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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1990-1999
Agreed-Upon Procedures: Federal Unemployment Taxes
Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO reviewed whether the net federal unemployment taxes (FUTA) collected by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for the fiscal year ended September 30, 1998, are supported by the underlying records." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc295760/
Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes
Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO reviewed whether the net excise tax revenue distributed to the Highway Trust Fund (HTF) for the fiscal year (FY) ended September 30, 1998, is supported by the underlying records." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc301179/
Agreements to Promote Fishery Conservation and Management in International Waters
Declining fish populations threaten an important food source. Natural catastrophes, pollution, habitat destruction, and overfishing contribute to the depletion of fish stocks. Overexploitation of fishery resources often occurs when management allows expanding and increasingly efficient fishing fleets to continue harvesting dwindling supplies. Although prevalent, overexploitation is not universal and its extent varies among areas, species, and fisheries. This report discusses the issue of overfishing and its possible consequences, as well as domestic and international efforts to combat overfishing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs341/
Agricultural Commodities as Industrial Raw Materials
This report examines potential new crops and traditional crops for industrial uses including replacements for petroleum and imported strategic materials; replacements for imported newsprint, wood rosins, rubbers, and oils; and degradable plastics. This report finds that, in the absence of additional and more comprehensive policies, developing industrial uses for agricultural commodities alone is unlikely to revitalize rural economies and solve the problems of American agriculture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc39680/
Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade
Technical barriers to trade (TBTs) are widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate rnarkets, protect their consumers, and preserve natural resources, but which can also discriminate against imports in favor of domestic products. Most TBTs in agriculture are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures designed to protect humans, animals, and plants from contaminants, diseases, and pests. In the wake of new trade agreements aimed at reducing tariffs, import quotas, and other trade barriers, TBTs have become more prominent concerns for agricultural exporters and policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs380/
Agricultural Marketing and Regulatory Provisions of the 1996 Farm Bill
The Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-127), signed into law on April 4, for the first time grants the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) broad-based authority to establish national generic promotion ("check-off") programs for virtually any agricultural commodity. Formerly, individual programs first had to be authorized expressly by Congress. The new law also explicitly authorizes the establishment of new check-off programs for rapeseed and canola, kiwifruit, and popcorn. Other provisions require USDA to establish a new meat and poultry inspection advisory committee; deal with the collection of user fees for the inspection of agricultural imports; and authorize new guidelines to protect horses being transported to slaughter facilities, among other things. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs280/
Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer Policies for the 1990s: a special report of OTA's assessment on emerging agricultural technology: issues for the 1990s
This report addresses the central issues in the debate of the 1990 Farm Bill. It was requested as part of a larger study examining emerging agricultural technologies and related issues for the 1990s by the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and the House Committee on Agriculture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc39961/
Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Issues in the 105th Congress
The public agricultural research, education, and extension system is comprised of a nationwide network of federal and state agricultural research laboratories and departments, land grant Colleges of Agriculture, colleges of forestry and veterinary medicine, and the nationwide Cooperative Extension System. Although the basic authority to conduct agricultural research and extension programs is permanent, Congress since 1977 has provided funding authority and policy guidance for USDA's in-house research programs, and for federal support for cooperative research, higher education, and extension programs in the states, through a title contained in omnibus farm legislation. This report discusses specific pieces of such legislation and details certain agricultural and food-related appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10006/
Agricultural Research, Education, Extension and Economics Programs: A Primer
The 105th Congress is undertaking a thorough review of federal laws and policies affecting the nationwide system of federal and state agricultural research laboratories and agencies, the land grant Colleges of Agriculture and related schools of forestry and veterinary medicine, and the continuing education programs of the Cooperative Extension System. In preparation for hearings and subsequent debate on these subjects, this report provides an overview of all the components of the system, its major programs, and its funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs375/
Agricultural Trade: Changes Made to Market Access Program, but Questions Remain on Economic Impact
A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Department of Agriculture's implementation of legislative reforms to the Market Access Program (MAP) and their impact on program participation." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc293029/
Agricultural Wetlands: Current Programs and Legislative Proposals
Amending Federal laws to protect wetlands, especially agricultural wetlands, is a contentious issue for the 104th Congress. Critics contend that current programs are excessive in their reach and unfairly restrict private landowners. Supporters counter that these programs are critical if the Nation is to achieve the stated goal of no-net-loss of wetlands. The two major statutes under which agricultural wetlands are protected are swampbuster, enacted in the Agriculture, Food, Trade, and Conservation Act of 1985, and section 404, enacted in the 1972 Clean Water Act. This report describes both programs, emphasizing how they relate to each other. It explains how each program works, especially on agricultural wetlands, and the likely effect of proposed revisions to swampbuster. Also, it briefly considers other legislative proposals that would amend the section 404 program, which, if enacted, would further affect how agricultural wetlands are protected. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6360/
Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws
This report includes a glossary of approximately 1,700 agriculture and related terms (e.g., food programs, conservation, forestry, environmental protection, etc.). Besides defining terms and phrases with specialized meanings for agriculture, the glossary also identifies acronyms, agencies, programs, and laws related to agriculture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs379/
Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation
Senate and House committees in October reported legislation for new fast track authority enabling the Administration to negotiate trade agreements with foreign countries and to submit them to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Many agricultural and food industry interests are among the export-dependent enterprises that support new fast track authority, arguing that foreign trading partners will not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacks it. However, some agricultural groups argue that fast track provides them with inadequate opportunities for dealing with their issues, and that it ultimately will lead to new agreements that benefit foreign more than U.S. producers, at least in some commodity sectors. Neither bill was taken to the floor in 1997 because of insufficient votes for passage in the House. However, the President is expected to seek approval in 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs407/
Agriculture In Transition: Farmers' Use of Risk Management Strategies
A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) efforts to educate farmers about risk management, focusing on: (1) the extent of farmers' use of risk management tools; and (2) educational programs and projects USDA has directed or initiated to prepare farmers for managing risks and determining the groups or individuals who have participated in or been served by these programs." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc292537/
Agriculture, Trade, and Environment: Achieving Complementary Policies
This report provides information that can help align agricultural legislation with emerging needs and trends. Current policies do not ameliorate conflicts between agricultural production and environmental quality, between trade and the environment, and between agriculture and competitive trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc39766/
AIDS Funding for Federal Government Programs: FY1981-FY1999
This report provides a synopsis of the budget activity related to AIDS from the discovery of the disease in 1981 through FY1999. Funding for AIDS research, prevention and treatment programs within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) discretionary budget has increased from $200,000 in FY1981 to an estimated $3.85 billion in FY1999. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs745/
Air Force Depot Maintenance: Analysis of Its Financial Operations
A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the financial operations of the Air Force depot maintenance activity group, focusing on the: (1) Air Force depot maintenance activity group's price increase between fiscal year (FY) 1994 and FY 1999 and the primary reasons for it; (2) activity group's financial losses during FY 1994 through FY 1998 and the primary reasons for them; and (3) Air Force's methods for recovering these losses." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc290776/
Air Force Depot Maintenance: Management Changes Would Improve Implementation of Reform Initiatives
A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO assessed the progress of the Air Force's depot maintenance reform initiatives to improve the efficiency and responsiveness of its industrial operations." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc293031/
Air Force Logistics: C-17 Support Plan Does Not Adequately Address Key Issues
A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO reviewed the Air Force's C-17 logistics support plan, focusing on the: (1) C-17's core logistics capabilities; (2) cost effectiveness of the planned support strategy; and (3) Air Force's implementation of the plan under current law." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc292607/
Air Force Supply: Management Actions Create Spare Parts Shortages and Operations Problems
A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the effectiveness of the Air Force Supply Management Activity Group in meeting its military customers needs, focusing on the: (1) extent and impact of military customers not receiving aircraft spare parts when needed; and (2) reasons why parts were not always available when needed." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc291906/
Air Pollution: EPA's Actions to Resolve Concerns with the Fine Particulate Monitoring Program
A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the National Academy of Sciences March 1998 report on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) plans to monitor particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), focusing on: (1) EPA's actions in response to the Academy's concerns with the planned PM2.5 monitoring program; and (2) the challenges that state and local agencies face in establishing and operating the PM2.5 monitoring program, as well as EPA's response to these challenges." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc291004/
Air Pollution: The Border Smog Reduction Act's Impact on Ozone Levels
A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO provided information on the Border Smog Reduction Act's impact on ozone levels and the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on ozone in the San Diego, California, area, focusing on: (1) estimates of the act's potential impact on ozone-causing chemicals in the San Diego area; and (2) trends in commercial border traffic and ozone levels in the San Diego area before and after NAFTA was implemented." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc291135/
Air Quality and Motor Vehicles: An Analysis of Current and Proposed Emission Standards
The extent to which emissions from motor vehicles and the amount of sulfur in commercial gasoline should be regulated has become a controversial issue. The EPA is proposing national limits on gasoline sulfur levels which would become effective in 2004. This report provides background information on the regulation of vehicle emissions in the United States, analyzes key elements of the National Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Tier 2 proposal, summarizes major views on the proposal that have been expressed by the automobile industry, the oil refining industry, and some environmental organizations, and discusses relevant legislative activity in the 106th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs849/
