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Global Health: The U.S. and U.N. Response to the AIDS Crisis in Africa

Global Health: The U.S. and U.N. Response to the AIDS Crisis in Africa

Date: February 24, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A statement of record issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed its recent reports concerning the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on: (1) the social and economic implications of AIDS in Africa; and (2) efforts to combat the disease by the United States and the United Nations."
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Global Health: Trends in U.S. Spending for Global HIV/AIDS and Other Health Assistance in Fiscal Years 2001-2008

Global Health: Trends in U.S. Spending for Global HIV/AIDS and Other Health Assistance in Fiscal Years 2001-2008

Date: October 8, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "U.S. funding for global HIV/AIDS and other health-related programs rose significantly from 2001 to 2008. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), reauthorized in 2008 at $48 billion through 2013, has made significant investments in support of prevention of HIV/AIDS as well as care and treatment for those affected by the disease in 31 partner countries and 3 regions. In May 2009, the President proposed spending $63 billion through 2014 on global health programs, including HIV/AIDS, under a new Global Health Initiative. The Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC), at the Department of State (State), coordinates PEPFAR implementation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), among other agencies, implement PEPFAR as well as other global health-related assistance programs, such as maternal and child health, infectious disease prevention, and malaria control, among others. Responding to legislative directives, this report examines U.S. disbursements (referred to as spending) for global HIV/AIDS- and other health-related bilateral foreign assistance programs (including basic health and population and reproductive health programs) in fiscal years 2001-2008. The report also provides information on ...
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Global Health: U.S. Agencies Support Programs to Build Overseas Capacity for Infectious Disease Surveillance

Global Health: U.S. Agencies Support Programs to Build Overseas Capacity for Infectious Disease Surveillance

Date: October 4, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 showed that disease outbreaks pose a threat beyond the borders of the country where they originate. The United States has initiated a broad effort to ensure that countries can detect outbreaks that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern. Three U.S. agencies--the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Department of Defense (DOD)--support programs aimed at building this broader capacity to detect a variety of infectious diseases. This testimony describes (1) the obligations, goals, and activities of these programs and (2) the U.S. agencies' monitoring of the programs' progress. To address these objectives, GAO reviewed budgets and other funding documents, examined strategic plans and program monitoring and progress reports, and interviewed U.S. agency officials. GAO did not review capacity-building efforts in programs that focus on specific diseases, namely polio, tuberculosis, malaria, avian influenza, or HIV/AIDS. This testimony is based on a report (GAO-07-1186), which is being released with this testimoy. GAO did not make recommendations. The agencies whose programs we describe reviewed our report and generally ...
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Global Health: U.S. Agencies Support Programs to Build Overseas Capacity for Infectious Disease Surveillance

Global Health: U.S. Agencies Support Programs to Build Overseas Capacity for Infectious Disease Surveillance

Date: September 28, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 shows that disease outbreaks pose a threat beyond the borders of the country where they originate. Over the past decade, the United States has initiated a broad effort to ensure that countries can detect any disease outbreaks that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern. Three U.S. agencies--the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Department of Defense (DOD)--support programs aimed at building this broader capacity to detect a variety of infectious diseases. This report describes (1) the obligations, goals, and activities of these programs and (2) the U.S. agencies' monitoring of the programs' progress. To address these objectives, GAO reviewed budgets and other funding documents, examined strategic plans and program monitoring and progress reports, and interviewed U.S. agency officials. GAO did not review capacity-building efforts in programs that focus on specific diseases, namely polio, tuberculosis, malaria, avian influenza, or HIV/AIDS. GAO is not making any recommendations. The U.S. agencies whose programs we describe reviewed a draft of this report and generally concurred with ...
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Global Health: U.S. Agency for International Development Fights AIDS in Africa, but Better Data Needed to Measure Impact

Global Health: U.S. Agency for International Development Fights AIDS in Africa, but Better Data Needed to Measure Impact

Date: March 23, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has grown beyond a public health problem to become a humanitarian and developmental crisis. The Agency for International Development (AID) has contributed to the fight against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa by focusing on interventions proven to slow the spread of the disease. However, AID's ability to measure the impact of its activities on reducing transmission of HIV/AIDS is limited by (1) inconsistent use of performance indicators, (2) sporadic data collection, and (3) lack of routine reporting of results to headquarters. As part of its approach for allocating the 53 percent increase in funding for HIV/AIDS prevention activities in sub-Saharan Africa for fiscal year 2001, AID prepared a plan to expand monitoring and evaluation systems in countries designated as in need of significant increases in assistance. However, when implemented, the monitoring and evaluation requirements in the plan will not initially include all countries where AID missions and regional offices in sub-Saharan Africa implement HIV/AIDS programs. Further, the plan does not specify to whom these data will be reported or how the information will be used. Failure to address ...
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Global Health: U.S. AIDS Coordinator Addressing Some Key Challenges to Expanding Treatment but Others Remain

Global Health: U.S. AIDS Coordinator Addressing Some Key Challenges to Expanding Treatment but Others Remain

Date: July 12, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), announced January 2003, aims to provide 2 million people with anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment in 14 of the world's most severely affected countries. In May 2003 legislation established the position of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator in the State Department. GAO was asked to (1) identify major challenges to U.S. efforts to expand ARV treatment in resource-poor settings and (2) assess the Global AIDS Coordinator's response to these challenges."
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Global Health: USAID Programs and Appropriations from FY2001 through FY2010

Global Health: USAID Programs and Appropriations from FY2001 through FY2010

Date: August 13, 2009
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report explains the role USAID plays in U.S. global health assistance, highlights how much the agency has spent on global health efforts from FY2001 to FY2010, discusses how funding to each of its programs has changed during this period, and raises some related policy questions.
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Global Health: USAID Supported a Wide Range of Child and Maternal Health Activities, but Lacked Detailed Spending Data and a Proven Method for Sharing Best Practices

Global Health: USAID Supported a Wide Range of Child and Maternal Health Activities, but Lacked Detailed Spending Data and a Proven Method for Sharing Best Practices

Date: April 20, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Every year, disease and other conditions kill about 10 million children younger than 5 years, and more than 500,000 women die from pregnancy and childbirth-related causes. To help improve their health, Congress created the Child Survival and Health Programs Fund. The 2006 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act directed GAO to review the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) use of the fund for fiscal years 2004 and 2005. Committees of jurisdiction indicated their interest centered on the Child Survival and Maternal Health (CS/MH) account of the fund. GAO examined USAID's (1) allocations, obligations, and expenditures of CS/MH funds; (2) activities undertaken with those funds; (3) methods for disseminating CS/MH information; and (4) response to challenges to its CS/MH programs. GAO conducted surveys of 40 health officers, visited USAID missions in four countries, interviewed USAID officials, and reviewed data."
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Global HIV/AIDS: A More Country-Based Approach Could Improve Allocation of PEPFAR Funding

Global HIV/AIDS: A More Country-Based Approach Could Improve Allocation of PEPFAR Funding

Date: April 2, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) provides assistance for combating HIV/AIDS in 15 focus countries and elsewhere, with global targets for prevention, treatment, and care. The U.S. Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Act of 2003, which authorizes the $15 billion program, contains directives to guide the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator's (OGAC) allocation of this funding. The act expires in September 2008. The President announced his intention to ask Congress to authorize $30 billion for these efforts for the next 5 years. In 2007, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended eliminating the directives. GAO was asked to describe (1) the views of HIV/AIDS experts on these directives, (2) an alternative approach to allocating funds, and (3) potential challenges related to this approach. GAO interviewed 22 experts, surveyed PEPFAR officials in the 15 focus countries, and reviewed pertinent documentation."
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Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic: Selection of Antiretroviral Medications Provided Under U.S. Emergency Plan Is Limited

Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic: Selection of Antiretroviral Medications Provided Under U.S. Emergency Plan Is Limited

Date: January 11, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In developing countries, only about 7 percent of people with HIV/AIDS receive treatment. In 2003, the Congress authorized the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, a 5-year, $15 billion initiative under the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator. The Emergency Plan focuses on 15 developing countries, with a goal of supporting treatment for 2 million people. Treatment regimens use multiple antiretroviral medications (ARV), which can be original or generic. Fixed-dose combinations (FDC) combine two or three ARVs into one pill. Questions have been raised about whether the plan is providing ARVs preferred by the focus countries at reasonable prices. GAO compared the selection of ARVs provided under the plan with that provided under other major treatment initiatives, compared the prices of those selections, and determined what the Coordinator's Office is doing to expand the plan's selection of quality-assured lower-priced ARVs."
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