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2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion
High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV Injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX) and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc788556/
2 MW upgrade of the Fermilab Main Injector
In January 2002, the Fermilab Director initiated a design study for a high average power, modest energy proton facility. An intensity upgrade to Fermilab's 120-GeV Main Injector (MI) represents an attractive concept for such a facility, which would leverage existing beam lines and experimental areas and would greatly enhance physics opportunities at Fermilab and in the U.S. With a Proton Driver replacing the present Booster, the beam intensity of the MI is expected to be increased by a factor of five. Accompanied by a shorter cycle, the beam power would reach 2 MW. This would make the MI a more powerful machine than the SNS or the J-PARC. Moreover, the high beam energy (120 GeV) and tunable energy range (8-120 GeV) would make it a unique high power proton facility. The upgrade study has been completed and published. This paper gives a summary report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc737958/
2-Page Summary for Neptunium solubility in the Near-field Environment of A Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository
The total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, includes a wide variety of processes to evaluate the potential release of radionuclides from the Engineered Barrier System into the unsaturated zone of the geosphere. The principal processes controlling radionuclide release and mobilization from the waste forms are captured in the model to assess the dissolved concentrations of radionuclides in the source-term. The TSPA model of the source-term incorporates the far-from-equilibrium dissolution of, for example, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to capture bounding rates of radionuclide availability as the SNF degrades. In addition, for individual radionuclides, the source-term model evaluates solubility constraints that are more indicative of longer-term, equilibrium processes that can limit the potential mass transport from the source term in those cases. These solubility limits represent phase saturation and precipitation processes that can occur either at the waste form as it alters, or at other locations in the near-field environment (e.g., within the invert) if chemical conditions are different. Identification and selection of applicable constraints for solubility-limited radionuclide concentrations is a primary focus in formulating the source-term model for the TSPA. Neptunium is a long-lived radionuclide that becomes a larger fraction of the potential dose as radioactive decay of other radionuclides proceeds. To delineate appropriate long-term source-term controls on dissolved neptunium concentrations, a number of alternative models have been defined. The models are based on data both collected within the Yucca Mountain Project and taken from published literature, and have been evaluated against independent data sets to assess their applicability. The alternative models encompass ones based on precipitation of neptunium within its own separate oxide phases (i.e., ''pure'' Np-phases), and those where neptunium is incorporated into the secondary (tertiary, quaternary, etc.) uranyl phases forming as alteration products of SNF (secondary phases). The constraints on dissolved neptunium concentrations from ''pure'' Np-phase models provide more elevated bounds compared to the values derived from models of trace incorporation of Np into secondary uranyl phases. Such secondary phase models depend on a larger set of processes and variables compared to more idealized solubility models for Np-oxides, and therefore, secondary phase models generally will have more complex bases to define adequately the expected behavior. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc786502/
2-pi Photoproduction from CLAS and CB-ELSA - The Search for Missing Resonances
2-pi-photoproduction is one of the promising reactions to search for baryon resonances that have been predicted but have not yet been observed. The gamma-rho --> rho-pi{sup 0}-pi{sup 0}(CB-ELSA) and the gamma-rho --> rho-pi{sup +}-pi{sup -} (CLAS) data show interesting resonance structures. A partial wave analysis (PWA) has to be done to determine which baryon resonances contribute what their quantum numbers and their relative couplings to the different accessible rho-2-pi-channels and to the photon are. First preliminary PWA-results on the lowest energy rho-pi{sup 0}-pi{sup 0} data (sq rt s<1.8 GeV)look very promising. From an extension of this analysis to higher energies combining the rho-pi{sup 0}-pi{sup 0} and the rho-pi{sup +}-pi{sup -}-data, one can expect; interesting results on resonances decaying into Delta-pi, N-rho, N(pi-pi)s, N*-pi, and Delta*-pi. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc739345/
2 Questions pertaining to DON-0133 and the non-BRAC Scenario (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard)
2 Questions pertaining to DON-0133 and the non-BRAC Senario (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. Department of Defense Clearinghouse Response: DoD Clearinghouse reply to a letter from the BRAC Commission regarding 2 Questions pertaining to DON-0133 and the non-BRAC scenario (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard) digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc20464/
N = 2 string amplitudes
