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Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Hadder, G.R.
Description: The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: unknown
Description: This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative

Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative

Date: January 6, 2005
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: Fuel ethanol consumption has grown significantly in the past several years. Most of the U.S. market is supplied by domestic refiners producing ethanol from American corn. However, imports do play a role, albeit small, in the U.S. market. One reason for the relatively small role is a 54-cent-per-gallon tariff on imported ethanol. This tariff offsets an economic incentive of 51 cents per gallon for the use of ethanol in gasoline. However, to promote development and stability in the Caribbean region and Central America, the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) allows the imports of most products, including ethanol, duty-free.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative

Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative

Date: March 18, 2008
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report discusses the fuel ethanol consumption that has grown significantly in the past several years. The report describes the standard that requires U.S. transportation fuels to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel, including ethanol.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethanol production from dry-mill corn starch in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

Ethanol production from dry-mill corn starch in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Krishnan, M.S.; Nghiem, N.P. & Davison, B.H.
Description: The development of a high-rate process for the production of fuel ethanol from dry-mill corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) technology is discussed. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale FBR using immobilized biocatalysts. Two ethanol production process designs were considered in this study. In the first design, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed at 35 C using {kappa}-carageenan beads (1.5 mm to 1.5 mm in diameter) of co-immobilized glucoamylase and Zymomonas mobilis. For dextrin feed concentration of 100 g/L, the single-pass conversion ranged from 54% to 89%. Ethanol concentrations of 23 to 36 g/L were obtained at volumetric productivities of 9 to 15 g/L-h. No accumulation of glucose was observed, indicating that saccharification was the rate-limiting step. In the second design, saccharification and fermentation were carried out sequentially. In the first stage, solutions of 150 to 160 g/L dextrins were pumped through an immobilized glucoamylase packed column maintained at 55 C. Greater than 95% conversion was obtained at a residence time of 1 h, giving a product of 165 to 170 g glucose/L. In the second stage, these glucose solutions were fed to the FBR containing Z. mobilis immobilized in {kappa}-carageenan beads. At a residence time of 2 h, ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethanol Production from Glucose and Xylose by Immobilized <i>Zymomonas mobilis</i> CP4(pZB5)

Ethanol Production from Glucose and Xylose by Immobilized <i>Zymomonas mobilis</i> CP4(pZB5)

Date: May 2, 1999
Creator: Blanco, M.; Davison, B.H.; Krishnan, M.S.; Nghiem, n.P. & Shattuck, C.K.
Description: Fermentation of glucose-xylose mixtures to ethanol was investigated in batch and continuous experiments using immobilized recombinant <i>Zymomonas mobilis</i> CP4(pZB5). This microorganism was immobilized by entrapment in k-carrageenan beads having a diameter of 1.5-2.5 mm. Batch experiments showed that the immobilized cells co-fermented glucose and xylose to ethanol and that the presence of glucose improved the xylose utilization rate. Batch fermentation of rice straw hydrolyzate containing 76 g/L glucose and 33.8 g/L xylose gave an ethanol concentration of 44.3 g/L after 24 hours, corresponding to a yeild of 0.46 g ethanol/g sugars. Comparable results were achieved with a synthetic sugar control. Continuous fermentation runs were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR). Glucose-xylose feed mixtures were run through the FBR at residence times of 2 to 4 hours. Glucose conversion to ethanol was maintained above 98% in all continuous runs. Xylose conversion to ethanol was highest at 91.5% for a feed containing 50 g/L glucose-13 g/L xylose at a dilution rate of 0.24 h<sup>-1</sup>. The xylose conversion to ethanol decreased with increasing feed xylose concentration, dilution rate and age of the immobilized cells. Volumetric ethanol productivities in the range of 6.5 to 15.3 g/L-h were obtained.
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Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts. Final technical progress report, September 12, 1991--December 11, 1994

Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts. Final technical progress report, September 12, 1991--December 11, 1994

Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Deemer, M.; Richards-Babb, M. & Carr, T.
Description: The objective of this research was to investigate sulfur-resistant catalysts for the conversion of synthesis gas having H{sub 2}/CO {le} 1 into C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohols, especially ethanol, by a highly selective and efficient pathway, while also promoting the water gas shift reaction (WGSR). The catalysts chosen are bifunctional, base-hydrogenation, sulfur-tolerant transition metal sulfides with heavy alkali, e.g. Cs{sup +}, promoter dispersed on their surfaces. The modes of activation of H{sub 2} and CO on MoS{sub 2} and alkali-doped MoS{sub 2} were considered, and computational analyses of the thermodynamic stability of transition metal sulfides and of the electronic structure of these sulfide catalysts were carried out. In the preparation of the cesium-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts, a variety of preparation methods using CsOOCH were examined. In all cases, doping with CsOOCH led to a lost of surface area. The undoped molybdenum disulfide catalyst only produced hydrocarbons. Cs-doped MoS{sub 2} catalysts all produced linear alcohols, along with smaller amounts of hydrocarbons. With a 20 wt% CsOOCH/MoS{sub 2} catalyst, temperature, pressure, and flow rate dependences of the synthesis reactions were investigated in the presence and absence of H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}/CO = 1/1 synthesis gas during short term testing experiments. It ...
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Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts; Technical progress report, June 1992--August 1992

Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts; Technical progress report, June 1992--August 1992

Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Klier, K.; Herman, R.G. & Deemer, M.
Description: During this quarter, high pressure (up to 100 atm = 10.3 MPa), high temperature (up to 350{degrees}C) catalyst testing was carried out with the 20 Wt% CS/MoS{sub 2} catalyst that was prepared. It was verified that this is an active catalyst for the synthesis of linear C{sub l}-C{sub 4} alcohols and that the yield increases with increasing temperature. However, the product selectivity is shifted toward enhanced hydrocarbon production, principally of methane. Temperature, pressure, and flow rate dependences of the synthesis reactions were also investigated in the presence and absence of H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}/CO = 1/1 Synthesis gas during short term testing experiments. The temperature seemed to produce the largest effect on alcohol yield and on the hydrocarbon selectivity, with both increasing with increasing temperature. The presence of 45.5 ppM H{sub 2}S in the synthesis gas did increase the C{sub 2}{sup +} alcohol/methanol molar ratio at 285{degrees}C, but this effect was not noticeable at higher temperatures under the reaction conditions that were employed. On the other hand, the presence of H{sub 2}S decreased the yield of methane at high temperatures (340--350{degrees}C), but this effect was not noticeable at the lower temperatures that were utilized. At high temperature and ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethanologenic Enzymes of Zymomonas mobilis

Ethanologenic Enzymes of Zymomonas mobilis

Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal
Description: Zymomonas mobilis is a unique microorganism in being both obligately fermentative and utilizing a Entner-Doudoroff pathway for glycolysis. Glycolytic flux in this organism is readily measured as evolved carbon dioxide, ethanol, or glucose consumed and exceeds 1 {micro}mole glucose/min per mg cell protein. To support this rapid glycolysis, approximately 50% of cytoplasmic protein is devoted to the 13 glycolytic and fermentative enzymes which constitute this central catabolic pathway. Only 1 ATP (net) is produced from each glucose metabolized. During the past grant period, we have completed the characterization of 11 of the 13 glycolytic genes from Z. mobilis together with complementary but separate DOE-fimded research by a former post-dot and collaborator, Dr. Tyrrell Conway. Research funded in my lab by DOE, Division of Energy Biosciences can be divided into three sections: A. Fundamental studies; B. Applied studies and utility; and C. Miscellaneous investigations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An ethical analysis of withdrawal from life-sustaining technologies and assisted death: a report for the Office of Technology Assessment

An ethical analysis of withdrawal from life-sustaining technologies and assisted death: a report for the Office of Technology Assessment

Date: October 4, 1985
Creator: Childress, James F.
Description: This report is designated to offer an ethical analysis of decisions to withhold and to withdrew life-sustaining technologies form patients in accord with their wishes and interests.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department