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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The European Union: Questions and Answers

The European Union: Questions and Answers

Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: This report describes the European Union (EU), its evolution, governing institutions, trade policy, and efforts to forge common foreign and defense policies. The report also addresses the EU-U.S. and EU-NATO relationships, which may be of interest to the second session of the 110th Congress. It will be updated as events warrant. For more information, see CRS Report RS21344, European Union Enlargement, by Kristin Archick, and CRS Report RL34381, European Union-U.S. Trade and Investment Relations: Key Issues, coordinated by Raymond Ahearn.
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European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F & Papademetriou, Theresa
Description: This report provides detailed background and legal analysis of the nature of the current European Union embargo on arms exports to China. It also provides detailed background on the European Union’s current Code of Conduct on Arms Exports. A strengthened version of the Code would be one of the control mechanisms that would remain should the EU lift the embargo on arms exports to China. This report also gives information on recent EU arms exports authorized for China. It further summarizes U.S. concerns regarding the lifting of the arms embargo, and notes the prospective timing of EU action on the embargo issue.
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European Union’s Arms Embargo on China: Implications and Options for U.S. Policy

European Union’s Arms Embargo on China: Implications and Options for U.S. Policy

Date: May 27, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Grimmett, Richard F & Kan, Shirley A
Description: Overall, there are two sets of questions for Congress in examining U.S. policy toward the fate of the EU’s arms embargo on China. What are the implications for U.S. interests in trans-Atlantic relations and China? If U.S. interests are adversely affected, what are some options for Congress to discourage the EU from lifting its arms embargo on China and, if it is lifted, to protect U.S. national security interests in both Asia and Europe? Issues raised by these questions are the subject of this CRS Report.
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The European Union's Energy Security Challenges

The European Union's Energy Security Challenges

Date: January 30, 2008
Creator: Belkin, Paul
Description: This report examines some of Europe's critical energy security challenges and EU efforts to coordinate a common European energy strategy. It also includes an overview of broader transatlantic energy security cooperation and will be updated as needed.
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The European Union's Reform Process: The Lisbon Treaty

The European Union's Reform Process: The Lisbon Treaty

Date: February 8, 2011
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report provides information on the Lisbon Treaty and possible U.S.-EU implications that may be of interest to the 112th Congress.
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The European Union's Reform Process: The Lisbon Treaty

The European Union's Reform Process: The Lisbon Treaty

Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: In December 2007, leaders of the European Union (EU) signed the Lisbon Treaty, which seeks to reform the EU's governing institutions and decisionmaking processes to enable a larger EU to operate more effectively. This new treaty represents the latest stage in a reform process begun in 2002 and essentially replaces the proposed EU "constitution" that foundered after French and Dutch voters rejected it in referendums in 2005. In June 2008, Irish voters rejected the Lisbon Treaty, and have thrown its future into doubt. This report provides background information on EU reform efforts and possible implications for U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the second session of the 110th Congress.
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The Eurozone Crisis: Overview and Issues for Congress

The Eurozone Crisis: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: February 29, 2012
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul; Mix, Derek E. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: The Eurozone's economic crisis threatens economic stability in Europe and beyond. Four specific economic challenges faced are high debt levels and public deficits, weaknesses in the European banking system, recession and high unemployment in some Eurozone countries, and persistent trade imbalances. Three issues for Congress regarding these challenges are how this situation will impact the US economy, IMG involvement, and how the US and Europe will cooperate to solve these issues.
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The Eurozone Crisis: Overview and Issues for Congress

The Eurozone Crisis: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: August 29, 2012
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul; Mix, Derek E. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report provides an overview of the causes, challenges, political dynamics, and other aspects of the Eurozone's economic crisis and discusses the related issues that Congress may address, such as: how this situation will impact the U.S. economy, IMF (International Monetary Fund) involvement, and how the US and Europe will cooperate to solve these issues. The report also contains supplemental figures and charts.
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The Financial Crisis: Impact on and Response by the European Union

The Financial Crisis: Impact on and Response by the European Union

Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: According to the most recent National Threat Assessment, the global financial crisis and its geopolitical implications pose the primary near-term security concern of the United States. Over the short run, both the EU and the United States are attempting to resolve the financial crisis while stimulating domestic demand to stem the economic downturn. These efforts have born little progress so far as the economic recession and the financial crisis have become reinforcing events, causing EU governments to forge policy responses to both crises. This report discusses this situation in detail and also discusses individual efforts by both the U.S. and EU to combat the effects of the crisis.
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Frequently Asked Questions about IMF Involvement in the Eurozone Debt Crisis

Frequently Asked Questions about IMF Involvement in the Eurozone Debt Crisis

Date: August 27, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Nanto, Dick K.; Sanford, Jonathan E. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: On May 2, 2010, the Eurozone member states and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced an unprecedented €110 billion (about $145 billion) financial assistance package for Greece. The following week, on May 9, 2010, EU leaders announced that they would make an additional €500 billion (about $636 billion) in financial assistance available to vulnerable European countries, and suggested that the IMF could contribute up to an additional €220 billion to €250 billion (about $280 billion to $318 billion). This report answers frequently asked questions about IMF involvement in the Eurozone debt crisis.
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The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