In physics, solvable models have played very important roles. Understanding a simple model in detail teaches us a lot about more complicated models in generic situations. Five years ago, C. Vafa and I found that the closed N = 2 string theory, that is a string theory with the N = 2 local supersymmetry on the worldsheet, is classically equivalent to the self-dual Einstein gravity in four spacetime dimensions. Thus this string theory is solvable at the classical level. More recently, we have examined the N = 2 string partition function for spacial compactifications, and computed it to all order in the string perturbation expansion. The fact that such computation is possible at all suggests that the N = 2 string theory is solvable even quantum mechanically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc622294/
2 {times} 2 TeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} collider: Lattice and accelerator-detector interface study
The design for a high-luminosity {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} superconducting storage ring is presented based on first-pass calculations. Special attention is paid to two Iowa interaction regions (IR) whose optics are literally interlaced with the collider detectors. Various sources of backgrounds in IR are explored via realistic Monte Carlo simulations. An improved design of the collider lattice in the neighborhood of the interaction points (EP) is determined by the need to reduce significantly background levels in the detectors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc710146/
A 2 to 4 nm high power FEL on the SLAC linac
We report the results of preliminary studies of a 2 to 4 nm SASE FEL, using a photoinjector to produce the electron beam, and the SLAC linac to accelerate it to an energy up to 10 GeV. Longitudinal bunch compression is used to increases ten fold the peak current to 2.5 kA, while reducing the bunch length to the subpicosecond range. The saturated output power is in the multi-gigawatt range, producing about 10{sup 14} coherent photons within a bandwidth of about 0.2% rms, in a pulse of several millijoules. At 120Hz repetition rate the average power is about 1 W. The system is optimized for x-ray microscopy in the water window around 2 to 4 nm, and will permit imaging a biological sample in a single subpicosecond pulse. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc621303/
2 x 2 TeV mu(superscript +) mu (superscript) collider
The scenarios for high-luminosity 2 x 2 TeV and 250 x 250 GeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} colliders are presented. Having a high physics potential, such a machine has specific physics and technical advantages and disadvantages when compared with an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Parameters for the candidate designs and the basic components - proton source, pion production and decay channel, cooling, acceleration and collider storage ring - are considered. Attention is paid to the areas mostly affecting the collider performance: targetry, energy spread, superconducting magnet survival, detector backgrounds, polarization, environmental issues. 13 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc687319/
A 3.3 MJ, Rb + 1 driver design based on an integrated systems analysis
A computer model for systems analysis of heavy ion drivers has been developed and used to evaluate driver designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE). The present work examines a driver for a close-coupled target design that requires less total beam energy but also smaller beam spots sizes than previous target designs. Design parameters and a cost estimate for a 160 beam, 3.3 MJ driver using rubidium ions (A = 85) are reported, and the sensitivity of the results to variations in selected design parameters is given. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc708366/
A 3.3 MJ, Rb{sup +1} Driver Design Based on an Integrated Systems Analysis
A computer model for systems analysis of heavy ion drivers has been developed and used to evaluate driver designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE). The present work examines a driver for a close-coupled target design that requires less total beam energy but also smaller beam spots sizes than previous target designs. Design parameters and a cost estimate for a 160 beam, 3.3 MJ driver using rubidium ions (A = 85) are reported, and the sensitivity of the results to variations in selected design parameters is given. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc715399/
The 3.8% Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income, Including Real Estate Transactions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc809252/
A 3-axis force balanced accelerometer using a single proof-mass
This paper presents a new method for wideband force balancing a proof-mass in multiple axes simultaneously. Capacitive position sense and force feedback are accomplished using the same air-gap capacitors through time multiplexing. Proof of concept is experimentally demonstrated with a single-mass monolithic surface micromachined 3-axis accelerometer. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc687321/
3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses
Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc742894/
3-D computer simulations of EM field sin the APS vacuum chamber. Part 2: Time-domain analysis
Our simulations suggest that the strong peak around 4 GHz in the narrow gap observed in the measurements is generated by TE modes. Therefore, one should not worry about this peak insofar as the coupling impedance is concerned. On the other hand, some discrepancies between our simulations and the measurements are noticed and remain to be resolved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc791829/
3-D computer simulations of EM fields in the APS vacuum chamber: Part 1, Frequency-domain analysis
