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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1990-1999
The Big Picture: HDTV and High-Resolution Systems
A report on High Definition Television (HDTV. During 1989, HDTV moved from obscurity to center stage in the ongoing debate over the role of the Federal Government in U.S. industrial competitiveness. HDTV and related High-Resolution System (HRS) technologies in the computer and communications sectors may significantly impact U.S. electronics manufacturing, accelerate fundamental restructuring of the U.S. communications infrastructure, and provide a host of valuable services.
Bigfoot Field Manual, Version 2.1
The BigFoot Project is funded by the Earth Science Enterprise to collect and organize data to be used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System (EOS) Validation Program. The data collected by the BigFoot Project are unique in being ground-based observations coincident with satellite overpasses. In addition to collecting data, the BigFoot project will develop and test new algorithms for scaling point measurements to the same spatial scales as the EOS satellite products. This BigFoot Field Manual will be used to achieve completeness and consistency of data collected at four initial BigFoot sites and at future sites that may collect similar validation data. Therefore, validation datasets submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center that have been compiled in a manner consistent with the field manual will be especially valuable in the validation program.
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind is Used
This report provides background information regarding the bill and joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.
Bills, Resolutions, Nominations, and Treaties: Origins, Deadlines, Requirements, and Uses
In addition to bill and/or joint resolution this report presents two other acts of congress; 1) nominations and 2) treaties. It also discusses the characteristics and uses of six different kind of business before Congress, such as designation, origin, deadline for action, requirements for approval, and use.
A bimodal spacecraft bus based on a cermet fueled heat pipe reactor
Bimodal space reactor systems provide both thermal propulsion for the spacecraft orbital transfer and electrical power to the spacecraft bus once it is on station. These systems have the potential to increase both the available payload in high energy orbits and the available power to that payload. These increased mass and power capabilities can be used to either reduce mission cost by permitting the use of smaller launch vehicles or to provide increased mission performance from the current launch vehicle. A major barrier to the deployment of these bimodal systems has been the cost associated with their development. This paper describes a bimodal spacecraft bus with performance potential to permit more than 70% of the instrumented payload of the Titan IV/Centaur to be launched from the Atlas IIAS. The development cost is minimized by basing the design on existing component technologies.
Binding energies of hypernuclei and hypernuclear interactions
In part 1 the effect of nuclear core dynamics on the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei is discussed in the framework of variational correlated wave functions. In particular, the authors discuss a new rearrangement energy contribution and its effect on the core polarization. In part 2 they consider the interpretation of the {Lambda} single-particle energy in terms of basic {Lambda}-nuclear interactions using a local density approximation based on a Fermi hypernetted chain calculation of the A binding to nuclear matter. To account for the data strongly repulsive 3-body {Lambda}NN forces are required. Also in this framework they discuss core polarization for medium and heavier hypernuclei.
Binding energy effects in cascade evolution and sputtering
The MARLOWE model was extended to include a binding energy dependent on the local crystalline order, so that atoms are bound less strongly to their lattice sites near surfaces or associated damage. Sputtering and cascade evolution were studied on the examples of self-ion irradiations of Cu and Au monocrystals. In cascades, the mean binding energy is reduced {approximately}8% in Cu with little dependence on the initial recoil energy; in Au, it is reduced {approximately}9% at 1 keV and {approximately}15% at 100 keV. In sputtering, the mean binding energy is reduced {approximately}8% in Cu and {approximately}15% in Au with little energy dependence; the yields are increased about half as much. Most sites from which sputtered atoms originate are isolated in both metals. Small clusters of such sites occur in Cu, but there are some large clusters in Au, especially in [111] targets. There are always more large clusters with damage-dependent binding than with a constant binding energy, but only a few clusters are compact enough to be regarded as pits.
