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Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects

Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects

Date: January 14, 1998
Creator: Afeyan, B B; Bodner, S E; Gardner, J H; Knauer, J P; Lee, P; Lehmberg, R H et al.
Description: Techniques have been developed to improve the uniformity of the laser focal profile, to reduce the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and to suppress the various laser-plasma instabilities. There are now three direct-drive ignition target designs that utilize these techniques. Evaluation of these designs is still ongoing. Some of them may achieve the gains above 100 that are necessary for a fusion reactor. Two laser systems have been proposed that may meet all of the requirements for a fusion reactor.
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Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

Date: July 29, 2013
Creator: Rhinefrank, Kenneth E.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha; Prudell, Joseph H.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J. & Zhang, Zhe
Description: The most prudent path to a full-scale design, build and deployment of a wave energy conversion (WEC) system involves establishment of validated numerical models using physical experiments in a methodical scaling program. This Project provides essential additional rounds of wave tank testing at 1:33 scale and ocean/bay testing at a 1:7 scale, necessary to validate numerical modeling that is essential to a utility-scale WEC design and associated certification.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – 33rd scale experiment

Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – 33rd scale experiment

Date: July 29, 2013
Creator: Rhinefrank, Kenneth E.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha; Prudell, Joseph H.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J. & Zhang, Zhe
Description: Columbia Power Technologies (ColPwr) and Oregon State University (OSU) jointly conducted a series of tests in the Tsunami Wave Basin (TWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (HWRL). These tests were run between November 2010 and February 2011. Models at 33rd scale representing Columbia Power’s Manta series Wave Energy Converter (WEC) were moored in configurations of one, three and five WEC arrays, with both regular waves and irregular seas generated. The primary research interest of ColPwr is the characterization of WEC response. The WEC response will be investigated with respect to power performance, range of motion and generator torque/speed statistics. The experimental results will be used to validate a numerical model. The primary research interests of OSU include an investigation into the effects of the WEC arrays on the near- and far-field wave propagation. This report focuses on the characterization of the response of a single WEC in isolation. To facilitate understanding of the commercial scale WEC, results will be presented as full scale equivalents.
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Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – Intermediate scale experiment

Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – Intermediate scale experiment

Date: July 29, 2013
Creator: Rhinefrank, Kenneth E.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha; Prudell, Joseph H.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J. & Zhang, Zhe
Description: Columbia Power Technologies deployed a scaled prototype wave energy converter (WEC) in the Puget Sound in February 2011. Other than a brief period (10 days) in which the WEC was removed for repair, it was in the water from Feb. 15, 2011 until Mar. 21, 2012. The SeaRay, as this WEC is known, consists of three rigid bodies which are constrained to move in a total of eight degrees of freedom (DOF). The SeaRay is kept on station with a spread, three-point mooring system. This prototype WEC is heavily instrumented, including but not limited to torque transducers and encoders reporting generator torque applied to and relative pitch of the floats, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) reporting translational acceleration and rotational position of the spar/nacelle, a GPS sensor reporting position, load cells reporting mooring loads at the WEC connection points and a number of strain gauges embedded in the fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) hull. Additionally, wave and current data are collected using an Acoustic Wave And Current Profiler (AWAC), allowing performance and design data to be correlated to environmental input conditions. This data – quality controlled, processed and analyzed – is used to characterize the metocean conditions (i.e. sea states). The ...
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Direct, Dynamic Measurement of Interfacial Area within Porous Media

Direct, Dynamic Measurement of Interfacial Area within Porous Media

Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H. & Bromhal, Grant
Description: Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of ...
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Direct Electron Heating at Moderate Harmonic Number for Compact Ignition Devices

Direct Electron Heating at Moderate Harmonic Number for Compact Ignition Devices

Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Majeski, R.
Description: Direct electron heating of compact ignition devices by radio-frequency power in the 300-400 MHz,range is discussed. The possible advantage of this approach to heating an ignition device, as opposed to resonant heating of an ion population, is the insensitivity to the exact value of the magnitude field. Heating with central power deposition during a toroidal field ramp is therefore possible.
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Direct electron heating with directional fast wave launch on DIII-D

Direct electron heating with directional fast wave launch on DIII-D

Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Pinsker, R.I.; Chiu, S.C. & Baity, F.W.
Description: Direct electron heating obtained with a four-element array phased at (0,{pi}/2, {pi}, 3{pi}/2) without a Faraday shield is compared with that obtained with a Faraday shield on the same antenna.
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Direct electron heating with directional fast wave launch on DIII-D. Revision 1

