Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues

Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues

Date: February 7, 2005
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events.
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Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues

Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues

Date: October 20, 2005
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues

Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues

Date: November 16, 2001
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues

Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues

Date: April 29, 2002
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Role of fly ash in heavy metal removal from flue gas. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

Role of fly ash in heavy metal removal from flue gas. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Bavarian, F.; Mahuli, S.; Ghosh-Dastidar, A.; Agnihotri, R. & Fan, Liang-Shih
Description: The work is mainly focused towards investigating the sorption phenomena of a representative chalcophile, arsenic (As) species, on fly ashes at temperatures representative of the upper-furnace region (850 -1200{degrees}C) and the economizer section (375-600{degrees}C). Arsenic is chosen because it is a highly toxic chalcophile and shows some affinity for fly ash but is also emitted from the stack as vapor and aerosol particles. Based on the preliminary thermodynamic analyses it was determined that under the temperature ranges of interest (400- 600{degrees}C and 800-1000{degrees}C) arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is the main arsenic species in the flue gas environment. The two temperature zones have been chosen because most of the dry-sorbent injection technologies are being developed for application in these two regions. Also various fly ash samples from different sources are being studied because their chemical composition and subsequently their chemical sorption characteristics would show a great deal of variation depending on their source. Studies were also conducted with calcium hydroxide as the chosen representative dry sorbent. This served as comparative studies between fly ash and dry sorbents. This will enable us to predict the behavior of arsenic when exposed to both fly ash and sorbent which is the case under ...
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Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

Date: February 8, 2000
Creator: U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office
Description: This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for ...
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Role of fly ash in heavy metal removal from flue gas. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Role of fly ash in heavy metal removal from flue gas. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Bavarian, F.; Mahuli, S.; Ghosh-Dastidar, A.; Agnihotri, R. & Fan, L.S.
Description: The primary objective of this work is to study the fundamental phenomena involved in the sorption of trace chalcophilic elements by fly ash at high and medium temperatures. Chalcophiles are the low-boiling trace elements that are volatilized during pulverized coal combustion and are transferred to the gas phase, e.g., As, Pb, Cd and Se. The main focus of this work is investigating the sorption phenomena of a representative chalcophile, arsenic (As) on fly ashes at temperatures representative of the upper-furnace region (850--1200{degree}C) and the economizer section (375--600{degree}C). Arsenic is chosen because it is a highly toxic chalcophile and shows some affinity for fly ash but is also emitted from the stack as vapor and aerosol particles. The two temperature zones have been chosen because most of the dry-sorbent injection technologies are being developed for application in these two regions. Also, various fly ash samples from different sources are being studied because their chemical composition and subsequently their chemical sorption characteristics would show a great deal of variation depending on their source. In the first year of this project, it was proposed to conduct isothermal sorption experiments in a differential reactor system. The first year`s work was divided into two phases; ...
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Ohio Coal Research Consortium fourth year final summary report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Ohio Coal Research Consortium fourth year final summary report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: unknown
Description: As a part of its efforts to improve the use of high-sulfur Ohio coal within environmental limits, the Ohio Coal Development Office, an entity within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO/ODOD), in late 1988 established a consortium of four Ohio universities. The purpose of the Ohio Coal Research Consortium is to conduct a multi-year fundamental research program focused on (1) the enhancement or development of dry sorption processes for the economical removal of high levels of SO{sub 2} and other pollutants and (2) an increased understanding of methods for reduction in air toxics emissions from combustion gases produced by burning high-sulfur Ohio coal. This report contains summaries of twelve studies in these areas.
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Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Waste Remediation Activities at Elk Hills (Former Naval petroleum Reserve No. 1), Kern County, California

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Waste Remediation Activities at Elk Hills (Former Naval petroleum Reserve No. 1), Kern County, California

Date: December 17, 1999
Creator: /A, N
Description: DOE proposes to conduct a variety of post-sale site remediation activities, such as characterization, assessment, clean-up, and formal closure, at a number of inactive waste sites located at Elk Hills. The proposed post-sale site remediation activities, which would be conducted primarily in developed portions of the oil field, currently are expected to include clean-up of three basic categories of waste sites: (1) nonhazardous solid waste surface trash scatters, (2) produced wastewater sumps, and (3) small solid waste landfills. Additionally, a limited number of other inactive waste sites, which cannot be typified under any of these three categories, have been identified as requiring remediation. Table 2.1-1 presents a summary, organized by waste site category, of the inactive waste sites that require remediation per the PSA, the ASA, and/or the UPCTA. The majority of these sites are known to contain no hazardous waste. However, one of the surface scatter sites (2G) contains an area of burn ash with hazardous levels of lead and zinc, another surface scatter site (25S) contains an area with hazardous levels of lead, a produced wastewater sump site (23S) and a landfill (42-36S) are known to contain hazardous levels of arsenic, and some sites have not yet been ...
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USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS

USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS

Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Bostick, Dr. William D.
Description: Groundwater at many Federal and civilian industrial sites is often contaminated with toxic metals at levels that present a potential concern to regulatory agencies. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has some unique problems associated with radionuclides (primarily uranium), but metal contaminants most likely drive risk-based cleanup decisions, from the perspective of human health, in groundwater at DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Sites include lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Thus, the regulatory ''drivers'' for toxic metals in contaminated soils/groundwaters are very comparable for Federal and civilian industrial sites, and most sites have more than one metal above regulatory action limits. Thus improving the performance of remedial technologies for metal-contaminated groundwater will have ''dual use'' (Federal and civilian) benefit.
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Fundamental Studies of The Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters Via Reduction By Zero-Valent metals

Fundamental Studies of The Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters Via Reduction By Zero-Valent metals

Date: April 23, 2002
Creator: Yarmoff, Jory A. & Amrhein, Christopher
Description: Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites, and in other areas of the U.S.. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant compounds with Fe filings and single- and poly-crystalline surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop the physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures.
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Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes

Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes

Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Dhooge, P.M.
Description: Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The over all objective of the effort described here is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of these multi-component wastes, with the aim of providing a versatile, non-thermal method which will destroy hazardous organic compounds while simultaneously containing and concentrating toxic and radioactive metals for recovery or disposal in a readily stabilized matrix. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. The metal catalysts are in the form of salts dissolved in a dilute acid solution. A typical catalyst composition is 60% ferric chloride, 3--4% hydrochloric acid, 0.13% platinum ions, and 0.13% ruthenium ions in a water solution. The catalyst solution is maintained at 423--473 K. Wastes are introduced into contact with the solution, where their organic portion is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. If the organic portion is chlorinated, hydrogen chloride will be produced as a product. The process is a viable alternative to ...
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Trace element emissions. Semi-annual report, October 1994--February 1995

Trace element emissions. Semi-annual report, October 1994--February 1995

Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Pigeaud, A.; Maru, H.; Wilemski, G. & Helble, J.
Description: Many trace elements can exist in raw coal gas either in the form of metallic vapors or gaseous compounds which, besides their action on potentially ``very clean`` advanced power generating systems such as fuel cells and gas turbines, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when released into the atmosphere. Therefore, volatile trace contaminants from coal which can also be toxic must be removed before they become detrimental to both power plant performance/endurance and the environment. Five trace elements were selected in this project based on: abundance in solid coal, volatility during gasification, effects on downstream systems and toxicity to plant and animal life. An understanding was sought in this investigation of the interactions of these five trace elements (and their high temperature species) with the different components in integrated cleanup and power generating systems, as well as the ultimate effects with respect to atmospheric emissions. Utilizing thermodynamic calculations and various experimental techniques, it was determined that a number of trace contaminants that exist in coal may be substantially removed by flyash, and after that by different sorbent systems. High temperature cleanup of contaminants by sorbents such as zinc titanate, primarily to remove sulfur, can also absorb some ...
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Trace elements in coal: Modes of occurrence analysis. Technical progress report, October 5, 1995--March 31, 1996

Trace elements in coal: Modes of occurrence analysis. Technical progress report, October 5, 1995--March 31, 1996

Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Palmer, C.A.; Findelman, R.B.; Belkin, H.E. & Crowley, S.S.
Description: CQ, Inc. proposed to quantify the relationship between the modes of occurrence of twelve trace hazardous air pollutants (HAP`s) elements in coal and the degree that each element can be removed by existing and advanced physical and chemical coal cleaning processes. They also proposed to investigate new chemical and biological trace element removal processes, and estimate the concentration and stability of trace elements in coal preparation plant tailings. The ultimate goal of this effort is to produce a software tool that will predict the most amenable integration of processes for select trace element emissions control. In support of this effort, the USGS is performing trace element modes of occurrence analyses on coal samples provided by CQ, Inc. The objective of this work to determine the modes of occurrence of as many as twelve trace HAP`s elements in coal. The HAP`s elements can occur in coal in numerous forms. For example, antimony is generally thought to be present in pyrite, accessory sulfides such as stibnite, and possible organically bound; arsenic is primarily associated with late-stage (epigenetic) pyrite; cadmium with sphalerite; chromium may be organically bound, associated with clays, or contained in chromium-bearing mineral; mercury is thought to occur predominately in epigenetic ...
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Stabilization and reuse of heavy metal contaminated soils by means of quicklime sulfate salt treatment. Final report, September 1992--February 1995