Bio-Treatment of Energetic Materials Using White-Rot Fungus
The nitramine explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), is used by militaries around the world in high yield munitions and often in combination with hexahydro- 1,3,5-trirdtro- 1,3,5- triazine (RDX). Improper handling and disposal of manufacturing wastewater may lead to environmental contamination. In the past wastewater was collected in disposal lagoons where it evaporated, and deposited large amounts of explosives on the lagoon floor. Although lagoon disposal is no longer practiced, thousands of acres have been already contaminated. RDX and, to a lesser extent, HMX have leached through the soil subsurface and contaminated groundwater ( 1,2). Likewjse, burning of substandard material or demilitarization of out-of-date muriitions has also led to environmental contamination. The current stockpile of energetic materials at DOE sites requires resource recovery or disposition (RRD). A related challenge exists in the clean-up of the DOE sites where soil and ground water are contaminated with explosives. Current technologies such as incineration, molten salt process, supercritical water oxidation are expensive and have technical hurdles. Open burning and open detonation(OB/OD) is not encouraged by regulatory agencies for disposal of explosives. Hence, there is need for a safe . technology to degrade these contaminants. The fi.mgal process does not employ open burning or open detonation to destroy energetic materials. The fimgal process can be used by itself, or it can augment or support other technologies for the treatment of energetic materials. The proposed enzyme technology will not release any air pollutants and will meet the regulations of Clean Air Act amendments, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Federal. Facilities Compliance Act. The goal for this project was to test the ability of white-rot fungus to degrade HMX. In our study, we investigated the biodegradation of HMX using white-rot fungus in liquid and solid cultures. The degradation of HMX was studied at 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm levels. In all cases, HMX was degraded. In general, the rate of degradation of HMX increased with increase in HMX concentration. Because of encouraging findings, further optimization of this method and eventual field testing of this technology is recommended. This research was pefiormed in collaboration with Utah State University.
Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils
The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child`s digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative.
Bioavailability of organic solvents in soils: Input into biologically based dose-response models for human risk assessments. 1998 annual progress report
'The purpose of this study is to determine the bioavailability of organic solvents following dermal exposures to contaminated soil and water. Breath analysis is being used to obtain real-time measurements of volatile organics in expired air following exposure in rats and humans. Rhesus monkeys will be used as surrogates for humans in benzene exposures. The exhaled breath data is being analyzed using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to determine the dermal bioavailability of organic solvents under realistic exposure conditions. The end product of this research will be a tested framework for the rapid screening of real and potential exposures while simultaneously developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to comprehensively evaluate and compare exposures to organics from either contaminated soil or water. This report summarizes work 7 months into a 3-year project. Method development has produced systems for solvent exposure from soil and water which mimic actual exposure, and for which animals and human volunteers can be safely tested. Soil exposure is generally open to the air (working the soil) while water exposure is generally immersion. For 6--8 hour test exposure, a patch has been developed where soil is contained against the skin by a non-occlusive membrane, while simultaneously allowing volatilization of test solvent to the environment (activated charcoal). The water counterpart is an occlusive glass culture dish, sealed to skin with silicone adhesive. Shorter term exposure is done by one hand immersion in a bucket containing circulating water or soil, the volunteer instructed to move fingers through the water or soil. Human volunteers and animals breathe fresh air via a new breath-inlet system that allows for continuous real-time analysis of undiluted exhaled air. The air supply system is self-contained and separated from the exposure solvent-laden environment. The system uses a Teledyne 3DQ Discovery ion trap mass spectrometer (MS/MS) equipped with an atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source (ASGDI). The MS/MS system provides an appraisal of individual chemical components in the breath stream in the single-digit parts-per-billion (ppb) detectable range for each of the compounds proposed for study, while maintaining linearity of response over a wide dynamic range.'
Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the major outer surface protein, OSP-A from North American and European isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi
Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in North America and Western Europe. As the major delayed immune response in humans, a better understanding of the major outer surface lipoproteins OspA and OspB are of much interest. These proteins have been shown to exhibit three distinct phylogenetic genotypes based on their DNA sequences. This paper describes the cloning of genomic DNA for each variant and amplification of PCR. DNA sequence data was used to derive computer driven phylogenetic analysis and deduced amino acid sequences. Overproduction of variant OspAs was carried out in E. coli using a T7-based expression system. Circular dichroism and fluorescence studies was carried out on the recombinant B31 PspA yielding evidence supporting a B31 protein containing 11% alpha-helix, 34% antiparallel beta-sheet, 12% parallel beta sheet.
Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal
Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory�s (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.
Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Technical progress report, January--March 1996
Shake flask bioleaching tests were conducted with Pittsburgh NO. 8 and Indiana No. 5 coal. Bacteria removed pyritic sulfur from both coals at maximum rates of 5 to 9% per day, which was about 20 times the abiotic rate of pyrite oxidation. Concentrations of inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursor elements in starting coal, bioleached coal and in leach solutions were measured. Of the 13 HAP precursors, significant amounts of arsenic, cobalt, cadmium, manganese, and nickel were removed from both coals by bacterial activity and also by the acidic leach solutions in control flasks. Little or no mercury, lead, beryllium, chromium, antimony, fluorine or chlorine was removed from the coals. Selenium was bioleached from both coals as determined by analysis of Se in leach solutions. However, analyses of Se in starting coal and in coal residues remains problematic. With very few exceptions, mass balances for the HAP precursors ranged from 80 to 120%. Improved analytical methods were developed for measuring concentrations of Hg, Se, As, and Sb in coal. Shake flask tests with pyrite oxidizing bacteria were conducted on Pittsburgh No. 8 and Indiana No. 5 coal. Concentrations of HAP precursors in the starting coal, leach solutions, and final coal residues were measured. A column leaching-rotating biological contactor (RBC) unit was assembled and a column leach test with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was begun.
Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Technical progress report, October--December 1995
During this first quarter, the project management plan was submitted and approved by DOE. A coal pyrite oxidizing bacterial population was adapted to Pittsburgh coal and was used to inoculate the first shake flask tests for hazardous air pollutants (HAP) precursor removal. Analyses were conducted on NIST 1632b, a bituminous coal certified for many of the inorganic HAP precursors.
Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)
The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.
Bioconversion of heavy crude oils: A basis for new technology
Systematic studies of chemical mechanisms by which selected microorganisms react with crude oils have led to the identification of biochemical markers characteristic of the interactions of microbes with oils. These biomarkers belong to several groups of natural products ranging from saturate and polyaromatic hydrocarbons containing heterocyclics to organometallic compounds. The biochemical conversions of oils can be monitored by these chemical markers, which are particularly useful in the optimization of biochemical processing, cost efficiency, and engineering studies. Recent results from these studies will be discussed in terms of biochemical technology for the processing of crude oils.
Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report
One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sub {minus}}) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995.
Biofacts: Fueling a stronger economy. Renewable fuel solutions for petroleum refineries
The DOE Biofuels Program is investigating processes to condition synthesis gas (syngas) produced from the gasification of biomass, coke, waste oils, and other inexpensive feedstocks and low-cost by-products. Syngas technologies offer refiners economical, flexible solutions to the challenges presented by today`s market forces and regulatory environment, such as: increasingly stringent environmental regulations that dictate the composition of petroleum products; increasingly sour crudes; increased coke production and hydrogen use resulting from heavier crude; increased disposal cost for coke and residuals oils; and decreasing hydrogen supply resulting from decreased catalytic reforming severity--a necessity to comply with requirements for reduced aromatic content. Most importantly, refiners can use the DOE syngas processes to upgrade refinery residuals and coke, which minimizes environmental problems and maximizes profitability. DOE`s solution also offers refiners the flexibility to economically supplement petroleum feedstocks with a wide variety of locally available renewable feedstocks that can be fed into the gasifier--feedstocks such as energy crops, municipal solid wastes, many industrial wastes, and agricultural by-products.
Biofiltration of volatile pollutants: Engineering mechanisms for improved design, long-term operation, prediction, and implementation. 1997 annual progress report
'Biofiltration systems can be used to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs); however, the systems are poorly understood and are currently operated as black boxes. Common operational problems associated with biofilters include fouling, deactivation, and overgrowth, all of which make biofilters ineffective for continuous, long-term use. The objective of this investigation is to develop generic methods for long-term stable operation, in particular by using selective limitation of supplemental nutrients while maintaining high activity and the ability to regenerate biofilter activity. As part of this effort, the authors will provide a deeper fundamental understanding of the important biological and transport mechanisms in biodestruction of sparingly soluble VOCs and will extend this engineering approach and developed mathematical models to two additional systems of high-priority environmental management (EM) relevance-direct degradation and cometabolic degradation of priority pollutants such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) and TCE (trichioroethylene), respectively. Preliminary results indicate that the author can control overgrowth of the biofilm while sustaining high degradation rates and develop basic predictive models that elucidate mass transfer and kinetic limitations in this system for alkanes. The alkanes are degraded into CO, and waterwith minimal biomass (due to the methodology proposed). This system will be used to test and model additional supplemental nutrient feeding strategies as well as methods to increase the fundamental driving forces by modification of the system. Models will be extended to non-steady-state, long-term operation. The author will examine the nature of the mixed microbial community in the VOC-degrading biofilm and test for new degradative activities. He will use cosolvents with surfactant properties to enhance hydrocarbon solubility in the biofilm and evaluate their impact on mass transfer and reaction rate in an operating biofilter. These results will point to further potential improvements in systems of EM priority. Constructed and acclimated three trickling-bed biofilters. Measured kinetic activity and mass transfer in biofilters under study. Demonstrated extended activity of biofilters in absence of supplemental nutrient. Quantified filter regeneration after prolonged starvation. Demonstrated competence of microbial consortium for degrading a variety of C, to C, alkanes as sole carbon and energy sources. Demonstrated competence of microbial consortium for degrading chlorinated alkane as sole carbon and energy sources. Examined solubility enhancement agents. Completed mathematical modeling of biofilm diffusion, reaction, and mass transfer effects for simple cases.'
Biofiltration of volatile pollutants: Engineering mechanisms for improved design, long-term operation, prediction and implementation. 1998 annual progress report
'Biofiltration systems can be used for treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); however, the systems are poorly understood and are currently operated as black boxes. Common operational problems associated with biofilters include fouling, deactivation, and overgrowth, all of which make them ineffective for continuous, long-term use. The objective of this investigation is to develop generic methods for long-term stable operation, in particular by using selective limitation of supplemental nutrients while maintaining high activity. As part of this effort, the author will provide deeper fundamental understanding of the important biological and transport mechanisms in biodestruction of sparingly soluble VOCs and extend this approach and mathematical models to additional systems of high priority EM relevance--direct degradation and cometabolic degradation of priority pollutants such as BTEX and chlorinated organics. This report summarizes work after 2 years of a 3-year project. Major results are enumerated and discussed'
Biofouling of groundwater distribution systems by Thiothrix spp.
Thiothrix spp., sulfide oxidizing filamentous bacteria, were found to be the main bacterial component of aquatic biofilms causing biofouling in selected municipal water storage tanks, private wells, and drip irrigation systems in Florida. The water originated from the upper Floridan aquifer and associated aquifers in Central and North Florida. Samples were examined where visible biofilms had a white, slimy, filamentous appearance indicative of Thiothrix spp. The detection of Thiothrix spp. was confirmed by enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These observations confirm that these bacteria and associated extracellular material play an important role in formation of biofilms, which in turn may induce physical changes leading to significant biofouling. These studies suggest that Thiothrix spp.-associated biofouling occurs at an interface where reduced sulfide-containing water contacts aerated water and a surface or substrate is available for attachment.
Biofuels: 1995 project summaries
Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.
Biofuels: A Solution for Climate Change
Our lives are linked to weather and climate, and to energy use. Since the late 1970s, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has invested in research and technology related to global climate change. DOE's Office Fuels Development (OFD) manages the National Biofuels Program and is the lead technical advisor on the development of biofuels technologies in the United States. Together with industry and other stakeholders, the program seeks to establish a major biofuels industry. Its goals are to develop and commercialize technologies for producing sustainable, domestic, environmentally beneficial, and economically viable fuels from dedicated biomass feedstocks.
Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado
Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.
Biological Components of Substance Abuse and Addiction
This paper describes biological contributing factors to substance abuse and addiction. The second document being produced by this study will discuss the complex interactions of biochemical, physiological, psychological, and sociological factors leading to substance abuse and addiction.
Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity
This report discusses treaty on biodiversity, issues, history and current status.
Biological Diversity Treaty: Fact Sheet
As human activity continues to change and modify natural areas, widespread extinctions of plants, animals, and other types of species result. In 1992, negotiations conducted under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) were completed on a comprehensive global treaty to protect biological diversity (biodiversity). In June 1993, President Clinton signed the treaty and sent it to the Senate for advice and consent. It is not pending in the Senate. The treaty entered into force on December 29, 1993. As of May 15, 1995, 118 nations had ratified the treaty.
A biological microcavity laser
We have demonstrated a new semiconductor laser device that may be useful in high speed characterization of cell morphology for diagnosis of disease. This laser device has critical advantages over conventional cell fluorescence detection methods since it provides intense, monochromatic, low divergence light signals that are emitted from lasing modes confined by a cell. Further, the device integrates biological structures with semiconductor materials at the wafer level to reduce size and simplify cell preparation. This microcavity semiconductor laser comprises a vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor, to provide gain and feedback for light confined by cells, and a dielectric mirror to close the cavity. Transparent cells loaded into the cavity act as dielectric waveguides to define transverse electromagnetic modes. Light emitted from the microcavity can be resolved into narrow spectral modes, high-contrast/coherent light images, or time-dependent pulses that reveal cell morphology and size. We have used this laser device as a cytometer in two basic configurations. First, as a probe of individual cells by spectral analysis of cell modes. Second, as scanning cytometer for rapidly probing large numbers of cells by pulse height spectroscopy.
Biological neutron scattering: Now and the future
Neutrons have an important role to play in structural biology. Neutron crystallography, small-angle neutron scattering and inelastic neutron scattering techniques can all contribute unique information on biomolecular structures. In particular, solution scattering techniques can give critical information on the conformations an dispositions of the components of complex assemblies under a wide variety of relevant conditions. The power of these methods are demonstrated for examples by protein/DNA complexes, and Ca{sup 2+}- binding proteins complexed with their regulatory targets. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of a new structural approach suing neutron resonance scattering. The impact of biological neutron scattering to date has been constrained principally by the available fluxes at neutron sources and the true potential of these approaches will only be realized with the development of new more powerful neutron sources.
Biological Rhythms: Implications for the Worker
This report discusses biological rhythms: what they are, how they are controlled by the brain, and the role they play in regulating physiological and cognitive functions. The major focus of the report is the examination of the effects of nonstandard work hours on biological rhythms and how these effects can interact with other factors to affect the health, performance, and safety of workers.
Biological sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons
Linear alkylbenzenes (phenylalkanes) represent an important class of molecular compounds used widely in today`s society as building blocks for detergent manufacture. Evidence is presented to support the proposition in that phenylalkanes in some Australian crude oils and sediments are of geochemical origin rather than resulting from contamination from byproducts of the petrochemical synthesis of surfactants. Evidence presented shows: (1) an unexposed sediment core was found to contain phenylalkanes; (2) the molecular weight range of phenylalkanes in sediments and crude oils is usually wider than that found in surfactants, extending in some cases beyond C{sub 35}; and (3) phenylalkanes were found in the neutral lipid extract of extant {ital Thermoplasma} bacteria. {ital Thermoplasma acidophilum} is an obligate acidiphilic (pH 2) and thermophilic (60{degrees}C), cell wall-less archaeobacterium originally isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles enriched in pyritic materials.
Biologically Based Technologies for Pest Control
This report covers technologies ranging from enhanced biological control of pests by their natural predators and parasites to commercial formulations of microbial pesticides. These technologies are grounded in an understanding of pest biology and have a relatively low probability of harmful effects on human health or the environment.
Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates
The national laboratory consortium has undertaken an R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute (MBI) to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources. The projects near-term goal is to demonstrate an economically competetive process for producing 1,4-butanediol and other derivatives from biologically produced succinic acid without generating a major salt waste. The competitiveness to the petrochemical process must be demonstrated.
Biology Division progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995
This Progress Report summarizes the research endeavors of the Biology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the period October 1, 1993, through September 30, 1995. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the Division`s major organizational units. Lists of information to convey the entire scope of the Division`s activities are compiled at the end of the report. Attention is focused on the following research activities: molecular, cellular, and cancer biology; mammalian genetics and development; genome mapping program; and educational activities.
The Biology of Mental Disorders
This report presents a summary of research into the biological factors associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder. The report also discusses support for this research and the social context in which it moves forward.
Biomass burning sources of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons
Biomass burning is an important source of many key tropospheric species, including aerosols, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub {times}}=NO+NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and other species. These emissions and their subsequent products act as pollutants and affect greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. One important by-product of biomass burning is tropospheric ozone, which is a pollutant that also absorbs infrared radiation. Ozone is formed when CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHCs react in the presence of NO{sub {times}} and sunlight. Ozone concentrations in tropical regions (where the bulk of biomass burning occurs) may increase due to biomass burning. Additionally, biomass burning can increase the concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), a key component of acid rain.
Biomass pyrolysis oil properties and combustion meeting
These proceedings contain extended abstracts from the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting held September 26-28, 1994. This meeting is cosponsored by the DOE, NREL, NRCan, and VTT Energy (Finland) for the discussion of developments in the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.
Biomass Reburning - Modeling/Engineering Studies
This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. The second reporting period (January 1- March 31) included kinetic modeling of the reburning process while firing natural gas and biomass. Modeling was done with a kinetic mechanism that combined reactions relevant to reburning from GRI-Mech 2.11 with SNCR reactions. Experimental data obtained in a 1 MMBtu/h Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF) for reburning with natural gas and biomass were modeled using the ODF kinetic code. System was treated as a series of four one-dimensional reactors. Modeling of natural gas reburning qualitatively agrees with experimental data for a wide range of initial conditions. Modeling of furniture waste reburning does not qualitatively match experimental data due to a number of model simplifications. Future work will concentrate on improving the basic reburning model to give quantitative agreement with experiments and on search for better representation of biomass composition in kinetic modeling. Experimental data on biomass reburning are included in Appendix 3. These data were obtained during the reporting period in the scope of a coordinated program funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Biomass Reburning: Modeling/Engineering Studies
Reburning is a mature fuel staging NO{sub x} control technology which has been successfully demonstrated at full scale by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) and others on numerous occasions. Based on chemical kinetic modeling and experimental combustion studies, EER is currently developing novel concepts to improve the efficiency of the basic gas reburning process and to utilize various renewable and waste fuels for NO{sub x} control. This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. Basic and advanced biomass reburning have the potential to achieve 60-90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The scope of work includes modeling studies (kinetic, CFD, and physical modeling), experimental evaluation of slagging and fouling associated with biomass reburning, and economic study of biomass handling requirements. Project participants include: EER, FETC R and D group, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and Antares, Inc. Most of the combustion experiments on development of biomass reburning technologies are being conducted in the scope of coordinated SBIR program funded by USDA. The first reporting period (October 1--December 31, 1997) included preparation of project management plan and organization of project kick-off meeting at DOE FETC. The quarterly report briefly describes the management plan and presents basic information about the kick-off meeting.
BIOME: A browser-aware search and order system
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), which is associated with NASA`s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), provides access to a large number of tabular and imagery datasets used in ecological and environmental research. Because of its large and diverse data holdings, the challenge for the ORNL DAAC is to help users find data of interest from the hundreds of thousands of files available at the DAAC without overwhelming them. Therefore, the ORNL DAAC developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a search and order system for the World Wide Web (WWW). The WWW provides a new vehicle that allows a wide range of users access to the data. This paper describes the specialized attributes incorporated into BIOME that allow researchers easy access to an otherwise bewildering array of data products.
Biomedical Ethics in U.S. Public Policy
This report reviews the history of four Federal bioethics initiatives: the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, the Ethics Advisory Board, the President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee.
Biomimetic methane oxidation. Final report, October 1, 1989--June 1, 1995
Transportation fuels are a critical energy commodity and they impact nearly every sector of this country. The need for transportation fuels is projected well into the next century. Consequently, there is a strong emphasis on the economical conversion of other domestic fossil energy resources to liquid hydrocarbons that can be used as transportation fuels. Natural gas is currently a readily available resource that has a positive future outlook considering its known and anticipated reserves. There is intense government and industrial interest in developing economic technologies to convert natural gas to liquid fuels. Methane, CH{sub 4}, is the primary hydrocarbon (85-95%) in natural gas. This document covers the following: production soluable of methane monooxygenase; production of particulate methane monooxygenase; production of methane monooxygenase in continuous culture; subunit resolution for active site identification of methylosinus trichosporium OB3b soluble methane monooxygenase; the synthesis and characterization of new copper coordination complexes contairing the asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand application to enzyme active site modeling; the synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand; further characterization of new bionuclear iron complexes.
Biomimetic thin film deposition
Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.
Biomimetic TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis: A model system for pyotosynthesis
Illumination of semiconductor colloids with light having energy greater than the band gap leads to the formation of electron/hold pairs. Similar to the natural photosynthetic systems, rapid recombination of photogenerated carriers is prevented by removal of one or both carriers from the semiconductor particle. Since the lifetime of charged pairs is very short, only very fast reactions with adsorbed species lead to efficient charge separation. Concurrently, surface adsorption also results in the blocking of the surface states that thermalize photogenerated charges and convert useful energy into heat. Thus, if the surface of the colloid is properly engineered the kinetics of the photochemical reactions and the redox properties of photogenerated charges in the modified colloids may be enhanced for stabilized charge separation, such as in natural photosynthesis. We have shown that adsorption of {alpha}-substituted mercapto-carboxylic acids on small particle TiO{sub 2} colloids results in the bidentate coordination of surface Ti atoms with carboxyl and mercapto groups. This complex is stabilized by the formation of a five membered ring which is the optimal configuration for octahedral coordination of Ti atoms. This surface modification of TiO{sub 2} results in the formation of a charge transfer complex that shifts the optical absorption threshold to the visible region of the spectrum (520 nm). These complexes provide more favorable absorbance properties for solar energy conversion. In this work we are applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to study the transient species formed by the reactions initiated by charge transfer or colloid photoabsorption.
Biomonitoring for the photovoltaics industry
Biomonitoring often is used as a method for estimating the dose to an individual. Therefore, a parameter of measurement, or biomarkers must be identified. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of biomonitoring protocols for metals used in the photovoltaics industry. Special attention is given to areas that often are skimmed over, to gain insights into some of the problems that may arise when these tasks are carried out. Biological monitoring can be used to determine current human exposures to chemicals, as well as to detect past exposures, and the effects that these exposures may have on human health. It is used in conjunction with environmental monitoring to describe more completely worker`s exposures to, and absorption of, chemicals in the workplace. Biological specimens (e.g., blood, hair or urine) are analyzed for chemical agents, metabolites, or for some specific effect on the person (Lowry 1994). Biomonitoring can assess a workers exposure to industrial chemicals by all routes including skin absorption and ingestion. Although the methodology still is in its infancy, in cases where the procedures have been developed, it can be an invaluable component of an ongoing program of industrial hygiene monitoring. Like any technology, there are limitations to its effectiveness because of a lack of knowledge, contamination of specimens, and the introduction of errors.
Biopolymers: Making Materials Nature's Way
This report discusses a study that provides a basic introduction to biopolymer technology; profiles some of the more promising polymer materials; reviews research activities in the United States, Europe, and Japan; and describes the principal technical challenges and regulatory issues that may affect biopolymer commercialization efforts.
Bioreduction amenability testing of actinide contaminated soils. The systems: Am{sup 241}-Pu{sup 238}, Am{sup 241}-Pu{sup 239/40}, U
Bioreductive processing of actinide contaminated soils can achieve extraction levels in excess of 97% for both plutonium and uranium contaminants. Reasonable reaction rates of 4 to 6 day resident times for Pu-Am have been demonstrated on 4 gram sample charges. Longer reaction times of 17 days required for uranium extraction can be improved by soil sample preconditioning and/or an increase in process reagent concentrations. The environmentally benign treatment process operates at pH 6--7, preserves the original soil matrix, and utilizes standard processing equipment. The process reagent component (inoculum SD-1 and biological growth medium PX100{trademark}) are available for utilization in an integrated system. Process techniques developed by MBX, involving graduated volume bioreactors have been proven to alleviate biological toxicity problems in treatment leachates. Bioreduction processing of actinide contaminated soils, preconditioning of soil charges, and recycling or vegetation of unacceptable tailings can be combined to provide an effective and environmentally attractive method of remediation. The soil test program was designed to determine the applicability of the MBX bioreductive technology to solubilize Pu and Am from RFP, Mound and LANL soils and uranium from Hanford and Fernald soils.
Bioremediation for Marine Oil Spills
This OTA background paper evaluates the current state of knowledge and assesses the potential of bioremediation for responding to marine oil spills. Our basic message is a dual one: we caution that there are still many uncertainties about the use of bioremediation as a practical oil spill response technology; nevertheless, it could be appropriate in certain circumstances, and further research and development of bioremediation technologies could lead to enhancing the Nation’s capability to fight marine oil spills.
Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater
Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.
Bioremediation of high explosives
Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite small. However, these experiments are useful for gathering basic information about the biochemical pathways of biodegradation, identifying appropriate organisms and obtaining rates of degradation. The authors` laboratory has investigated all three major areas of explosives bioremediation: explosives in solution, explosives in soil, and the disposal of bulk explosives from demilitarization operations. They investigated the three explosives most commonly used in modern high explosive formulations: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).