Symbolic visuals in advertising: The role of relevance.

Symbolic visuals in advertising: The role of relevance.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Holmes, Gary R.
Description: Relevance has been applied to various conditions in the marketing literature but no single definition has been developed. A single clear definition will be helpful to researchers investigating relevance in the marketing and consumer behavior fields. Confusion also exists in the literature regarding to what extent a symbolic visual in an advertisement is relevant. Many researchers are also calling for empirical evidence of a linkage between relevance and response through a theoretical measure of relevance. The central theory used in this dissertation is Sperber and Wilson's (1995) theory of relevance (TOR). TOR can help researchers and marketing managers by explaining how consumers may interpret visuals in advertising. TOR explains why some visuals thought to be unconnected with the product become relevant in advertising. This study makes the assertion that TOR has been underutilized and even ignored by some researchers in past marketing literature. Thus, TOR is used to provide greater explanatory power of consumers' interpretation and response to advertising visuals than what is currently realized by researchers and marketing managers. A reliable measure of relevance was developed using TOR as a foundation. Experiments were conducted to empirically test TOR and support was found for most aspects of the theory. This ...
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Stereotypes in Retail Print Advertising: The Effects of Gender and Physical Appearance on Consumer Perceptions

Stereotypes in Retail Print Advertising: The Effects of Gender and Physical Appearance on Consumer Perceptions

Date: December 2001
Creator: Allen, Charlotte
Description: The retail sector spends millions of dollars each year advertising to consumers. This is a considerable investment for companies seeking effective ways to inform and persuade the consumer. Consequently, retailers need to develop creative message strategies and tactics that will positively affect consumer attitudes. One particular tactic available to retailers is the use of a spokesperson in the advertisement. Salespersons are used in numerous advertisements and can provide key benefits to an advertiser. However, to maximize these benefits, retailers need to carefully select the spokesperson that will be most effective for their store and product. This purpose of this research is to examine the characteristics that influence consumers' perceptions of print advertisements that include a spokesperson in the advertisement. Most of the past literature concerning spokespersons has concentrated on the consumer perspective of meeting and interacting with a living, breathing person. This research seeks to use the past research on salespeople to examine the spokesperson as a cue in a print advertisement. In this perspective, the consumer views the spokesperson from a visual-only perspective. The proposed experiment will utilize print advertisements from two retail businesses. More specifically the study will investigate how consumers react if the individual viewed in the ...
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N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1903, Volume 2

N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1903, Volume 2

Date: 1903
Creator: N. W. Ayer & Son
Description: American Newspaper Annual contains lists of newspaper publications (listed by counties) with census information, natural features and chief products. Volume 2 of 3. Additional information includes how to obtain an estimate, list of abbreviations, and class publications. Index to Newspaper Advertisements begins on page 1622, in Volume 3. Index to Advertisements of Bill Posters, Engravers, Lithographers & Printers, Typewriters, Type and Electrotype Foundries begins on page 1626, in Volume 3.
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N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1900, Volume 1

N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1900, Volume 1

Date: 1900
Creator: N. W. Ayer & Son
Description: American Newspaper Annual contains lists of newspaper publications (listed by counties) with census information, natural features and chief products. Continued in Volumes 2 and 3. Additional information includes how to obtain an estimate, list of abbreviations, and class publications. Index to Advertisements begins on page 1551, in Volume 3.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1904, Volume 2

N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1904, Volume 2

Date: 1904
Creator: N. W. Ayer & Son
Description: American Newspaper Annual contains lists of newspaper publications (listed by counties) with census information, natural features and chief products. Volume 2 of 2. Additional information includes how to obtain an estimate, list of abbreviations, and class publications. Index to Newspaper Advertisements begins on page 1467. Index to Advertisements of Engravers, Lithographers and Printers, Ink Manufacturers, Type and Electrotype Foundries begins on page 1644.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual and Directory: A Catalogue of American Newspapers, 1917, Volume 2

N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual and Directory: A Catalogue of American Newspapers, 1917, Volume 2

Date: 1917
Creator: N. W. Ayer & Son
Description: American Newspaper Annual and Directory contains lists of newspaper publications (listed by counties) with census information, natural features and chief products. Volume 2 of 2. Additional information includes class and trade publications and maps. Index to Class and Trade Publications begins on page 1213. Includes 30 page Mid-Year Supplement to Annual and Directory with changes to listings.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1881

N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1881

Date: 1881
Creator: N. W. Ayer & Son
Description: American Newspaper Annual contains lists of newspaper publications (listed by counties) with census information, natural features and chief products. Additional information includes how to obtain an estimate, table of abbreviations, and class publications. Alphabetical Index (to states and Canadian provinces) starts on page 10; Index to Advertisements begins on page 731.
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N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual and Directory: A Catalogue of American Newspapers, 1912, Volume 3

N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual and Directory: A Catalogue of American Newspapers, 1912, Volume 3

Date: 1912
Creator: N. W. Ayer & Son
Description: American Newspaper Annual and Directory contains lists of newspaper publications (listed by counties) with census information, natural features and chief products. Volume 3 of 3. Additional information includes class and trade publications and maps. Index to Class and Trade Publications begins on page 1165. Index to Newspaper and Magazine Advertisements begins on page 1233.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1880

N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1880

Date: 1880
Creator: N. W. Ayer & Son
Description: American Newspaper Annual contains lists of newspaper publications (arranged by county) as well as additional information including how to obtain an estimate, table of abbreviations, class publications, and appendixes (changes, census reports, etc.). Alphabetical Index (to states and Canadian provinces) starts on page 6; Index to Advertisements begins on page 611.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1908, Volume 3

N. W. Ayer & Son's American Newspaper Annual: containing a Catalogue of American Newspapers, a List of All Newspapers of the United States and Canada, 1908, Volume 3

Date: 1908
Creator: N. W. Ayer & Son
Description: American Newspaper Annual contains lists of newspaper publications (listed by counties) with census information, natural features and chief products. Volume 3 of 3. Additional information includes how to obtain an estimate, list of abbreviations, and class publications. Index to Class Publications begins on page 1081. Index to Newspaper Advertisements begins on page 1147. Index to Advertisements of Engravers, Lithographers, and Printers, Ink Manufacturers, Type and Electrotype Foundries begins on page 1152.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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