Air Quality and the New Ozone NAAQS: The OTAG Process
The Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) represented a cooperative effort between states, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and numerous stakeholders to address teh complex issue of ozone transport. However, opponents of the new ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) argue that the OTAG recommendations are far too vague and ambiguous to be cited by EPA as a basis for implementation. This report provides background on the effort, and summarizes OTAG's assessment and recommendations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs522/
Air Quality and Transportation Enhancement Provisions in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991
Federal funding to assist states in addressing the environmental impacts of surface transportation is a major issue for the second session of the 105th Congress. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 (P.L. 102-240) authorized a total of $155 billion for transportation projects from FY1992 to FY1997. This report describes how the Congrestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program (CMAQ) and enhancement programs function, examines the policy issues surrounding them, and summarizes relevant provisions in major legislation to reauthorize ISTEA in the 105th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs815/
Air Quality and Vehicle Emission Standards: An Overview of the National Low Emission Vehicle Program and Related Issues
This report provides background information on federal emission standards for motor vehicles under the Clean Air Act and stricter standards originally developed to address the severity of air quality problems in California, explains the low emission standards and flexible compliance mechanisms to which states and manufacturers have voluntarily agreed under the National Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program, discusses the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) estimates of the program's air quality benefits and costs, and examines regulatory issues related to its implementation including sulfur levels in gasoline and the relative stringency of emission standards for light trucks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs845/
Air Quality: EPA's Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states with new tool to address the problem of interstate transport of air pollutants. This report discusses the actions undertaken as a direct result of this act, additional pollution reduction enforcement measures pursued by the EPA, and actions undertaken by states to reduce offending emissions not in compliance with these measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs935/
Air Quality: EPA's Proposed New Ozone and Particulate Matter Standards
This report discusses the contentious issue of enforcing stringent national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM), the opponents of which decry as harmful to the economy. The report discusses actions undertaken by the EPA, President Clinton's support of the NAAQSs, and the criticisms of opponents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs384/
Air Quality: EPA's Proposed Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently engaged in a series of regulatory actions to address the transport of ozone pollution in the eastern United States. This report reviews this situation with respect to an EPA-proposed Ozone Transport Rule and other activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs601/
Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers
This report discusses employer trip reduction (ETR) programs, which would require large employers to implement certain transportation control measures as part of a national effort to combat air pollution, largely as a direct result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs45/
Air Quality Standards: The Decisionmaking Process
The decisions by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997 to revise the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter refocused attention on the criteria and the process by which these decisions are made Tracing the steps of the decision pieces, this report identifies the statutory criteria established by the Congress and summarizes the administrative procedures the Agency follows in setting these standards and in reviewing them every 5 years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs521/
Air Traffic Control: FAA's Modernization Investment Management Approach Could Be Strengthened
A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) modernization investment management approach as carried out through the Acquisition Management System (AMS), focusing on the extent to which FAA, through AMS: (1) has established a structured approach for selecting and controlling its investments; (2) incorporates all investments, including those in operation, in the agency's portfolio; and (3) selects, controls, and evaluates its investments with complete and reliable information." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc291076/
Air Traffic Control: Observations on FAA's Air Traffic Control Modernization Program
A statement of record issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Air Traffic Control Modernization Program, focusing on: (1) the causes of the problems that have plagued FAA's modernization program for nearly two decades; (2) recent agency efforts to overcome these problems; and (3) the readiness of FAA and others to meet year 2000 requirements." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc300841/
Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA's Implementation of the Display System Replacement Project
Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the status of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) implementation of the Display System Replacement (DSR) project, focusing on: (1) the status of FAA's overall modernization program; (2) FAA's progress in implementing DSR, with particular emphasis on events surrounding Boston's implementation; and (3) opportunities for continued success by FAA in completing its modernization projects." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc289842/
Aircraft Evacuation Testing: Research and Technology Issues
This report describes the OTA study that examined regulatory, research, and technology issues related to passenger safety and evacuation testing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40039/
Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares and Service at Buffalo, New York
Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed changes in airfares and service quality at Buffalo Niagara International Airport since deregulation." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc290200/
Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares and Service at Four South Carolina Communities
Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the changes in airfares and service quality since deregulation, focusing on the: (1) changes in airfares and service quality at airports serving Charleston and other communities in South Carolina; and (2) differences in airfares charged to business and leisure passengers travelling to and from Charleston." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc289544/
Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service Quality, and Barriers to Entry
A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed and updated its previous work on airfares and service and reexamined the effect that certain barriers have had on these measures, focusing on: (1) how airfares have changed since 1990 for travel to and from 171 airports serving various U.S. communities; (2) how the quality of air service has changed since 1978 for travel to and from these airports; and (3) the extent to which certain barriers to entry--restrictive gate-leasing arrangements, controls on the number of allowable takeoffs and landings at some airports, and the limits on the distance that flights from some airports can be--influence competition at affected airports." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc292534/
Airport Financing: Annual Funding As Much As $3 Billion Less Than Planned Development
Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed airport funding issues, focusing on: (1) the amount airports are spending on capital development and the sources of those funds; (2) comparing airports' plans for development with current funding levels; and (3) what effect will various proposals to increase or make better use of existing funding have on airports' ability to fulfill their capital development plans." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc289400/
Airport Financing: Smaller Airports Face Future Funding Shortfalls
Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed airport funding issues as they apply to smaller airports, focusing on: 1) how much funding has been made available to airports, particularly smaller airports, for their capital development and what are the sources of these funds; (2) comparing airports' plans for future development with current funding levels; and (3) what effect will various proposals to increase or make better use of existing funding have on smaller airports' ability to fulfill their capital development plans." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc290058/
Airport Improvement Program: Analysis of Discretionary Spending for Fiscal Years 1996-98
Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO provided information on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Airport Improvement Program discretionary spending for fiscal years (FY) 1996-1998, focusing on: (1) the selection process that FAA used to establish priorities for allocating the Airport Improvement Program's discretionary grant awards; (2) the extent to which the highest priority projects were funded; (3) identifying the political party (Majority or Minority) of the congressional representative from the congressional district in which the airport is located; and (4) the amount of time required to release Airport Improvement Program grants to airports." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc302971/
Airport Improvement Program: FAA Complying With Requirement for Local Involvement in Noise Mitigation Projects
A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO determined whether the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) must enforce grant assurance as a condition of providing noise mitigation grants to the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc294566/
An Alaskan Challenge: Native Village Sanitation
This OTA assessment reviews the status of federal government efforts to provide safe sanitation to Alaskan Natives and the technologies that have been used or proposed for this purpose. Finally, the report examines the legislative and institutional setting for the waste sanitation problems, and the criteria that need to be applied in selecting and implementing new technologies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc39727/
Alaskan North Slope Oil: Limited Effects of Lifting Export Ban on Oil and Shipping Industries and Consumers
A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO reviewed Alaska and California energy production, focusing on the effects of lifting the export ban on: (1) Alaskan North Slope and California crude oil prices and production; and (2) refiners, consumers, and the oil shipping industry on the West Coast." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc294351/
Alaskan Water for California?: The Subsea Pipeline Option
This background paper focuses on one technological option for increasing the supply of fresh water to the Southwest-that of building a freshwater subsea pipeline to transport water from Alaska to California. Originally a suggestion by Governor Walter Hickel of Alaska, the proposal has recently attracted attention in southern California. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc39693/
Alcohol Fuels Tax Incentive
This report discusses federal tax subsidies for alcohol transportation fuels, as well as legislative actions underway to repeal, extend, or reduce them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs960/
Alcohol Fuels Tax Incentives and the EPA Renewable Oxygenate Requirement
This report examines the current alcohol fuels Federal tax incentives. Part I describes the statutory provisions of each of the five incentives. Part II examines the major public policy and economic issues of concern to policymakers: potential revenue effects, effectiveness, and economic efficiency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs110/
Alien Eligibility for Public Assistance
This report discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which affected alien eligibility for federal, state, and local government assistance programs, both imposing and broadening restrictions on a number of immigration benefits and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs460/
Alien Eligibility for Public Assistance
This report discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which affected alien eligibility for federal, state, and local government assistance programs, both imposing and broadening restrictions on a number of immigration benefits and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs716/
Allied Burdensharing in Transition: Status and Implications for the United States
This report describes recent changes in U.S. burdensharing relationships with NATO, Japan and South Korea and, in the process, identifies some implications for U.S. foreign policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9/