Stabilization and reuse of heavy metal contaminated soils by means of quicklime sulfate salt treatment. Final report, September 1992--February 1995

Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Dermatas, D.
Description: Capillary and hydraulic flows of water in porous media contaminated by heavy metal species often result in severe aquifer contamination. In the present study a chemical admixture stabilization approach is proposed, where heavy metal stabilization/immobilization is achieved by means of quicklime-based treatment. Both in-situ treatment by injection and on-site stabilization by excavation, mixing, and compaction will be investigated. In addition, the potential to reuse the resulting stabilized material as readily available construction material will also be investigated. The heavy metals under study include: arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury. The proposed technical approach consists of three separate phases. During phase A, both artificial and naturally occurring contaminated soil mixes were treated, and then tested for stress-strain properties, leachability, micromorphology, mineralogical composition, permeability, setting time, and durability. In such a way, the effectiveness of the proposed remediation technology was verified, the treatment approach was optimized, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for stabilization were established. During phase B, the proposed technology will be tested for two DOE-site subscale systems, involving naturally occurring contaminated soil, using the same testing methodology as the one outlined for phase A. Provided that the proposed technology is proven effective for the subscale systems, a field application will be ...
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Physics group progress report, August 1--31, 1948

Physics group progress report, August 1--31, 1948

Date: December 31, 1948
Creator: Knauss, H.P.
Description: The vapor pressure of tellurium was measured at 31 pressures between 1.15 and 160.8 mm of mercury. The vapor pressure of postum was measured at 31 pressures between 4.79 and 162.4 mm of mercury.
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Technical change to the work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi: Sampling and analysis plan background soil and groundwater study

Technical change to the work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi: Sampling and analysis plan background soil and groundwater study

Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: unknown
Description: The Salmon Site, formerly known as the Tatum Dome Test Site, is located in south-central Mississippi, southwest of the city of Hattiesburg, in Lamar County. Between 1964 and 1970, two nuclear and two non-nuclear gas explosions were conducted deep underground in the Tatum Salt Dome beneath the site. The tests were performed as part of the former US Atomic Energy Commission`s Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the United States` capability to detect underground nuclear explosions. This document details technical changes to the existing work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site. A previously conducted Remedial Investigation for the Salmon Site involved the preparation of ecological and human health risk assessments. These risk assessments, which are incorporated into the Remedial Investigation Report, identified several constituents of potential concern (COPC) that could potentially have a negative impact on ecological and human health. These COPC are the primary risk drivers for the Salmon Site; they include arsenic and naturally occurring, gamma-emitting radionuclides. If it can be demonstrated that similar concentrations of these COPCs occur naturally in surrounding areas, they can be removed from consideration in the risk assessments. The purpose of this sampling effort is to collect enough ...
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Trace Elements in Coal - Modes of Ocurrence Analysis.

Trace Elements in Coal - Modes of Ocurrence Analysis.

Date: July 24, 1997
Creator: Palmer, C. A.; Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R. B.; Kolb, K. C.; Mroozkowski, S. J.; Crowley, S. S. et al.
Description: The objective is to provide modes of occurrence information for the CQ Inc. (CQ) effort being performed under DOE Contract entitled HAPs-Rx: Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors. This work attempts to provide semi-quantative date on modes of occurrence of 15 elements. Coals investigated include as-mined coals and cleaned fines from the Northern Appalachian and Southern Application, and Eastern Interior regions, and as-mined and natural fines from the Powder River Basin. Study techniques include scanning electron microscopy, electron micropole analysis, and leaching procedures. Microprobe data analysis indicate that pyrite grains in Northern Appalachian and Eastern Interior, and Powder River Basin coals and most of the pyrite grains of the Southern Appalachian coal contain low As concentrations, generally in the 100-500 ppm range. However, the Southern Appalachian coal contains some pyrite grains with much higher As contents, in excess of 4.0 wt. percent As. Micropole analyses and data from leaching experiments indicate that arsenic is primarily associated with pyrite in the bituminous coals. These techniques also indicate that Cr is primarily associated with illite. Other HAP`s elements have multiple associations.
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Trace metal transformation in gasification

