section A5 included CTD pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen; and bottle salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, TCO{sub 2}, TALK, and pH. The TALK, TCO{sub 2}, and pH were determined from titrations of seawater collected at 33 stations. The titration systems for measuring TALK and TCO{sub 2} were calibrated in the laboratory with certified reference materials (CRMs) before the cruise to ensure traceable results. Standard reference seawater provided by Andrew Dickson of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) was used at sea to monitor the performance of the titration systems. The results agree with the laboratory results to {+-} 2 {micro}mol/kg for TALK and {+-} 1 {micro}mol/kg for TCO{sub 2}. The titration systems used to measure pH were calibrated with TRIS seawater buffers prepared in the laboratory and measured with an H{sub ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Comparison of Inorganic Carbon System Parameters Measured in the Atlantic Ocean from 1990 to 1998 and Recommended Adjustments

Comparison of Inorganic Carbon System Parameters Measured in the Atlantic Ocean from 1990 to 1998 and Recommended Adjustments

Date: May 21, 2003
Creator: Wanninkhof, R.
Description: As part of the global synthesis effort sponsored by the Global Carbon Cycle project of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and U.S. Department of Energy, a comprehensive comparison was performed of inorganic carbon parameters measured on oceanographic surveys carried out under auspices of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and related programs. Many of the cruises were performed as part of the World Hydrographic Program of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and the NOAA Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study. Total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TAlk), fugacity of CO{sub 2}, and pH data from twenty-three cruises were checked to determine whether there were systematic offsets of these parameters between cruises. The focus was on the DIC and TAlk state variables. Data quality and offsets of DIC and TAlk were determined by using several different techniques. One approach was based on crossover analyses, where the deep-water concentrations of DIC and TAlk were compared for stations on different cruises that were within 100 km of each other. Regional comparisons were also made by using a multiple-parameter linear regression technique in which DIC or TAlk was regressed against hydrographic and nutrient parameters. When offsets of greater than 4 {micro}mol/kg were observed ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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