The vacuum chamber proposed for the storage ring of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) basically consists of two parts: the beam chamber and the antechamber, connected to each other by a narrow gap. A sector of 1-meter-long chamber with dosed end plates, to which are attached the 1-inch-diameter beampipes centered at the beam chamber, has been built for experimental purposes. The 3-D code MAFIA has been used to simulate the frequency-domain behaviors of EM fields in this setup. The results are summarized in this note and are compared with that previously obtained from 2-D simulations and that from network analyzer measurements. They are in general agreement. A parallel analysis in the time-domain is reported in a separate note. The method of our simulations can be briefly described as follows. The 1-inch diameter beampipes are terminated by conducting walls at a length of 2 cm. The whole geometry can thus be considered as a cavity. The lowest RF modes of this geometry are computed using MAFIA. The eigenfrequencies of these modes are a direct output of the eigenvalue solver E3, whereas the type of each mode is determined by employing the postprocessor P3. The mesh sizes are chosen such that they are small enough for computations in the frequency region in which we are interested (the sampling theorem), while the total number of mesh points is still well within the range that our computer system can cope with. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc625418/
3-D DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT METHODS RESEARCH AT LANL UNDER ASCI
No abstract prepared. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc725499/
3-D elastic wave scattering by a layer containing vertical periodic fractures
No abstract prepared. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc785969/
3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components
We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for modeling accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been very successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but full 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to substantial computer resources required for a full 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes are discussed in context of applicability to accelerator problems. Various 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and wake impedances compared with simple analytic models for the structures; results will be used as benchmarks for testing the new time time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for monopole and dipole impedances with models were found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc685010/
3-D Experimental Fracture Analysis at High Temperature
T*e, which is an elastic-plastic fracture parameter based on incremental theory of plasticity, was determined numerically and experimentally. The T*e integral of a tunneling crack in 2024-T3 aluminum, three point bend specimen was obtained through a hybrid analysis of moire interferometry and 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The results were verified by the good agreement between the experimentally and numerically determined T*e on the specimen surface. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc741358/
3-D field computation: The near-triumph of commerical codes
In recent years, more and more of those who design and analyze magnets and other devices are using commercial codes rather than developing their own. This paper considers the commercial codes and the features available with them. Other recent trends with 3-D field computation include parallel computation and visualization methods such as virtual reality systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc794259/
3-D Finite Element Analyses of the Egan Cavern Field
Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed for the two gas-filled storage caverns at the Egan field, Jennings dome, Louisiana. The effects of cavern enlargement on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability were investigated. The finite element model simulated the leaching of caverns to 6 and 8 billion cubic feet (BCF) and examined their performance at various operating conditions. Operating pressures varied from 0.15 psi/ft to 0.9 psi/ft at the bottom of the lowest cemented casing. The analysis also examined the stability of the web or pillar of salt between the caverns under differential pressure loadings. The 50-year simulations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. A damage criterion based on onset of dilatancy was used to evaluate cavern instability. Dilation results from the development of microfractures in salt and, hence, potential increases in permeability onset occurs well before large scale failure. The analyses predicted stable caverns throughout the 50-year period for the range of pressures investigated. Some localized salt damage was predicted near the bottom walls of the caverns if the caverns are operated at minimum pressure for long periods of time. Volumetric cavern closures over time due to creep were moderate to excessive depending on the salt creep properties and operating pressures. However, subsidence above the cavern field was small and should pose no problem, to surface facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc686870/
3-D Finite Element Analysis of Induction Logging in a Dipping Formation
Electromagnetic induction by a magnetic dipole located above a dipping interface is of relevance to the petroleum well-logging industry. The problem is fully three-dimensional (3-D) when formulated as above, but reduces to an analytically tractable one-dimensional (1-D) problem when cast as a small tilted coil above a horizontal interface. The two problems are related by a simple coordinate rotation. An examination of the induced eddy currents and the electric charge accumulation at the interface help to explain the inductive and polarization effects commonly observed in induction logs from dipping geological formations. The equivalence between the 1-D and 3-D formulations of the problem enables the validation of a previously published finite element solver for 3-D controlled-source electromagnetic induction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc705973/
