The Hexagon, Volume 97, Number 2, Summer 2006

The Hexagon, Volume 97, Number 2, Summer 2006

Date: Summer 2006
Creator: Alpha Chi Sigma
Description: Quarterly publication of the Alpha Chi Sigma chemistry fraternity containing articles related to chemistry research and the activities of the organization, including local chapters and groups.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum

Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum

Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Technologies, ASME Technical Working Group on Inert Anode
Description: This report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issued associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint. It discusses the outlook for the direct retrofit of advanced reduction technologies to existing aluminum smelters, and compares retrofits to ''brown field'' usage and ''green field'' adoption of the technologies. A number of observations and recommendations are offered for consideration concerning further research and development efforts that may be directed toward these advanced technologies. The opportunities are discussed in the context of incremental progress that is being made in conventional Hall-Heroult cell systems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Rediscovery of the Elements: Aluminum

Rediscovery of the Elements: Aluminum

Date: Summer 2006
Creator: Marshall, James L., 1940- & Marshall, Virginia R.
Description: Article describing the history of aluminum, from its use in alum to its isolation. Tourist information is given regarding locations pertinent to aluminum.
Contributing Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences
Final Technical Progress Report

Final Technical Progress Report

Date: December 31, 2002
Creator: Hwang, J.Y. & Greenlund, R.C.
Description: Michigan Technological University has demonstrated major inroads in establishing the viability of utilizing aluminum smelting by-product waste materials in lightweight concrete product applications. The research identified key elements of producing various forms of lightweight concrete products through utilizing various procedures and mixture components with the by-product materials. A process was developed through pilot plant testing that results in additional aluminum recovery at finer sizes, a clean returnable salt product through spray drying technology, and a low-salt-content oxide product with enough aluminum metal content that it can be used to form lightweight cementitious mixtures. Having three distinct products aids in generating favorable process economics. Revenue projections from aluminum recovery and salt recovery are enough to cover processing costs and create a cost-free oxide product to market for lightweight concrete applications. This supply side commercialization strategy offers aluminum by-product recyclers a potentially no cost product, which has been demonstrated through this project to create desirable and marketable lightweight concrete products of various forms. Environmental benefits to the public are tremendous. At best, all dross and salt cake materials have the potential to be completely recycled and utilized. At worst, disposal sites would see a reduced amount of material: a post processed oxide ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Textures in Strip-Cast Aluminum Alloys: Their On-Line Monitoring and Quantitative Effects on Formability. Final Technical Report

Textures in Strip-Cast Aluminum Alloys: Their On-Line Monitoring and Quantitative Effects on Formability. Final Technical Report

Date: July 27, 2003
Creator: Man, Chi-Sing
Description: Aluminum sheets produced by continuous casting (CC) provide energy and economic savings of at least 25 and 14 percent, respectively, over sheets made from conventional direct chill (DC) ingot casting and rolling. As a result of the much simpler production route in continuous casting, however, the formability of CC aluminum alloys is often somewhat inferior to that of their DC counterparts. The mechanical properties of CC alloys can be improved by controlling their microstructure through optimal thermomechanical processing. Suitable annealing is an important means to improve the formability of CC aluminum alloy sheets. Recrystallization of deformed grains occurs during annealing, and it changes the crystallographic texture of the aluminum sheet. Laboratory tests in this project showed that this texture change can be detected by either laser-ultrasound resonance spectroscopy or resonance EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) spectroscopy, and that monitoring this change allows the degree of recrystallization or the ''recrystallized fraction'' in an annealed sheet to be ascertained. Through a plant trial conducted in May 2002, this project further demonstrated that it is feasible to monitor the recrystallized state of a continuous-cast aluminum sheet in-situ on the production line by using a laser-ultrasound sensor. When used in conjunction with inline annealing, inline ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Assessment of Recycled Refractory Material Performance After Two Years of Service in a Carbon Bake Furnace

An Assessment of Recycled Refractory Material Performance After Two Years of Service in a Carbon Bake Furnace

Date: October 27, 1999
Creator: Schubert, N.; Bennett, J.P. & Kwong, K.S.
Description: Material removed from carbon bake furnaces used to manufacture anodes for the production of aluminum metal has historically been disposed by landfill. This material is composed primarily of 50% alumina refractory. in 1997, Alcoa completed a highly successful program to reuse the spent refractories in castables for carbon bake furnace headwalls and flooring, as roadbed aggregate, and in other internal applications. This program recycled/reused 11,000 metric tons of used refractory material (99% of the material removed from the carbon bake furnace) and saved Alcoa over 3.8 of the 9.6 million dollar projected furnace rebuild costs. As assessment is made of the performance of the recycled refractory components after two years of service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

Date: January 30, 2002
Creator: Schwam, David; Wallace, John F. & Zhou, Quanyou
Description: An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cast Metal Coalition Research and Development Closeout Report

Cast Metal Coalition Research and Development Closeout Report

Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Allen, D.
Description: The Cast Metal Coalition, composed of more than 22 research providers and universities and 149 industrial partners, has completed a four-year research and development partnership with the Department of Energy. This report provides brief summaries of the 29 projects performed by the Coalition. These projects generated valuable information in such aspects of the metals industry as process prediction technologies, quality control, improved alloys, product machinability, and casting process improvements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Effect of Silicon and Aluminum Additions on the Oxidation Resistance of Lean Chromium Stainless Steels

The Effect of Silicon and Aluminum Additions on the Oxidation Resistance of Lean Chromium Stainless Steels

Date: September 2001
Creator: Dunning, J. S.; Alman, D. E. & Rawers, J. C.
Description: The effect of Si and Al additions on the oxidation of lean chromium austenitic stainless steels has been studied. A baseline composition of Fe-16Cr-16Ni-2Mn-1Mo was selected to allow combined Si and Al additions of up to 5 wt. pct. in a fully austenitic alloy. The baseline composition was selected using a net Cr equivalent equation to predict the onset of G-ferrite formation in austenite. Cyclic oxidation tests in air for 1000 hours were carried out on alloys with Si only or combined Si and Al additions in the temperature range 700 C to 800 C. Oxidation resistance of alloys with Si only additions were outstanding, particularly at 800 C. It was evident that different rate controlling mechanisms for oxidation were operative at 700 C and 800 C in the Si alloys. In addition, Si alloys pre-oxidized at 800 C, showed a zero weight gain in subsequent testing for 1000 hours at 700 C. The rate controlling mechanism in alloys with combined Si and Al addition for oxidation at 800 C was also different than alloys with Si only. SEM and ESCA analysis of the oxide films and base material at the oxide/base metal interface were conducted to study potential rate ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Laser Cutting and Size Reduction. Innovative Technology Summary Report

Laser Cutting and Size Reduction. Innovative Technology Summary Report

Date: September 2001
Creator: unknown
Description: The project utilizes a Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to cut and size reduce equipment in the 324 Laboratory B Hot Cell located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This project will demonstrate the ability of the Nd:Yag laser to remotely and safely dismantle equipment faster, cheaper, and more efficiently than baseline cutting methods, such as the plasma torch and the water knife, in a highly radioactive area using fiber optics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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