Trace metal transformation in gasification

Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; Allen, S.E. et al.
Description: The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to 1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, 2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and 3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.
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Portable sensor for hazardous waste. Final report, March 31, 1995--May 31, 1997

Portable sensor for hazardous waste. Final report, March 31, 1995--May 31, 1997

Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.H. & Finson, M.L.
Description: This report summarizes accomplishments for the second phase of a 5-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The approach is to excite atomic fluorescence by the technique of Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (SIBS). The principal goals for this second phase of the program were to demonstrate sensitive detection of additional species, both RCRA metals (Sb, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, As, Hg) and radionuclides (U, Th, Tc); to identify potential applications and develop instrument component processes, including, sample collection and excitation, measurement and test procedures, and calibration procedures; and to design a prototype instrument. Successful completion of these task results in being able to fabricate and field test a prototype of the instrument during the program`s third phase.
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Toxic Substances from Coal Combustion: A Comprehensive Assessment: Quarterly report, 1 July 1996-30 September 1996

Toxic Substances from Coal Combustion: A Comprehensive Assessment: Quarterly report, 1 July 1996-30 September 1996

Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Bool, L.E.; Senior, C.L.; Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Wendt, J.O.L. et al.
Description: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UKy), the University of Connecticut, and Princeton University to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO{sub x}, combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI`s existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). Extensive coal characterization and laboratory work has begun in order to develop and test new sub-models. Trace element concentrations in the Pittsburgh, Elkhorn/Hazard, and Illinois No. 6 coals, and in size/density fractions of these coals, were completed. Coal characterization in the past quarter also included direct ...
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Toxic substances from coal combustion -- A comprehensive assessment. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Toxic substances from coal combustion -- A comprehensive assessment. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Date: January 31, 1997
Creator: Bool, L.E. III; Senior, C.L.; Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.P. & Shah, N.
Description: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UKy), the University of Connecticut, and Princeton University to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI`s existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). During the past quarter the final program coal, from the Wyodak seam in the Powder River Basin, was acquired and distributed. Extensive coal characterization and laboratory work is underway to develop and test new sub-models. Coal characterization in the past quarter included direct identification of the modes of ...
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Toxic substances from coal combustion -- a comprehensive assessment. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1996--30 June 1996

Toxic substances from coal combustion -- a comprehensive assessment. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1996--30 June 1996

Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Bool, L.E. III; Senior, C.L.; Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.P. & Shah, N.
Description: Before electric utilities can plan or implement emissions minimization strategies for hazardous pollutants, they must have an accurate and site-specific means of predicting emissions in all effluent streams for the broad range of fuels and operating conditions commonly utilized. Development of a broadly applicable emissions model useful to utility planners first requires a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion (specifically in Phase I, As, Se, Cr, and possibly Hg). PSI Technologies (PSIT) and its team members will achieve this objective through the development of an {open_quotes}Engineering Model{close_quotes} that accurately predicts the formation and partitioning of toxic species as a result of coal combustion. The {open_quotes}Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model{close_quotes} (ToPEM) will be applicable to all conditions including new fuels or blends, low-NO{sub x} combustion systems, and new power systems being advanced by DOE in the Combustion 2000 program. This report describes the mineralogy and chemical analysis of bituminous coal samples.
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Toxic substances from coal combustion - forms of occurrence analyses. Progress report, April 30, 1996 - November 1, 1996

Toxic substances from coal combustion - forms of occurrence analyses. Progress report, April 30, 1996 - November 1, 1996

Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Crowley, S.S.; Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.B.; Kolb, K.C. & Belkin, H.E.
Description: The Pittsburgh, Elkhorn/Hazard, and Illinois No. 6 program coals have been examined to determine the mode of occurrence of selected trace elements using scanning electron microscopy, microprobe analysis, and experimental leaching procedures. Preliminary microprobe data indicates that the arsenic content of pyrite grains in the Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh coals is similar. Pyrite grains observed in the Elkhorn/Hazard coal generally have arsenic concentrations that are slightly higher than those of the Pittsburgh or Illinois No. 6 coals. One pyrite grain observed in the Elkhorn.Hazard coal contained much higher levels of arsenic. Preliminary microprobe analysis and data from leaching experiments indicate the association of arsenic with pyrite in the Pittsburgh and Illinois No. 6 coals. Leaching data fore arsenic in the Elkhorn/Hazard coal, in contrast, is inconclusive and additional data are needed before a definite determination can be made.
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