3-d finite element model development for biomechanics: a software demonstration
Finite element analysis is becoming an increasingly important part of biomechanics and orthopedic research, as computational resources become more powerful, and data handling algorithms become more sophisticated. Until recently, tools with sufficient power did not exist or were not accessible to adequately model complicated, three-dimensional, nonlinear biomechanical systems. In the past, finite element analyses in biomechanics have often been limited to two-dimensional approaches, linear analyses, or simulations of single tissue types. Today, we have the resources to model fully three-dimensional, nonlinear, multi-tissue, and even multi-joint systems. The authors will present the process of developing these kinds of finite element models, using human hand and knee examples, and will demonstrate their software tools. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc697585/
3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations
The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc738597/
3-D full waveform inversion of seismic data; Part I. Theory
Full waveform inversion of seismic data is a challenging subject partly because of the lack of precise knowledge of the source. Since currently available approaches involve some form of approximations to the source, inversion results are subject to the quality and the choice of the source information used. A new full waveform inversion scheme has been introduced (Lee and Kim, 2003) using normalized wavefield for simple two-dimensional (2-D) scalar problems. The method does not require source information, so potential inversion errors due to source estimation may be eliminated. A gather of seismic traces is first Fourier-transformed into the frequency domain and a normalized wavefield is obtained for each trace in the frequency domain. Normalization is done with respect to the frequency response of a reference trace selected from the gather, so the complex-valued normalized wavefield is source-independent and dimensionless. The inversion algorithm minimizes misfits between measured normalized wavefield and numerically computed normalized wavefield. In this paper the full waveform inversion is extended to three-dimensional (3-D) problems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc735736/
A 3-D hydrodynamic dispersion model for modeling tracer transport in Geothermal Reservoirs
A 3-D hydrodynamic dispersion model for tracer transport is developed and implemented into the TOUGH2 EOS3 (T2R3D) module. The model formulation incorporates a full dispersion tensor, based on a 3-D velocity field with a 3-D, irregular grid in a heterogeneous geological system. Two different weighting schemes are proposed for spatial average of 3-D velocity fields and concentration gradients to evaluate the mass flux by dispersion and diffusion of a tracer or a radionuclide. This new module of the TOUGH2 code is designed to simulate processes of tracer/radionuclide transport using an irregular, 3-D integral finite difference grid in non-isothermal, three-dimensional, multiphase, porous/fractured subsurface systems. The numerical method for this transport module is based on the integral finite difference scheme, as in the TOUGH2 code. The major assumptions of the tracer transport module are: (a) a tracer or a radionuclide is present and transported only within the liquid phase, (b) transport mechanisms include molecular diffusion and hydrodynamic dispersion in the liquid phase in addition to advection, and (c) first order decay and linear adsorption on rock grains are taken into account. The tracer or radionuclide is introduced as an additional mass component into the standard TOUGH2 formulation, time is discretized fully implicitly, and non-linearities of the conservation equations are handled using the Newton/Raphson iteration. We have verified this transport module by comparison with results of a 2-D transport problem for which an analytical solution is available. In addition, a field application is described to demonstrate the use of the proposed model. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc719687/
3-D Measurement of Deformation Microstructure of Al(0.2%)Mg Using Submicron Resolution White X-Ray Microbeams
We have used submicron-resolution white x-ray microbeams on the MHATT-CAT beamline 7-ID at the Advanced Photon Source to develop techniques for three-dimensional investigation of the deformation microstructure in a 20% plane strain compressed Al(0.2%)Mg tri-crystal. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors were used to focus white radiation from an undulator to a 0.7 x 0.7 {micro}m{sup 2} beam that was scanned over bi- and tri-crystal regions near the triple-junction of the tri-crystal. Depth resolution along the x-ray microbeam of less than 5 microns was achieved by triangulation to the diffractibn source point using images taken at a series of CCD distances from the microbeam. Computer indexing of the deformation cell structure in the bi-crystal region provided orientations of individual subgrains to {approximately}0.01 degrees, making possible detailed measurements of the rotation axes between individual cells. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc707283/
A 3-d modular gripper design tool
Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc675560/
A 3-d modular gripper design tool
Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc674520/
3-D Numerical Modeling of a Complex Salt Structure
