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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1970-1979
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Approximations of Gamma Cross Sections for Fast Nuclear Reactors
The report shows a method to approximate a P₁ scattering solution for the flux in a fast reactor, using an isotropic, but not a diagonal-transport-approximation scattering matrix. Presented are flux errors relative to a P₁ solution for different levels of transport approximation in an EBR-II type of core surrounded by a stainless steel reflector. Problems associated with the use of the method are also presented.
ARDISC (Argonne Dispersion Code): Computer Programs to Calculate the Distribution of Trace Element Migration in Partially Equilibrating Media
A computer program (ARDISC, the Argonne Dispersion Code) is described which simulates the migration of nuclides in porous media and includes first order kinetic effects on the retention constants. The code allows for different absorption and desorption rates and solves the coupled migration equations by arithmetic reiterations. Input data needed are the absorption and desorption rates, equilibrium surface absorption coefficients, flow rates and volumes, and media porosities.
Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research, Annual Report: 1975
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research summarizing research an other activities. This report includes studies conducted during calendar year 1975 when the Division of Biological and Medical Research was initiating its responses to the challenge posed by the enlarged mission in the field of energy production of its principal sponsor, the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration.
Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research, Annual Report: 1976
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research summarizing research an other activities. This report includes the exploration of the toxicological effects of effluents from various forms of energy production with a view to defining hazards and risk assessments for man.
Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research Annual Report: 1977
Annual report on the activities of the division of biological and medical research at Argonne National Laboratory.
Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research, Annual Report: 1978
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research summarizing research an other activities. This report includes studies related to nuclear energy, genetic effects of radiation, heavy metals, evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification, electrical storage systems and energy transmittion, and development of population projection models.
Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research, Annual Report: 1979
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research summarizing research an other activities. This report includes studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level 60Co gamma radiation, and development of indicators of leukemia; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and 60Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and studies of the gastrointestinal absorption of the actinide elements.
Argonne National Laboratory Patent Portfolio
This booklet contains the abstracts of all active U. S. patents on technology items that originated at ANL, the applicability of which is not limited to nuclear reactors. Also listed are the titles of all ANL-originated nuclear-related U. S. patents that are still in force. Selected technology items for which patent applications have been filed and are available for licensing are included in several categories. Categories included in this booklet are as follows: atmospheric and earth sciences; biological and medical sciences; chemistry and chemical engineering; cryogenics and superconductivity; electronics and electrical engineering; energy conversion; measurements and controls; methods and devices; materials and fabrication; physics, accelerators and fusion; and selected nuclear-related technology.
ATLAS: a Proposal for a Precision Heavy Ion Accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory
The objective of the proposed Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is to provide precision beams of heavy ions for nuclear physics research in the region of projectile energies comparable to nuclear binding energies (5-25 MeV/A). By using the demonstrated potential of superconducting radiofrequency technology, beams of exceptional quality and flexibility can be obtained. The system is designed to provide beams with tandem-like energy resolution and ease of energy variation, the energy range is comparable to that of approximately 50 MV tandem and, in addition, the beam will be bunched into very short (approximately 50 psec) pulses, permitting fast-timing measurements that can open up major new experimental approaches.
Atlas of Western Surface-Mined Lands Coal, Uranium, and Phosphate
Atlas of surface mines in excess of 10 acres in operation prior to 1976 in the 11 western contiguous states plus North Dakota and South Dakota.
The Atomic Spectrum of Neptunium
A description and interpretation of the atomic spectrum of neptunium are given. Wavelengths were measured for 6096 spectrum lines in the range 3793 to 38,812 cm⁻¹ (26,353 to 2575 A), of which 2526 were classified as transitions between 329 odd levels and 130 even levels of neutral neptunium (Np I). The data are presented in five tables.
Automated Approach to Quantitative Error Analysis in Neutron Transport Calculations
A method is described how a quantitative measure for the robustness of a given transport theory code for coarse network calculations can be obtained. A code, that performs this task automatically and at only nominal cost, is described and has been implemented for slab geometry. This code generates also user oriented benchmark problems which exhibit the analytic behavior at interfaces.
Automatic Indexing: A State-of-the-Art Report
Report issued by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards discussing results of a survey conducted on automatic mechanized indexing and data processing. As stated in the introduction, "it has concentrated on the major developments in and related demonstrations of automatic indexing potentialities. Examples are also given of indexes compiled by machine and of potentially related research efforts in such areas as natural language text searching, statistical association techniques used for search and retrieval, and proposed systems for concept processing" (p. 1). This report includes an illustration.