Direct electron heating with directional fast wave launch on DIII-D. Revision 1

Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Pinsker, R.I.; Chiu, S.C. & Baity, F.W.
Description: Direct electron heating obtained with a four-element array phased at (0,{pi}/2,{pi},3{pi}/2) without a Faraday shield is compared with that obtained with a Faraday shield on the same antenna.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION (DEC) FISSION REACTORS - A U.S. NERI PROJECT

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION (DEC) FISSION REACTORS - A U.S. NERI PROJECT

Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: BELLER, D.; POLANSKY, G. & AL, ET
Description: The direct conversion of the electrical energy of charged fission fragments was examined early in the nuclear reactor era, and the first theoretical treatment appeared in the literature in 1957. Most of the experiments conducted during the next ten years to investigate fission fragment direct energy conversion (DEC) were for understanding the nature and control of the charged particles. These experiments verified fundamental physics and identified a number of specific problem areas, but also demonstrated a number of technical challenges that limited DEC performance. Because DEC was insufficient for practical applications, by the late 1960s most R&D ceased in the US. Sporadic interest in the concept appears in the literature until this day, but there have been no recent programs to develop the technology. This has changed with the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative that was funded by the U.S. Congress in 1999. Most of the previous concepts were based on a fission electric cell known as a triode, where a central cathode is coated with a thin layer of nuclear fuel. A fission fragment that leaves the cathode with high kinetic energy and a large positive charge is decelerated as it approaches the anode by a charge differential of several ...
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DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 15,2000 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30,2001

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 15,2000 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30,2001

Date: February 1, 2002
Creator: BROWN, L.C.
Description: OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 15,2000 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30,2001
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DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 2001 THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 2002

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 2001 THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 2002

Date: April 7, 2003
Creator: BROWN, L.C.
Description: OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 2001 THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 2002
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DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD APRIL 1, 2002 THROUGH JUNE 30, 2002

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD APRIL 1, 2002 THROUGH JUNE 30, 2002

Date: June 30, 2002
Creator: BROWN, L.C.
Description: Direct energy conversion is the only potential means for producing electrical energy from a fission reactor without the Carnot efficiency limitations. This project was undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratories, The University of Florida, Texas A&M University and General Atomics to explore the possibilities of direct energy conversion. Other means of producing electrical energy from a fission reactor, without any moving parts, are also within the statement of proposed work. This report documents the efforts of General Atomics. Sandia National Laboratories, the lead laboratory, provides overall project reporting and documentation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1,1999 THRIUGH FEBRUARY 29,2000

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1,1999 THRIUGH FEBRUARY 29,2000

Date: February 29, 2000
Creator: BROWN, LC
Description: OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1,1999 THRIUGH FEBRUARY 29,2000
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Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor for the period December 1, 1999 through February 29, 2000

Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor for the period December 1, 1999 through February 29, 2000

Date: March 20, 2000
Creator: Brown, L.C.
Description: OAK B135 Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor for the period December 1, 1999 through February 29, 2000
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DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1,2000 THROUGH FEBRUARY 28,2001

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1,2000 THROUGH FEBRUARY 28,2001

Date: February 28, 2000
Creator: BROWN, L.C.
Description: OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1,2000 THROUGH FEBRUARY 28,2001
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DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 1, 2002 THROUGH MARCH 31, 2002

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 1, 2002 THROUGH MARCH 31, 2002

Date: March 31, 2002
Creator: BROWN, L.C.
Description: Direct energy conversion is the only potential means for producing electrical energy from a fission reactor without the Carnot efficiency limitations. This project was undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratories, The University of Florida, Texas A&M University and General Atomics to explore the possibilities of direct energy conversion. Other means of producing electrical energy from a fission reactor, without any moving parts, are also within the statement of proposed work. This report documents the efforts of General Atomics. Sandia National Laboratories, the lead laboratory, provides overall project reporting and documentation. The highlights of this reporting period are: (1) Cooling of the vapor core reactor and the MHD generator was incorporated into the Vapor Core Reactor model using standard heat transfer calculation methods. (2) Fission product removal, previously modeled as independent systems for each class of fission product, was incorporated into the overall fuel recycle loop of the Vapor Core Reactor. The model showed that the circulating activity levels are quite low. (3) Material distribution calculations were made for the ''pom-pom'' style cathode for the Fission Electric Cell. Use of a pom-pom cathode will eliminate the problem of hoop stress in the thin spherical cathode caused by the ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JULY 1, 2002 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2002