Reliably processing, imaging, and interpreting seismic data from areas with complicated structures, such as sub-salt, requires a thorough understanding of elastic as well as acoustic wave propagation. Elastic numerical modeling is an essential tool to develop that understanding. While 2-D elastic modeling is in common use, 3-D elastic modeling has been too computationally intensive to be used routinely. Recent advances in computing hardware, including commodity-based hardware, have substantially reduced computing costs. These advances are making 3-D elastic numerical modeling more feasible. A series of example 3-D elastic calculations were performed using a complicated structure, the SEG/EAGE salt structure. The synthetic traces show that the effects of shear wave propagation can be important for imaging and interpretation of images, and also for AVO and other applications that rely on trace amplitudes. Additional calculations are needed to better identify and understand the complex wave propagation effects produced in complicated structures, such as the SEG/EAGE salt structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc742372/
A 3-D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry
A 3-D electromagnetic field simulation is used to model the propagation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV), 13-nm, light through sub-1500 {Angstrom} dia pinholes in a highly absorptive medium. Deviations of the diffracted wavefront phase from an ideal sphere are studied within 0.1 numerical aperture, to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometersused in at-wavelength testing of nearly diffraction-limited EUV optical systems. Aberration magnitudes are studied for various 3-D pinhole models, including cylindrical and conical pinhole bores. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc687713/
3-D Ray-tracing and 2-D Fokker-Planck Simulations of Radiofrequency Application to Tokamak Plasmas
A state of the art numerical tool has been developed to simulate the propagation and the absorption of coexisting different types of waves in a tokamak geometry. The code includes a numerical solution of the three-dimensional (R, Z, {Phi}) toroidal wave equation for the electric field of the different waves in the WKBJ approximation. At each step of integration, the two-dimensional (v{sub {parallel}}, v{sub {perpendicular}}) Fokker-Planck equation is solved in the presence of quasilinear diffusion coefficients. The electron Landau damping of the waves is modeled taking into account the interaction of the wave electric fields with the quasilinearly modified distribution function. Consistently, the code calculates the radial profiles of non-inductively generated current densities, the transmitted power traces and the total power damping curves. Synergistic effects among the different type of waves (e.g., lower hybrid and ion Bernstein waves) are studied through the separation of the contributions of the single wave from the effects due to their coexistence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc703436/
3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming
The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743258/
3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming
The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc742517/
3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming
The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc735678/
3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming
The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc737473/
3-D RESERVOIR AND STOCHASTIC FRACTURE NETWORK MODELING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY, CIRCLE RIDGE PHOSPHORIA/TENSLEEP RESERVOIR, WIND RIVER RESERVATION, ARAPAHO AND SHOSHONE TRIBES, WYOMING
This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-00BC15190, ''3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, Wind River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming''. The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations in Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. Fields in which natural fractures dominate reservoir permeability, such as the Circle Ridge Field, often experience sub-optimal recovery when recovery processes are designed and implemented that do not take advantage of the fracture systems. For example, a conventional waterflood in a main structural block of the Field was implemented and later suspended due to unattractive results. It is estimated that somewhere less than 20% of the OOIP in the Circle Ridge Field have been recovered after more than 50 years' production. Marathon Oil Company identified the Circle Ridge Field as an attractive candidate for several advanced IOR processes that explicitly take advantage of the natural fracture system. These processes require knowledge of the distribution of matrix porosity, permeability and oil saturations; and understanding of where fracturing is likely to be well-developed or poorly developed; how the fracturing may compartmentalize the reservoir; and how smaller, relatively untested subthrust fault blocks may be connected to the main overthrust block. For this reason, the project focused on improving knowledge of the matrix properties, the fault block architecture and to develop a model that could be used to predict fracture intensity, orientation and fluid flow/connectivity properties. Knowledge of matrix properties was greatly extended by calibrating wireline logs from 113 wells with incomplete or older-vintage logging suites to wells with a full suite of modern logs. The model for the fault block architecture was derived by 3D palinspastic reconstruction. This involved field work to construct three new cross-sections at key areas in the Field; creation of horizon and fault surface maps from well penetrations and tops; and numerical modeling to derive the geometry, chronology, fault movement and folding history of the Field through a 3D restoration of the reservoir units to their original undeformed state. The methodology for predicting fracture intensity and orientation variations throughout the Field was accomplished by gathering outcrop and subsurface image log fracture data, and comparing it to the strain field produced by the various folding and faulting events determined through the 3D palinspastic reconstruction. It was found that the strains produced during the initial folding of the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations corresponded well without both the orientations and relative fracture intensity measured in outcrop and in the subsurface. The results have led to a 15% to 20% increase in estimated matrix pore volume, and to the plan to drill two horizontal drain holes located and oriented based on the modeling results. Marathon Oil is also evaluating alternative tertiary recovery processes based on the quantitative 3D integrated reservoir model. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc738026/
A 3-D SAR approach to IFSAR processing
Interferometric SAR (IFSAR) can be shown to be a special case of 3-D SAR image formation. In fact, traditional IFSAR processing results in the equivalent of merely a super-resolved, under-sampled, 3-D SAR image. However, when approached as a 3-D SAR problem, a number of IFSAR properties and anomalies are easily explained. For example, IFSAR decorrelation with height is merely ordinary migration in 3-D SAR. Consequently, treating IFSAR as a 3-D SAR problem allows insight and development of proper motion compensation techniques and image formation operations to facilitate optimal height estimation. Furthermore, multiple antenna phase centers and baselines are easily incorporated into this formulation, providing essentially a sparse array in the elevation dimension. This paper shows the Polar Format image formation algorithm extended to 3 dimensions, and then proceeds to apply it to the IFSAR collection geometry. This suggests a more optimal reordering of the traditional IFSAR processing steps. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc702258/
3-D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface
Under ER63662, 3-D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface, we have completed a number of subprojects associated with the Hill Air Force Base (HAFB) high resolution 3-D reflection/tomography dataset. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc786536/
3-D Seismic Exploration Project, Ute Indian Tribe, Uintah and Ouray Reservation, Uintah County, Utah
The objectives of this North Hill Creek 3-D seismic survey were to: (1) cover as large an area as possible with available budget; (2) obtain high quality data throughout the depth range of the prospective geologic formations of 2,000' to 12,000' to image both gross structures and more subtle structural and stratigraphic elements; (3) overcome the challenges posed by a hard, reflective sandstone that cropped out or was buried just a few feet below the surface under most of the survey area; and (4) run a safe survey. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc742671/
3-D Seismic Methods for Geothermal Reservoir Exploration and Assessment--Summary
A wide variety of seismic methods covering the spectrum from DC to kilohertz have been employed at one time or the other in geothermal environments. The reasons have varied from exploration for a heat source to attempting to find individual fractures producing hot fluids. For the purposes here we will assume that overall objective of seismic imaging is for siting wells for successful location of permeable pathways (often fracture permeability) that are controlling flow and transport in naturally fractured reservoirs. The application could be for exploration of new resources or for in-fill/step-out drilling in existing fields. In most geothermal environments the challenge has been to separate the ''background'' natural complexity and heterogeneity of the matrix from the fracture/fault heterogeneity controlling the fluid flow. Ideally one not only wants to find the fractures, but the fractures that are controlling the flow of the fluids. Evaluated in this work is current state-of-the-art surface (seismic reflection) and borehole seismic methods (Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP), Crosswell and Single Well) to locate and quantify geothermal reservoir characteristics. The focus is on active methods; the assumption being that accuracy is needed for successful well siting. Passive methods are useful for exploration and detailed monitoring for in-fill drilling, but in general the passive methods lack the precision and accuracy for well siting in new or step out areas. In addition, MEQ activity is usually associated with production, after the field has been taken to a mature state, thus in most cases it is assumed that there is not enough MEQ activity in unproduced areas to accurately find the permeable pathways. The premise of this review is that there may new developments in theory and modeling, as well as in data acquisition and processing, which could make it possible to image the subsurface in much more detail than 15 years ago. New understanding of the effect of fractures on seismic wave propagation are now being applied to image fractures in gas and oil environments. It now may be appropriate to apply these methods, with modifications, to geothermal applications. It is assumed that to implement the appropriate methods an industry coupled program tightly linked to actual field cases, iterating between development and application will be pursued. The goal of this work is to evaluate the most promising methods and approaches that may be used for improved geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment. It is not a comprehensive review of all seismic methods used to date in geothermal environments. This work was motivated by a need to assess current and developing seismic technology that if applied in geothermal cases may greatly improve the chances for locating new geothermal resources and/or improve assessment of current ones. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc787122/
3-D Silicon Photonic Lattices- Cornerstone of an Emerging Photonics Revolution
Three-dimensional photonic lattices are engineered materials which are the photonic analogues of semiconductors. These structures were first proposed and demonstrated in the mid-to-late 1980's. However, due to fabrication difficulties, lattices active in the infrared are only just emerging. Wide ranges of structures and fabrication approaches have been investigated. The most promising approach for many potential applications is a diamond-like structure fabricated using silicon microprocessing techniques. This approach has enabled the fabrication of 3-D silicon photonic lattices active in the infrared. The structures display band gaps centered from 12{micro} down to 1.55{micro}. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc793231/
3-D SIMULATION FOR ASSESSMENT OF TRANSPARENT WEAPON DISASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
No abstract prepared. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc717008/
3-D Spectral Induced Polarization (IP) Imaging: Non-Invasive Characterization Of Contaminant Plumes
The overall objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth's subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. Three specific objectives towards this end are 1. 2. 3. Understanding IP at the laboratory level through measurements of complex resistivity as a function of frequency in rock and soil samples with varying pore geometries, pore fluid conductivities and saturations, and contaminant chemistries and concentrations. Developing effective data acquisition techniques for measuring the critical IP responses (time domain or frequency domain) in the field. Developing modeling and inversion algorithms that permit the interpretation of field IP data in terms of subsurface geology and contaminant plume properties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc785886/
3-D Spectral IP Imaging: Non-Invasive Characterization DE FG02 96ER 14714
The Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) performed a broad foundational study of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for site characterization. The project encompassed laboratory studies of microgeometry and chemistry effects on Induced Polarization (IP), an investigation of electromagnetic coupling (emc) noise, and development of 3D modeling and inversion codes. The major finding of the project is that emc noise presents a critical limitation for field implementation of SIP and conventional correction methods are inadequate. The project developed a frequency domain 3D complex resistivity modeling and inversion code Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effects of solution chemistry and microgeometry on the SIP response of sandstone. Results indicate that changes in chemistry affect the magnitude of the spectral IP response and changes in microgeometry affect the shape of the spectral IP response. The developed physiochemical IP model can be used to invert spectral IP data for an apparent grain size distribution. Laboratory studies over the last twenty years have shown that SIP data must be acquired over several decades of frequency and include frequencies greater than 1kHz. A model of the components of emc noise has been developed and investigation with this model showed that inductive coupling is the most significant component. The study concluded that emc limits the frequency range of usable field data to approximately 100 Hz and below for typical site conditions. Several correction schemes have been developed based on treating emc as noise to be removed from the data, but our investigation has shown that these are not adequate for high frequencies, greater than 100Hz. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that the greatest response is the frequency range greater than 1KHz, hence the emc problem must be resolved for field implementation of SIP to advance. The ERL developed 2D/3D time domain codes that perform inversions for charge abilities based on schemes introduced by Siegel (1959). The ERL has also developed a 3D complex resistivity code for inversion of frequency domain IP data. The algorithm accommodates a general earth model with a complex electrical resistivity as a function of frequency and 3-D spatial position. The forward problem is solved by the complex biconjugate gradient method, while the regularized inverse problem is solved by the nonlinear conjugate gradient method. Time domain field data was acquired along a single survey line at the FS-12 plume, Massachusetts Military Reservation. The data was inverted with the developed 2D time domain code with the results having an excellent match to monitoring well data. The data was further analyzed by an innovative scheme where a ''gross spectral chargeability'' was determined from time domain data. The results show that there is valuable information in the spectra of the data. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc788396/
3-D Spectral IP Imaging: Non-Invasive Characterization of Contaminant Plumes
The overall objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth's subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. Three specific objectives towards this end are: (1) Understanding IP at the laboratory level through measurements of complex resistivity as a function of frequency in rock and soil samples with varying pore geometries, pore fluid conductivities and saturations, and contaminant chemistries and concentrations. (2) Developing effective data acquisition techniques for measuring the critical IP responses (time domain or frequency domain) in the field. (3) Developing modeling and inversion algorithms that permit the interpretation of field IP data in terms of subsurface geology and contaminant plume properties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc782451/
3-D spectral IP imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. 1998 annual progress report
'The overall objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth''s subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. Three specific objectives towards this end are: (1) understanding IP at the laboratory level through measurements of complex resistivity as a function of frequency in rock and soil samples with varying pore geometries, pore fluid conductivities and saturations, and contaminant chemistries and concentrations; (2) developing effective data acquisition techniques for measuring the critical IP responses (time domain or frequency domain) in the field; (3) developing modeling and inversion algorithms that permit the interpretation of field IP data in terms of subsurface geology and contaminant plume properties. The authors laboratory experiments to date are described in Appendices A and B, which consist of two papers submitted to the annual SAGEEP conference (Frye et al., 1998; Sturrock et al., 1998). The experiments involved measurements of complex resistivity vs. frequency on a suite of brine saturated sandstone samples. In one set of experiments, the fluid chemistry (pH, ionic strength, and cation type) was varied. In a second set of experiments, the microgeometry of the rock matrix was varied. The experiments showed that spectral IP responses are sensitive to subtle variations in both the solution chemistry and rock microgeometry. The results demonstrate that spectral IP responses have the potential of being sensitive indicators of in-situ chemistry and microgeometry, the latter of which may be related to the hydraulic properties. Data Acquisition The authors have been looking in some detail at the effects of electromagnetic coupling and how to practically deal with it. In this area, the results to date are summarized in Vandiver (1998). The progress in the development of modeling and inversion algorithms for IP is described in Appendix C, a paper submitted to the annual SAGEEP conference (Shi et al., 1998). The authors have developed algorithms for forward modeling and inversion of spectral IP data in 3-D media. The algorithms accommodate a general earth model with a complex electrical conductivity as a function of frequency and 3-D spatial position. Using regularization and optimization techniques, the inversion algorithm obtains a 3-D image of resistivity amplitude and phase for each frequency contained in the data set. They have begun testing their algorithms on synthetic data generated from a simple model of a contaminant plume. The complex resistivity parameters of the background medium and plume are based on the laboratory results described above.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc625746/
3-D spectral IP imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996--September 14, 1997
'The objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth''s subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. The first-year accomplishments are (1) laboratory experiments on fluid-saturated sandstones quantifying the dependence of spectral IP responses on solution chemistry and rock micro-geometry; (2) library research on the current understanding of electromagnetic coupling effects on IP data acquired in the field: and (3) development of prototype forward modeling and inversion algorithms for interpreting IP data in terms of 3-D models of complex resistivity.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc620009/
3-D surface profile measurements of large x-ray synchrotron radiation mirrors using stitching interferometry.
Stitching interferometry, using small-aperture, high-resolution, phase-measuring interferometry, has been proposed for quite some time now as a metrology technique to obtain 3-dimensional profiles of surfaces of oversized optical components and substrates. The aim of this work is to apply this method to the specific case of long grazing-incidence x-ray mirrors, such as those used in beamlines at synchrotron radiation facilities around the world. Both fabrication and characterization of these mirrors would greatly benefit from this technique because it offers the potential for providing measurements with accuracy and resolution better than those obtained using existing noncontact laser profilers, such as the long trace profiler (LTP). Measurement data can be used as feedback for computer-controlled fabrication processes to correct for possible topography errors. The data can also be used for simulating and predicting mirror performance under realistic conditions. A semiautomated stitching system was built and tested at the X-ray Optics Metrology Laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The initial objective was to achieve a measurement sensitivity on the order of 1 {micro}rad rms. Preliminary tests on a 1 m-long x-ray mirror showed system repeatability of less than 0.6 {micro}rad rms. This value is comparable to that of a conventional LTP. The measurement accuracy was mostly affected by environmental perturbations and system calibration effects. With a fully automated and improved system (to be built in the near future), we expect to achieve measurement sensitivity on the order of 0.0 {micro}rad rms or better. In this paper, after a brief review of basic principles and general technical difficulties and challenges of the stitching technique, a detailed description of the measurement setup is given and preliminary results obtained with it are analyzed and discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc741012/