Automatic Measurement of Network Parameters: A Survey
Report issued by the Bureau of Standards over a survey conducted on measurement methods of network parameters. As stated in the introduction, "this paper is concerned with the development of automatic methods of measuring basically the magnitudes and phase differences, or the complex ratio of two sinusoidal voltages, and applications of this capability to determining complex reflection coefficients and transmission coefficients and group delay times of electrical networks" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Autoradiographic Technique for Rapid Inventory of Plutonium-Containing Fast Critical Assembly Fuel
A nondestructive autoradiographic technique is described which can provide a verification of the piece count and the plutonium content of plutonium-containing fuel elements. This technique uses the spontaneously emitted gamma rays from plutonium to form images of fuel elements on photographic film. Autoradiography has the advantage of providing an inventory verification without the opening of containers or the handling of fuel elements. Missing fuel elements, substitution of nonradioactive material, and substitution of elements of different size are detectable. Results are presented for fuel elements in various storage configurations and for fuel elements contained in a fast critical assembly.
Autoradiography as a Safeguards Inspection Technique for Unirradiated LWR Fuel Assemblies
A nondestructive autoradiographic method is described which can provide a verification that rods in the interior of unirradiated LWR fuel assemblies contain low-enriched uranium. Sufficient absorber must be used to reduce contributions to image density by beta radiation from uranium-238 daughters. When appropriate absorbers are used, the density of the image of a uranium-containing fuel rod is proportional to the uranium-235 enrichment in that rod. Exposure times as short as 1.5 hours can be achieved by using fast film and intensifying screens. Methods are discussed for reducing contributions to the image density of any single rod from radiation produced by all other rods in the assembly. The technique is useful for detecting missing rods, dummy rods, and rods containing depleted uranium. These defects can be detected by visual inspection of the autoradiographs. In its present state of development, the technique is not sensitive enough to reliably detect the difference between the various uranium-235 enrichments encountered in current BWR fuel assemblies. Results are presented for field tests of the technique at BWR and PWR facilities.
Baseline Energy Consumption Forecasts for Transportation: A Review and Evaluation
A baseline projection of energy consumption is needed to estimate the potential energy savings from proposed transport technology and operational improvements. The Reference Energy System projection by Brookhaven National Laboratories and that which Stanford Research Institute produced for Gulf Oil are reviewed here. Attention is focused on the growth rate assumptions of the forecasts and the allowances made for the sensitivity of transport demand and technological efficiency to fuel price changes. The alternative trajectories of energy use are examined for automobile, bus and intercity air and rail passenger travel, and also for freight movement. Little, if any, justification can be found for many of the assumptions used to estimate transport demand and energy intensiveness. The assumptions underlying the Brookhaven National Laboratories projections are more explicit on changes in energy efficiency and energy price and shifts in transport patterns. However, the relationship of automobile travel, the largest component, to energy price is not specified clearly. The Stanford projection is based on seemingly arbitrary assumptions about changes in travel patterns and energy efficiency with no reference to the market process which must bring them about. It is concluded that the Brookhaven projection is a reasonable interim benchmark. Its structure should improve by refining and validating or revising the judgmental estimates on which it is based. This can be accomplished by identifying those judgments to which the energy consumption projections are most sensitive and modifying them, based on information presently available concerning the transport sector and/or information and relationships which can be developed by limited research.
Bench Scale Study of the Vacuum Freezing Ejector Absorption Process
No Description
Benchmark Testing of the Finite-Strain Version of the LIFE-III Fast-Reactor-Element Code
A collection of benchmark problems is used to test the finite-strain formulation of the LIFE-III fast-reactor fuel-element code. Analytical solutions for thick-wall cylinders loaded by internal and external pressure, valid for arbitrarily large strains, are presented for a linear viscous material. Similar problems are formulated for a nonlinear material, and numerical solutions are obtained using the Runge-Kutta method for the integration of an ordinary differential equation. These solutions are then compared with the corresponding solutions obtained using the LIFE-III code. With a proper choice of the number of spatial regions and time steps, good agreement is obtained between the two sets of solutions. The results indicate that the structural-analysis portion of the revised LIFE-III is valid for large strains.
Biaxial Creep Behavior of Ribbed GCFR Cladding at 650 degrees C in Nominally Pure Helium (99. 99%)
Biaxial creep-rupture tests were conducted on 12 prototypic GCFR fuel-cladding specimens at 650 deg C and a nominal hoop stress of 241.3 MPa. All test specimens were fabricated from 20% cold-worked Type 316 stainless steel tubes that were ribbed on the outer surface by mechanical grinding or electro-chemical etching. Test variables included specimen length and the presence or absence of weld-reinforcing end collars.