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JULY 1, 2002 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2002

Date: September 30, 2002
Creator: BROWN, L.C.
Description: Direct energy conversion is the only potential means for producing electrical energy from a fission reactor without the Carnot efficiency limitations. This project was undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratories, The University of Florida, Texas A&M University and General Atomics to explore the possibilities of direct energy conversion. Other means of producing electrical energy from a fission reactor, without any moving parts, are also within the statement of proposed work. This report documents the efforts of General Atomics. Sandia National Laboratories, the lead laboratory, provides overall project reporting and documentation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1, 2001 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2001

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1, 2001 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2001

Date: September 30, 2001
Creator: BROWN, L.C.
Description: OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1, 2001 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2001
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1,2000 THROUGH MAY 31,2000

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1,2000 THROUGH MAY 31,2000

Date: May 31, 2000
Creator: BROWN, L.C.
Description: OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1,2000 THROUGH MAY 31,2000
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1,2001 THROUGH DECEMBER 31,2001

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1,2001 THROUGH DECEMBER 31,2001

Date: December 31, 2001
Creator: BROWN, L.C.
Description: OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1,2001 THROUGH DECEMBER 31,2001
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor, Gaseous Core Reactor with Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Generator; Final Report - Part I and Part II

Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor, Gaseous Core Reactor with Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Generator; Final Report - Part I and Part II

Date: November 12, 2002
Creator: Anghaie, Samim; Smith, Blair & Knight, Travis
Description: This report focuses on the power conversion cycle and efficiency. The technical issues involving the ionization mechanisms, the power management and distribution and radiation shielding and safety will be discussed in future reports.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor September through November 1999

Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor September through November 1999

Date: January 15, 2000
Creator: Brown, Lloyd C.
Description: OAK - B135 The initial kickoff meeting/brainstorming session was held as Albuquerque with the other participants in this study. The prompt critical pulse reactor was proposed at the brainstorming session. The other participants in this study, Sandia National Laboratories (lead), Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Florida and Texas A and M University are separately funded and their work is separately reported. The combined reporting is done by Sandia.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Direct Energy Conversion for Fast Reactors

Direct Energy Conversion for Fast Reactors

Date: July 1, 2000
Creator: Brown, N.; Cooper, J.; Vogt, D.; Chapline, G.; Turchi, P.; Barbee Jr., T. et al.
Description: Thermoelectric generators (TEG) are a well-established technology for compact low power output long-life applications. Solid state TEGs are the technology of choice for many space missions and have also been used in remote earth-based applications. Since TEGs have no moving parts and can be hermetically sealed, there is the potential for nuclear reactor power systems using TEGs to be safe, reliable and resistant to proliferation. Such power units would be constructed in a manner that would provide decades of maintenance-free operation, thereby minimizing the possibility of compromising the system during routine maintenance operations. It should be possible to construct an efficient direct energy conversion cascade from an appropriate combination of solid-state thermoelectric generators, with each stage in the cascade optimized for a particular range of temperature. Performance of cascaded thermoelectric devices could be further enhanced by exploitation of compositionally graded p-n couples, as well as radial elements to maximize utilization of the heat flux. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena has recently reported segmented unicouples that operate between 300 and 975 K and have conversion efficiencies of 15 percent [Caillat, 2000]. TEGs are used in nuclear-fueled power sources for space exploration, in power sources for the military, and in electrical ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Direct energy conversion in fission reactors: A U.S. NERI project

Direct energy conversion in fission reactors: A U.S. NERI project

Date: May 30, 2000
Creator: SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.; SEIDEL,DAVID B.; POLANSKY,GARY F.; ROCHAU,GARY E.; LIPINSKI,RONALD J.; BESENBRUCH,G. et al.
Description: In principle, the energy released by a fission can be converted directly into electricity by using the charged fission fragments. The first theoretical treatment of direct energy conversion (DEC) appeared in the literature in 1957. Experiments were conducted over the next ten years, which identified a number of problem areas. Research declined by the late 1960's due to technical challenges that limited performance. Under the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative the authors are determining if these technical challenges can be overcome with todays technology. The authors present the basic principles of DEC reactors, review previous research, discuss problem areas in detail, and identify technological developments of the last 30 years that can overcome these obstacles. As an example, the fission electric cell must be insulated to avoid electrons crossing the cell. This insulation could be provided by a magnetic field as attempted in the early experiments. However, from work on magnetically insulated ion diodes they know how to significantly improve the field geometry. Finally, a prognosis for future development of DEC reactors will be presented .
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department