Date: January 10, 2011
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.; Jackson, James K.; Nelson, Rebecca M. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: Seventeen of the European Union's 27 member states share an economic and monetary union (EMU) with the euro as a single currency. These countries are effectively referred to as the Eurozone. What has become known as the Eurozone crisis began in early 2010 when financial markets were shaken by heightened concerns that the fiscal positions of a number of Eurozone countries, beginning with Greece, were unsustainable. This report provides background information and analysis on the future of the Eurozone in six parts, including discussions on the origins and design challenges of the Eurozone, proposals to define the Eurozone crisis, possible scenarios for the future of the Eurozone, and the implications of the Eurozone crisis for U.S. economic and political interests.
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The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

Date: January 17, 2012
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.; Jackson, James K.; Mix, Derek E. & Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: Seventeen of the European Union's 27 member states share an economic and monetary union (EMU) with the euro as a single currency. These countries are effectively referred to as the Eurozone. What has become known as the Eurozone crisis began in early 2010 when financial markets were shaken by heightened concerns that the fiscal positions of a number of Eurozone countries, beginning with Greece, were unsustainable. This report provides background information and analysis on the future of the Eurozone in six parts, including discussions on the origins and design challenges of the Eurozone, proposals to define the Eurozone crisis, possible scenarios for the future of the Eurozone, and the implications of the Eurozone crisis for U.S. economic and political interests.
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Greece Update

Greece Update

Date: August 25, 2009
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Description: This report discusses current issues regarding Greece's recent elections, economy, and foreign policies.
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Greece Update

Greece Update

Date: October 15, 2009
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Description: This report discusses current issues regarding Greece's recent elections, economy, and foreign policies.
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Greece Update

Greece Update

Date: December 16, 2009
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Description: This report discusses current issues in Greece, including the formation of the new government following recent elections, the economy, terrorism, and foreign policy. The Greek government's foreign policy focuses on the European Union (EU), sometimes-strained relations with Turkey, reunifying Cyprus, resolving a dispute with Macedonia over its name, other Balkan issues, and sustaining good relations with the United States. Greece has assisted with the war on terrorism, but is not a member of the U.S.-led coalition in Iraq and has a limited presence with NATO in Afghanistan.
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Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: May 14, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: Greece is currently facing such a sovereign debt crisis. On May 2, 2010, the Eurozone members and International Monetary Fund (IMF) endorsed a historic €110 billion (about $145 billion) financial package for Greece in an effort to avoid a Greek default and to stem contagion of Greece's crisis to other European countries, particularly Portugal, Spain, Ireland, and Italy. This report provides an overview of the crisis; outlines the major causes of the crisis, focusing on both domestic and international factors; examines how Greece, the Eurozone members, and the IMF have responded to the crisis; and highlights the broader implications of Greece's debt crisis, including for the United States.
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Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: April 27, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Greek debt crisis; outlines the major causes of the crisis, focusing on both domestic and international factors; examines how Greece, the Eurozone members, and the IMF have responded to the crisis; and highlights the broader implications of Greece's debt crisis, including for the United States.
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Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: April 7, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Greek debt crisis; outlines the major causes of the crisis, focusing on both domestic and international factors; examines how Greece, the Eurozone members, and the IMF have responded to the crisis; and highlights the broader implications of Greece's debt crisis, including for the United States.
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Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: August 18, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report covers the sovereign debt crisis currently faced by the Eurozone which has culminated with Greece, which is at the center of the crisis, Ireland, and Portugal borrowing money from other European countries and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in order to avoid default. Topics covered include: the build-up of Greece's debt crisis, policy responses with limited success, and broader implications. Specific issues for Congress include how the U.S. economy and banking industry will be affect by these recent events.
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The Greek Debt Crisis: Overview and Implications for the United States

The Greek Debt Crisis: Overview and Implications for the United States

Date: August 19, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the Greek dept crisis, including developments through July 2015 when questions about Greece's future in the Eurozone resurfaced and emergency negotiations resulted in a third financial assistance program for Greece. It also discusses potential implications of the crisis for the U.S. economy and U.S.-European cooperation on broader strategic and economic cooperation.
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Green Payments in U.S. and European Union Agricultural Policy

Green Payments in U.S. and European Union Agricultural Policy

Date: November 22, 2005
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E. & Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Description: This report compares current United States and European Union (EU) efforts in the area of green payments. Green payments refer to "payments made to agricultural producers as compensation for environmental benefits that accrue at levels beyond what producers might otherwise achieve under existing market and regulatory conditions" (summary). The report gives an overview of policies, programs, financing, and various other aspects of comparison related to the topic.
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Kosovo: Greek and Turkish Perspectives

Kosovo: Greek and Turkish Perspectives

Date: May 27, 1999
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Description: None
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NATO and the European Union

NATO and the European Union

Date: April 6, 2004
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.
Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
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NATO and the European Union

NATO and the European Union

Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E
Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department