Biaxial Creep-Fatigue Behavior of Type 316H Stainless Steel Tube
Biaxial creep-fatigue test data for Type 316 stainless steel tubes at 1100*Y are presented. The specimens were subjected to constant internal pressure and fluctuating axial strain with and without hold times in tension as well as compress ion. The results show that internal pressure significantly affects diametral ratchetting and axial stress range. Axial tensile hold is found to he more damaging than axial compressive hold even cinder a biaxial state of stress.
Bibliography for Transportation Energy Conservation
A listing is given of 578 reports, books, articles, and conference papers on transportation and energy. Coverage is primarily on U. S. developments and research from 1970 to 1975. Following a section of citations of general works on energy, the bibliography contains two main parts: ''Energy for Transportation'' and ''Transportation of Energy.'' Within each of these topics the arrangement is multimodal (at the urban, regional, national, or international level), then by mode. Selected information sources are listed in the last part. Within each section, entries are arranged alphabetically by author or, lacking an author, by title. References were drawn from the Transportation Center Library collection and other libraries in the Northwestern University system. An earlier bibliography, Transportation and Energy, compiled by the Transportation Center Library in March 1974, forms the basis for the arrangement and provides coverage from 1970 to 1973.
Bilinear Cyclic Stress-Strain Analysis for Incoloy 800
This report describes the bilinear stress-strain analysis under cyclic loading conditions for the alloy Incoloy 800. Although the method for determining the bilinear stress-strain parameters is based on a procedure proposed in the RDT Standard F9-1 for inelastic analysis of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) components, the accuracy and consistency of results have been improved by an analytical technique, which also resulted in certain simplifications. The bilinear stress-strain parameters of solution-annealed Incoloy 800 (Heat HH7058A) under cyclic loading conditions at a strain rate of 8.6 x 10⁻⁵ s⁻¹, total strain range of 0.2 to 0.8 percent, and temperatures of room temperature to 593 degrees C (1100 degrees F) have been determined. The dependence of bilinear parameters on temperature and strain is discussed. The cyclic-hardening characteristics based on correlation of yield parameter k with accumulated plastic strain are also presented.
Bilinear Cyclic Stress-Strain Parameters for Types 304 and 316 Stainless Steel
The bilinear cyclic stress-strain parameters for Types 304 and 316 stainless steel are described. The bilinear properties of solution-annealed and aged Type 304 stainless steel (heat 9T2796) and solution-annealed Type 3l6 stainless steel (heat 8092297) under cyclic-loading conditions at a strain rate of 8.6 x 10⁵ s⁻¹, total strain range between 0.2 and 0.8 percent, and temperatures from 22 to 593 degrees C were determined. The dependence of bilinear parameters on maximum strain epsilon and temperature is discussed.
Binary Solution Model for Computation of Equilibrium Compositions
A NASA computer program (CEC) for calculation of complex equilibrium compositions has been modified to take into account the formation of an ideal binary solution from pure condensed species. The thermodynamics of the modification are discussed. Applications are presented.
A Biologist's Manual for the Evaluation of Impacts of Coal-Fired Power Plants on Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitats
Manual containing material mean to aid in the review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports by biologists regarding coal-fired power plants.
Bismuth in the United States
ii, 26 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
Blasting Vibrations and Their Effects on Structures
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the effects of air blast vibrations. As stated in the abstract, "this report presents the results of the Bureau of Mines 10-year program to study the problem of air blast and ground vibrations generated by blasting" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
BOLOVAC Systems for Measuring Electrical Quantities From 0.5 MHz Through Microwaves
No Description
Bolsa Island Nuclear Power and Desalting Project Facilities (Cost and Description) and Cost of Desalted Water
Report that contains information regarding the plans for a combined nuclear power plant and water desalination facility on a man-made island in the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. Includes the estimated costs associated with the conceptual plant as well as unit costs for desalted water.
Brief History of Measurement Systems: with a Chart of the Modernized Metric System
Pamphlet issued by the United States National Bureau of Standards providing an overview of the English system of measurement used in the United States and of the metric system. The internal pages of the pamphlet contain a chart labeled "The Modernized Metric System" which includes tables of common conversions and a chart of the seven base units: meter/length, kilogram/mass, second/time, ampere/electric current, kelvin/temperature, mole/amount of substance, and candela/luminous intensity, as well as two supplementary units: radian/plane angle and steradian/solid angle. There is also a graphic representation of yards versus meters in ruler form at the bottom.
