The Hexagon, Volume 97, Number 2, Summer 2006

The Hexagon, Volume 97, Number 2, Summer 2006

Date: Summer 2006
Creator: Alpha Chi Sigma
Description: Quarterly publication of the Alpha Chi Sigma chemistry fraternity containing articles related to chemistry research and the activities of the organization, including local chapters and groups.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum

Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum

Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Technologies, ASME Technical Working Group on Inert Anode
Description: This report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issued associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint. It discusses the outlook for the direct retrofit of advanced reduction technologies to existing aluminum smelters, and compares retrofits to ''brown field'' usage and ''green field'' adoption of the technologies. A number of observations and recommendations are offered for consideration concerning further research and development efforts that may be directed toward these advanced technologies. The opportunities are discussed in the context of incremental progress that is being made in conventional Hall-Heroult cell systems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

Date: December 30, 1999
Creator: Christini, R. A.
Description: A cermet anode that produces oxygen and a cathode material that is wetted by aluminum can provide a dimensionally stable inter-electrode distance in the Hall-Heroult cell. This can be used to greatly improve the energy and/or productivity efficiencies. The concept, which was developed and tested, uses a system of vertically interleaved anodes and cathodes. The major advantage of this concept is the significant increase in electrochemical surface area compared to a horizontal orientation of anode and cathode that is presently used in the Hall-Heroult process. This creates an additional advantage for energy reduction of 1.3 kWh/lb or a 20% productivity improvement. The voltages obtained in an optimized cell test met the energy objectives of the project for at least two weeks. An acceptable current efficiency was never proven, however, during either pilot scale or bench scale tests with the vertical plate configuration. This must be done before a vertical cell can be considered viab le. Anode corrosion rate must be reduced by at least a factor of three in order to produce commercial purity aluminum. It is recommended that extensive theoretical and bench scale investigations be done to improve anode materials and to demonstrate acceptable current efficiencies in a vertical ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Rediscovery of the Elements: Aluminum

Rediscovery of the Elements: Aluminum

Date: Summer 2006
Creator: Marshall, James L., 1940- & Marshall, Virginia R.
Description: Article describing the history of aluminum, from its use in alum to its isolation. Tourist information is given regarding locations pertinent to aluminum.
Contributing Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences
Final Technical Progress Report

Final Technical Progress Report

Date: December 31, 2002
Creator: Hwang, J.Y. & Greenlund, R.C.
Description: Michigan Technological University has demonstrated major inroads in establishing the viability of utilizing aluminum smelting by-product waste materials in lightweight concrete product applications. The research identified key elements of producing various forms of lightweight concrete products through utilizing various procedures and mixture components with the by-product materials. A process was developed through pilot plant testing that results in additional aluminum recovery at finer sizes, a clean returnable salt product through spray drying technology, and a low-salt-content oxide product with enough aluminum metal content that it can be used to form lightweight cementitious mixtures. Having three distinct products aids in generating favorable process economics. Revenue projections from aluminum recovery and salt recovery are enough to cover processing costs and create a cost-free oxide product to market for lightweight concrete applications. This supply side commercialization strategy offers aluminum by-product recyclers a potentially no cost product, which has been demonstrated through this project to create desirable and marketable lightweight concrete products of various forms. Environmental benefits to the public are tremendous. At best, all dross and salt cake materials have the potential to be completely recycled and utilized. At worst, disposal sites would see a reduced amount of material: a post processed oxide ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Textures in Strip-Cast Aluminum Alloys: Their On-Line Monitoring and Quantitative Effects on Formability. Final Technical Report

Textures in Strip-Cast Aluminum Alloys: Their On-Line Monitoring and Quantitative Effects on Formability. Final Technical Report

Date: July 27, 2003
Creator: Man, Chi-Sing
Description: Aluminum sheets produced by continuous casting (CC) provide energy and economic savings of at least 25 and 14 percent, respectively, over sheets made from conventional direct chill (DC) ingot casting and rolling. As a result of the much simpler production route in continuous casting, however, the formability of CC aluminum alloys is often somewhat inferior to that of their DC counterparts. The mechanical properties of CC alloys can be improved by controlling their microstructure through optimal thermomechanical processing. Suitable annealing is an important means to improve the formability of CC aluminum alloy sheets. Recrystallization of deformed grains occurs during annealing, and it changes the crystallographic texture of the aluminum sheet. Laboratory tests in this project showed that this texture change can be detected by either laser-ultrasound resonance spectroscopy or resonance EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) spectroscopy, and that monitoring this change allows the degree of recrystallization or the ''recrystallized fraction'' in an annealed sheet to be ascertained. Through a plant trial conducted in May 2002, this project further demonstrated that it is feasible to monitor the recrystallized state of a continuous-cast aluminum sheet in-situ on the production line by using a laser-ultrasound sensor. When used in conjunction with inline annealing, inline ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Assessment of Recycled Refractory Material Performance After Two Years of Service in a Carbon Bake Furnace

An Assessment of Recycled Refractory Material Performance After Two Years of Service in a Carbon Bake Furnace

Date: October 27, 1999
Creator: Schubert, N.; Bennett, J.P. & Kwong, K.S.
Description: Material removed from carbon bake furnaces used to manufacture anodes for the production of aluminum metal has historically been disposed by landfill. This material is composed primarily of 50% alumina refractory. in 1997, Alcoa completed a highly successful program to reuse the spent refractories in castables for carbon bake furnace headwalls and flooring, as roadbed aggregate, and in other internal applications. This program recycled/reused 11,000 metric tons of used refractory material (99% of the material removed from the carbon bake furnace) and saved Alcoa over 3.8 of the 9.6 million dollar projected furnace rebuild costs. As assessment is made of the performance of the recycled refractory components after two years of service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency

Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency

Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Cowie, John G.; Edwin F. Brush, Jr.; Peters, Dale T.; Midson, Stephen P. & Son, Darryl J. Van
Description: The objective of the study, Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency, was to support the Copper Development Association (CDA) in its effort to design, fabricate and demonstrate mold technologies designed to withstand the copper motor rotor die casting environment for an economically acceptable life. The anticipated result from the compiled data and tests were to: (1) identify materials suitable for die casting copper, (2) fabricate motor rotor molds and (3) supply copper rotor motors for testing in actual compressor systems. Compressor manufacturers can apply the results to assess the technical and economical viability of copper rotor motors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

Date: January 30, 2002
Creator: Schwam, David; Wallace, John F. & Zhou, Quanyou
Description: An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cast Metal Coalition Research and Development Closeout Report

Cast Metal Coalition Research and Development Closeout Report

Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Allen, D.
Description: The Cast Metal Coalition, composed of more than 22 research providers and universities and 149 industrial partners, has completed a four-year research and development partnership with the Department of Energy. This report provides brief summaries of the 29 projects performed by the Coalition. These projects generated valuable information in such aspects of the metals industry as process prediction technologies, quality control, improved alloys, product machinability, and casting process improvements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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