Bubble Dynamics in a Superheated Liquid
This report presents an extensive literature survey on bubble dynamics. Growth of a single spherical bubble moving in a uniformly superheated liquid is considered. Equations of motion and energy are presented in the forms that take into consideration the interaction between the motion and the growth. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to obtain a simultaneous solution of equations of motion and growth rate, and the solution is compared with available experimental results. Results for liquid sodium are presented for a range of pressures and Jakob numbers.
Bureau of Mines Research on Trailing-Cable-Fault Locators
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over fault locators in trailing cables. The methods used for locating faults are discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Calculated Burnups and Fluences for Experimental Fuel Elements Irradiated in EBR-II Runs 5-55B
A procedure is described for calculation of burnups and fluences at any point in a subassembly in EBR-II runs 5-55B. The calculations are performed by the BRN program package and require data generated for any element in the highly inhomogeneous fueled experimental subassemblies is the most important application of the pointwise capability. Tables allow calculation of burnup and fluences for any element in such a subassembly.
The Calculation of Rotational Energy Levels and Rotational Line Intensities in Diatomic Molecules
Report describing procedures for making quantum mechanical calculations of rotational energy levels and rotational line intensities in diatomic molecules. The procedures are illustrated by sample calculations. A familiarity with the material of this report should enable a practicing electronic spectroscropist to carry out, though in a rather mechanical way, his own theoretical calculations for molecules under experimental investigation.
Calculations of Stresses in GCFR Cladding under Normal Operating Conditions
A modified version of the LIFE-III code, LIFE-GCFR, and classical stress-analysis techniques have been used to calculate the stresses in the GCFR cladding under normal reactor operating conditions. Several types of loadings on the cladding that occur during normal operation have been considered. These include fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, thermal stresses induced by radial and axial temperature gradients, and swelling gradient-induced stresses. The combined and individual effects of these loadings, as well as the effect of creep on cladding stresses, have been assessed.
The California Condor, 1966-76: a Look at its Past and Future
Brief 1966-1976 summary of the California condor, including geographic distribution, population number, food supply, and external disturbances.
Case Studies of Desalted Water for Irrigation
Report studying the use of desalinated water for irrigation at three locations in Arizona and California. Costs and benefits are measured among several different areas, including multiple concentrations of desalinated water, different desalting methods, and the desalting process.
Ceramic Coatings for Components Exposed to Coal-Gas Environments : a Review
The corrosive and erosive environments at high temperatures and pressures in coal gasifiers impose severe requirements on the alloys of fabrication. A concise review of the application of ceramic coatings to resist coal-gas environments has been conducted. The purpose of this review is to explore suitable ceramic or cermet materials that may resist or retard the degradation of metal components and to summarize the state of the art of various methods of producing such coatings.
Chemical Activities of Alkali Sulfates in Hot Corrosion
The condensation temperatures of sodium and potassium sulfates from typical fuel-oil combustion gases were calculated as functions of the concentrations of SO2, HCl, NaCl and O2, and total combustion pressures ranging from 1 to 10 atm. Of these components, oxygen had the greatest effect on the condensation temperature of sodium sulfate, producing an increase of as much as 280 degrees K at 10 atm. Alkali sulfate activities were least affected by sulfur dioxide, tested in the range from 93 to 270 ppM. The order of the effect on the alkali sulfates was as follows: O2 > HCl > NaCl > SO2. With the addition of K2CO3, such as would occur in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) environment, the activity of potassium sulfate overshadowed that of sodium sulfate. The control of the activities of alkali sulfates is discussed in terms of the concentrations of the above-mentioned species and of the system pressure.
Chemical Engineering Division Basic Energy Sciences Research: July 1976-September 1977
Studies in basic energy science covered many different activities, nearly all of which were designed to gain information required for a better understanding of systems important to national needs in energy and environment. Studies of associating gases included measurements of thermal conductivities and basic molecular orbital calculations. Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry were used to determine thermodynamic and spectroscopic data on salt vapor complexes. Polarized Raman spectra of As2S3 thin films and vapors were recorded. Halogenation of lanthanide oxides with aluminum chloride allowed the separation of the resultant chloride complexes by vapor transport. Electrochemical titrations were used to obtain the solubility product of iron sulfide in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic. Solubility products of eleven sulfides in the same eutectic mixture were calculated. Galvanostatic techniques were used to study metal deposition/dissolution reactions in molten salts. Activity coefficients of lithium in lithium-lead alloys were determined electrochemically; phase diagrams of ternary alloys of Li-Al-Mg and Li-Ca-Mg were computed. Thermodynamic studies are being made of the sorption of hydrogen by Li-Al and Li-Pb alloys. The study of the solubility of oxygen in liquid lithium was completed. An electric resistance method for measuring distribution properties of nonmetallic elements in binary metallic systems containing lithium is being developed. Calorimetric methods were used to measure standard enthalpies of formation of some coal components, lanthanum and rare earth trifluorides, and gamma-UO3, UF6, Cs3CrO4, Cs4CrO4, As4S4, and As2S3. High-temperature enthalpy increments were measured for LaF3 and beta-As4S4. The acidities of airborne ammonium sulfate-bearing particles from various areas of the U.S. were measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.
Chemical Engineering Division Environmental Chemistry Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976
The chemistry of airborne particulate matter is being investigated by means of laboratory and field studies. Experiments were conducted using the flow reactor to identify the reaction conditions under which detectable amounts of sulfate particles could be formed under gaseous sulfur dioxide. A procedure was developed for the analysis of acidic and neutral ammonium sulfate in filter-collected samples of atmospheric particulate matter.
Chemical Engineering Division Fast-Neutron Dosimetry, Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976
One of the objectives of the Dosimetry and Damage Analysis Center is to provide standardized dosimetry technology for materials-study programs within the ERDA Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy. Current efforts have included characterization of neutron environments in terms of fluence and spectral distribution for materials experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's (LLL) Rotating Target Neutron Source and at the LLL-Davis Cyclograaff. Environment characterization efforts at Brookhaven National Laboratory's High Flux Beam Reactor and those pertaining to an enriched-uranium converter for the ANL CP-5 reactor are also described. The capability of calculating material radiation damage parameters associated with these neutron environments is demonstrated. Average fission yields determined from two fast-neutron irradiations and one thermal-neutron irradiation are compiled for laboratories participating in the inter-laboratory Reaction Rate program. These results are in excellent agreement with literature values. Progress on the development of boron-10 and lithium-6-loaded liquid scintillation detectors for detecting very low intensity neutrons is presented. Material purification tests and performance tests of scintillation mixtures are described.
Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs October-December 1976
Report on fuel-cycle studies including pyrochemical separation of plutonium and americium oxides from contaminated materials of construction such as steel.
Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs Progress Report: January-March, 1978
Quarterly report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division regarding activities related to properties and handling of radioactive materials, operation of nuclear reactors, and other relevant research. This report includes fuel cycle studies in advanced solvent extraction techniques focused on development of centrifugal contactors for use in Purex processes and dispersion of liquids by explosions.
Chemical Engineering Division Fuels and Materials Chemistry Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division regarding activities related to properties and handling of radioactive materials, operation of nuclear reactors, and other relevant research.
Chemical Engineering Division Physical Inorganic Chemistry Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976
Various aspects of physical inorganic chemistry were investigated and are summarized in this report.
Chemical Engineering Division Reactor Fuels and Materials Chemistry Research : July 1976-September 1977
This report describes research and development activities conducted in support of fast-reactor programs during the period July 1976 - September 1977. Reactor safety studies were directed primarily toward obtaining high-temperature physical property data for use in reactor safety analyses. Spectrographic data and an oxygen-potential model were used to calculate thermodynamic properties applicable to the equations of state of uranium-plutonium dioxide and uranium dioxide. Work was continued on the compilation of standard sets of property data on reactor fuels and materials. The viscosity of molten aluminum and the thermal diffusivity of molten uranium dioxide were measured as functions of temperature. Modeling and chemical-interaction studies related to post-accident heat removal were conducted. The efforts in sodium technology supported the LMFBR program. Studies were conducted to explore the feasibility of upgrading the quality of commercial-grade sodium and sodium from decommissioned reactors to provide new sources of reactor-grade sodium.
Chemical Engineering Division Reactor Safety and Physical Properties Studies Annual Report, July 1975-June 1976
A report of the work on Reactor Safety and Physical Property Studies performed in the Chemical Engineering Division at Argonne National Laboratory is given for the period July 1975-June 1976.
Chemical Engineering Division Research Highlights
Report on electrochemical energy development, including development of advanced, high-temperature lithium/metal sulfide batteries for vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage.