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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1990-1999
1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report
Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).
The 1995 Japan-U.S. Auto and Parts Trade Dispute: Terms of the Settlement and Implications
On June 28, 1995, the United States and Japan reached a settlement in a long-running dispute over access to Japan's market for automobiles and parts. 100-percent tariffs by the United States on imports of luxury cars from Japan had been threatened under a Section 301 unfair trade practices case dealing with the aftermarket for autoparts in Japan. This report describes the dispute, the settlement, and questions and issues that still remain.
1995 Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Annual report
The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) is a key component of the discretionary research conducted by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (Lockheed Idaho) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The threefold purpose and goal of the LDRD program is to maintain the scientific and technical vitality of the INEL, respond to and support new technical opportunities, and enhance the agility and flexibility of the national laboratory and Lockheed Idaho to address the current and future missions of the Department of Energy.
1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.
The study establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. The study presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, and serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.
1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.
The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (WhiteBook), is published annually by BPA, and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the, information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC).
1995 project of the year Hanford Environmental compliance project nomination
The completion of the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project in December 1995 brought to a successful close a long line of major contributions to environmental cleanup. Not since the early days of the Hanford Site during and shortly after World War 11 had such a large group of diverse construction activities, with a common goal, been performed at Hanford. Key to this success was the unique combination of 14 subprojects under the HEC Project which afforded the flexibility to address evolving subproject requirements. This strategy resulted in the accomplishment of the HEC Project stakeholders` objectives on an aggressive schedule, at a $33 million cost savings to the customer. The primary objectives of the HEC Project were to upgrade selected Hanford Site facilities and systems to bring them into compliance with current environmental standards and regulations. The HEC Project contributed significantly towards the Hanford site compliance with Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. It provided, in part, those construction activities required to comply with those requirements in the areas of liquid and solid waste treatment and disposal, waste characterization, and groundwater monitoring.
1995 PVUSA progress report. Final report
Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale (US) photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in PV module technology. This report updates the project`s progress, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1995, summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions, and serves as the final report under Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s project management.
1995 Site Development Plan. [Annual report]
The mission of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to apply science and technology in the national interest. LLNL`s focus is on global security, global ecology, and bioscience. Laboratory, employees are working with industrial and academic partners to increase national economic competitiveness and improve science education. Laboratory`s mission is dynamic and has been changed over the years to meet new national needs.
1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary
The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford`s SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TW{underscore}TRUM).
1995 solid waste 30-year container volume summary
This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container category. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU-TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container categories will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1995 through FY 2024. The data presented in this report establish a baseline for solid waste management both in the present and future. With knowledge of the volumes by container type, decisions on the facility handling and storage requirements can be adequately made. It is recognized that the forecast estimates will vary as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined; however, the data presented in this report still provide useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.
1995 verification flow testing of the HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico
Recent flow testing of the Fenton Hill HDR reservoir has demonstrated that engineered geothermal systems can be shut-in for extended periods of d= with apparently no adverse effects. However, when this particular reservoir at Venton Hill was shut-in for 2 years in a pressurized condition, natural convection within the open-jointed reservoir region appears to have leveled out the preexisting temperature gradient so that the gradient has now approached a condition more typical of liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs which air invariably almost isothermal due to natural convection. As a result of the sudden flow impedance reduction that led to an almost 50% increase in Production flow new the end of the Second Phase of the LTFR in May 1993, we were uncertain as to the state of the reservoir after being shut-in for 2 years. The flow performance observed during the current testing was found to be intermediate between that at-the end of the Second Phase of the LTFT and that following, the subsequent sudden flow increase, implying that whatever caused the sudden reduction in impedance in the first place is probably somehow associated with the cooldown of the reservoir near the injection interval, since temperature recovery at the surfaces of the surrounding open joints is the most obvious phenomenon expected to occur over time within the reservoir.
1996 DOE technical standards program workshop: Proceedings
The workshop theme is `The Strategic Standardization Initiative - A Technology Exchange and Global Competitiveness Challenge for DOE.` The workshop goal is to inform the DOE technical standards community of strategic standardization activities taking place in the Department, other Government agencies, standards developing organizations, and industry. Individuals working on technical standards will be challenged to improve cooperation and communications with the involved organizations in response to the initiative. Workshop sessions include presentations by representatives from various Government agencies that focus on coordination among and participation of Government personnel in the voluntary standards process; reports by standards organizations, industry, and DOE representatives on current technology exchange programs; and how the road ahead appears for `information superhighway` standardization. Another session highlights successful standardization case studies selected from several sites across the DOE complex. The workshop concludes with a panel discussion on the goals and objectives of the DOE Technical Standards Program as envisioned by senior DOE management. The annual workshop on technical standards has proven to be an effective medium for communicating information related to standards throughout the DOE community. Technical standards are used to transfer technology and standardize work processes to produce consistent, acceptable results. They provide a practical solution to the Department`s challenge to protect the environment and the health and safety of the public and workers during all facility operations. Through standards, the technologies of industries and governments worldwide are available to DOE. The DOE Technical Standards Program, a Department-wide effort that crosscuts all organizations and disciplines, links the Department to those technologies.
The 1996 Farm Bill: Comparisons of Selected Provisions with Previous Law
Final congressional approval was given to H.R. 2854, the Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act, otherwise known as the "1996 farm bill," on March 28, 1996. President Clinton signed the bill into law on April 4, 1996 (P.L. 104-127). In tabular format, this CRS report lays out in descriptive, rather than legislative language, the major provisions of the new farm bill in contrast to preceding law.
1996 Hanford site annual dangerous waste report
No abstract available.
1996 Tier two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory emergency planning and community right-to-know act section 312
No abstract prepared.
1997 Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER)
The SLAC program centers around experimental and theoretical research in elementary particle physics using accelerated electron beams and a broad program of research in atoms and solid-state physics, chemistry, and biology using synchrotron radiation from accelerated electron beams. There is also an active program in the development of accelerators, detectors, and new sources and instrumentation for synchrotron radiation research. The main instrument of research is the 3.2-km linear accelerator (linac) that generates high intensity beams of electrons and positrons up to 50 GeV, which are among the highest energy electron and positron beams available in the world. The linac is also used for injecting electrons and positrons into colliding-beam storage rings for particle physics research. The Positron-Electron Project (PEP) storage ring is about 800 meters in diameter. The PEP program was completed several years ago. PEP is now being upgraded to serve as an Asymmetric B Factory (or PEP-II) that will study the B meson. PEP-II will make use of much of PEP's existing equipment and infrastructure, and is scheduled for completion in 1998. A smaller storage ring, the Stanford Positron-Electron Asymmetric Ring (SPEAR) has its own smaller linac and a booster ring for injecting accelerated beams of electrons. SPEAR is fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research. The synchrotron light generated by the SPEAR storage ring is used by the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to perform experiments. Scientists from all parts of the United States and from throughout the world participate in the experimental programs at SLAC.
1997 Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico
No abstract prepared.
1997 annual site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada
Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. Thes annual report (calendar year 1997) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act. In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared as required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.
1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste
The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.
1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is operated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) mission to provide weapon component technology and hardware for national security needs. SNL/NM also conducts fundamental research and development to advance technology in energy research, computer science, waste management, microelectronics, materials science, and transportation safety for hazardous and nuclear components. In support of SNL's mission, the Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Center and the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at SNL/NM have established extensive environmental programs to assist SNL's line organizations in meeting all applicable local, State, and Federal environmental regulations and DOE requirements. This annual report for calendar year 1998 (CY98) summarizes the compliance status of environmental regulations applicable to SNL site operations. Environmental program activities include terrestrial surveillance; ambient air and meteorological monitoring hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste management; pollution prevention and waste minimization; environmental remediation; oil and chemical spill prevention; and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities. This report has been prepared in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990).
1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada
Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).
1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.
The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.
1998 Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory
This report describes the calendar year 1998 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1998 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The INEEL complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the exception of nitrogen samples in a disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.
2000 Census: Analysis of Fiscal Year 2000 Amended Budget Request
A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Bureau of the Census' fiscal year (FY) 2000 budget, focusing on: (1) an overall analysis of the key changes in assumptions resulting in the $1.7 billion request increase; (2) details on the components of this increase and which changes, according to the bureau, are related and which are not related to the inability to use statistical sampling; and (3) the process the bureau used for developing the increase in the original FY 2000 budget request and the amended budget request."
2000 Census: Contingency Planning Needed to Address Risks That Pose a Threat to a Successful Census
A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Year 2000 census, focusing on: (1) the need to boost the declining level of public participation in the census; and (2) the Census Bureau's need to collect timely and accurate data from nonrespondents."
2000 Census: Information on the Implications of a Post Census Local Review Program
Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on how census operations and data accuracy could be affected if the Bureau of the Census were to include a coverage improvement program known as Post Census Local Review (PCLR) in the 2000 census."
2000 Census: Local Address Review Program Has Had Mixed Results to Date
Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the implementation of the Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) program, focusing on: (1) the Bureau of the Census' operational experience to date in implementing LUCA; and (2) local governments' views of the adequacy of local resources to conduct LUCA and of the quality of materials and assistance the Bureau has provided."
21st century advanced hydropower turbine system
While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven`t changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, since little was known about environmental effects of hydropower at the time. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the hydropower industry recognize that hydropower plants have an effect on the environment and there is a great need to bring turbine designs into the 21st century. DOE has issued a request for proposals (RFP) that requested proposers to discard conventional thinking, search out innovative solutions, and to visualize innovative turbines designed from a new perspective. This perspective would look at the {open_quotes}turbine system{close_quotes} (intake to tailrace) which will balance environmental, technical, and economic considerations. This paper describes the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program.
29th Annual PolyMAC Meeting: book of abstracts
A sixteen-run, Resolution IV, fractional factorial screening design has been used to evaluate the relative significance of seven independent material and process variables for an electrically deposited commercial acrylic paint. A Resolution IV design was chosen so that variable interactions could be detected without any interference from the effects of the variables themselves. Because resource limitations did not permit use of a Resolution V design, the two-way interactions were confounded with one another in groups of three, which unfortunately made interpretation of the results more complicated. Each design point was replicated once and a pair of centerpoints were run at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the design points. A total of 38 test panels were prepared. Independent variables used in this experiment were total charge, current density, mixer speed, silica content, crossover point, temperature and solids fraction. The magnitude of each independent variable's effect on the dependent response variables was estimated by fitting a first-order model with two-way interaction terms. Three-way interactions were assumed to be insignificant. Interaction confounding was eliminated by using the significance of the independent variables to determine which of the three possible interactions was significant. Data analysis was performed using the Bayes Plot option of the JMP statistics program from SAS Institute. Only effects with a posterior probability equal to or greater than 0.95 were considered to be significant. Response variables analyzed were weight deposited, film thickness, surface roughness and plating efficiency. Results of the analysis are summarized. The following conclusions were formulated from the analysis of this experiment: Centerpoint behavior brings shelf-stability of the aqueous paint baths into question; Interactions among the material and process variables are present and significant; The magnitudes of some interaction effects equal or exceed the magnitudes of some of the effects of the independent variables; Silica is detrimental to surface smoothness, interacts strongly with other variables, is hard to keep suspended in aqueous baths, and should be replaced with a liquid rheology control agent; and Because of the significance of two-way variable interactions, One-Variable-At-A-Time experiments with this material and process could lead to erroneous conclusions about variable effects.
2D and 3D ablation front hydrodynamic instability experiments on Nova
Single-mode experiments have been conducted on the Nova laser to examine the effect of perturbation shape on ablation front Rayleigh-Taylor growth. The perturbations investigated had the same magnitude wave vector k=(k{sub x}{sup 2}+k{sub y}{sup 2}){sup 1/2} and the same initial amplitude. The shapes corresponded to 2D {lambda}=50 {mu}m, 3D square k{sub x}=k{sub y}, and stretched k{sub x}=3k{sub y} perturbations. We observed that the 3D perturbations grew more than the 2D perturbation. Numerical simulations in 2D and 3D arc in agreement, showing the most symmetric modes growing the largest.
A 2D fluid model of the DC planar magnetron cathode
This model finds the plasma density distribution, n(x,y), and the positive electrical potential, {phi}{sub {infinity}}, between the surface of a planar magnetron cathode and a distant, uniform plasma. The intended application is for parameter studies of gas discharges in the range of 1--100 mTorr, which are often used as sputtering sources. The primary results are formulas which show how the spatial variation of the magnetic field, B(x,y), shapes the plasma density and influences the potential, as well as determining the magnitude of the magnetron current parallel to the cathode surface.
2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of SATURN imploding Z-pinches
Z-pinch implosions driven by the SATURN device at Sandia National Laboratory are modeled with a 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, showing strong growth of magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (MRT) instability. Modeling of the linear and nonlinear development of MRT modes predicts growth of bubble-spike structures that increase the time span of stagnation and the resulting x-ray pulse width. Radiation is important in the pinch dynamics keeping the sheath relatively cool during the run-in and releasing most of the stagnation energy. The calculations give x-ray pulse widths and magnitudes in reasonable agreement with experiments, but predict a radiating region that is too dense and radially localized at stagnation. We also consider peaked initial density profiles with constant imploding sheath velocity that should reduce MRT instability and improve performance. 2D krypton simulations show an output x-ray power > 80 TW for the peaked profile.
A 2D smart pixel detector for time-resolved protein crystallography
A smart pixel detector is being developed for Time Resolved Crystallography for biological and material science applications. Using the Pixel detector presented here, the Laue method will enable the study of the evolution of structural changes that occur within the protein as a function of time. The x-ray pixellated detector is assembled to the integrated circuit through a bump bonding process. Within a pixel size of 150 x 150 {mu}m{sup 2}, a low noise preamplifier-shaper, a discriminator, a 3 bit counter and the readout logic are integrated. The readout, based on the Column Architecture principle, will accept hit rates above 5x10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}/s with a maximum hit rate per pixel of 1 MHz. This detector will allow time resolved Laue crystallography to be performed in a frameless operation mode, without dead time. Target specifications, architecture, and preliminary results on the 8 x 8 front-end prototype and column readout are presented.
2D spatial gain profiles in multiple-pulse driven Ne-like Ge lasers
In this paper, we present the direct spatial measurement of the two-dimensional gain profiles for the Ne-like Ge 196 Å laser line using a slab target illuminated by the multiple pulse technique. To understand the spatial dependence for Ge plasmas driven by a series of 100 ps pulses 400 ps apart we did a series of Nova experiments backlighting short Ge amplifiers. Two-dimensional, high-resolution, spatial images of the 196 Å laser emission from the output aperture of the amplifiers were measured to determine the spatial position of the gain. The amplifier lengths were chosen to be short enough to avoid the significant refraction effects which have dominated the analysis of previous near field imaging experiments. To assure good temporal overlap, the traveling wave geometry was used to illuminate both the amplifier and backlighter. The amplifier design included a wire fiducial that provided an absolute spatial reference and avoided the usual difficulty of determining the location of the target surface. We compare the measured spatial gain profiles with simulations done using LASNEX, which calculates the hydrodynamic evolution of the plasma, and XRASER, which uses the temperatures and densities from LASNEX to do the gain and kinetics calculations.
2l-nl{prime} x-ray transitions from neonlike charge states of the row 5 metals with 39 {le} Z {le} 46
X-ray spectra of 2l-2l{prime} transitions with 3 {le} n {le} 12 in the row five transition metals zirconium (Z = 40), niobium (Z = 41), molybdenum (Z = 42) and palladium (Z = 46) from charge states around neonlike have been observed from Alcator C-Mod plasmas. Accurate wavelengths ({+-} .2 m{angstrom}) have been determined by comparison with neighboring argon, chlorine and sulfur lines with well known wavelengths. Line identifications have been made by comparison to ab initio atomic structure calculations, using a fully relativistic, parametric potential code. For neonlike ions, calculated wavelengths and oscillator strengths are tabulated for 2p-nd transitions in Y (Z = 39), Tc (Z = 43), Ru (Z = 44) and Rh (Z = 45) with n = 6 and 7. The magnitude of the configuration interaction between the (2p{sup 5}){sub 1/2}6d{sub 3/2} J = 1 level and the (2p{sup 5}){sub 3/2}7D{sub 5/2} J = 1 levels is demonstrated as a function of atomic number for successive neonlike ions. Measured spectra of selected transitions in the aluminum-, magnesium-, sodium- and fluorine like isosequences are also shown.
2nd international workshop on laboratory astrophysics with intense lasers book of abstracts
No abstract prepared.
2nd Workshop on Satellites for Solar Energy Assessments
A Collection of Presentations on new techniques for developing climatological estimates of the solar resource at all locations on earth at a resolution of 100km, and of developing estimates at half-hour intervals at resolutions of 10 km or less in specific locations.
3000 Area Phase 1 environmental assessment
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to sell the 3000 Area to prospective buyers. Environmental Services was requested by the WHC Economic Transition group to assess potential environmental liabilities in the area. Historical review of the area indicated that the site was the location of ``Camp Hanford`` in 1951 and has been used for a variety of purposes since then. The activities in the area have changed over the years. A number of Buildings from the area have been demolished and at least 15 underground storage tanks (USTs) have been removed. Part of the 3000 Area was identified as Operable Unit 1100-EM-3 in the Tri-Party Agreement and was cleaned up by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The cleanup included removal of contaminated soil and USTS. WHC and ICF KH had also performed sampling and analysis at some locations in the 3000 Area prior to USACE`s work on the Operable Unit 1100-EM-3. They removed a number of USTs and performed remediation.
31st Annual Report
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is an annual report.
32nd Annual Report
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is an annual report.
33rd Annual Report
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is an annual report.
34th Annual Report
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is an annual report.
35th Annual Report
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is an annual report.
36th Annual Report
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is an annual report.
3D dislocation dynamics: stress-strain behavior and hardening mechanisms in FCC and BCC metals
A dislocation dynamics (DD) model for plastic deformation, connecting the macroscopic mechanical properties to basic physical laws governing dislocation mobility and related interaction mechanisms, has been under development. In this model there is a set of critical reactions that determine the overall results of the simulations, such as the stress-strain curve. These reactions are, annihilation, formation of jogs, junctions, and dipoles, and cross-slip. In this paper we discuss these reactions and the manner in which they influence the simulated stress- strain behavior in fcc and bcc metals. In particular, we examine the formation (zipping) and strength of dipoles and junctions, and effect of jogs, using the dislocation dynamics model. We show that the strengths (unzipping) of these reactions for various configurations can be determined by direct evaluation of the elastic interactions. Next, we investigate the phenomenon of hardening in metals subjected to cascade damage dislocations. The microstructure investigated consists of small dislocation loops decorating the mobile dislocations. Preliminary results reveal that these loops act as hardening agents, trapping the dislocations and resulting in increased hardening.
3D finite-difference frequency-domain code for electromagnetic induction tomography
The effect of shrapnel on target chamber components and experiments at large lasers such as the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and the Megajoule Laser at CESTA in France is an important issue in fielding targets and exposure samples. Modeling calculations are likely to be an important component of this effort. Some work in this area has been performed by French workers, who are collaborating with the LLNL on many issues relating to target chamber, experiment-component, and diagnostics survival. Experiments have been performed at the PhCbus laser in France to measure shrapnel produced by laser-driven targets; among these shots were experiments that accelerated spheres of a size characteristic of some of the more damaging shrapnel. These spheres were stopped in polyethylene witness plates. The penetration depth is characteristic of the velocity of the shrapnel. Experimental calibration of steel sphere penetration into polyethylene was performed at the CESTA facility. The penetration depth has been reported (ref. 1) and comparisons with modeling calculations have been made (ref. 2). There was interest in a comparison study of the modeling of these experiments to provide independent checks of the calculations. This work has been approved both by DOE headquarters and by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); it is task number 99-3.2 of the 1999 ICF agreement between the DOE and the CEA. Daniel Gogny of the CEA who is on a long-term assignment to LLNL catalyzed this collaboration. This report contains the initial results of our modeling effort.
3D Fokker-Planck modeling of axisymmetric collisional losses of fusion products in TFTR
Results of a 3D (in constants of motion space) Fokker-Planck simulation of collisional losses of fusion products in axisymmetric DT and DD discharges on TFTR are presented. The distributions of escaped ions over poloidal angle, pitch angle, and their energy spectra are obtained. Axisymmetric collisional losses of fusion products are found to be less than (2--5)%. The distribution of confined fusion products is shown to be strongly anisotropic and nonuniform in the radial coordinate mainly for slowed-down fusion products with small longitudinal energy. Comparison of these results of modeling and experimental data is done.
3D-modeling for the LANL-APT RFQ
An 8-m-long 4-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) has been proposed by LANL for use in high-current proton accelerators. This RFQ is made up of four 2-m-long coupled segments; the end regions and segment joints need full 3D modeling. In this paper, the strategies for piecewise treatment of the RFQ and results of the modeling are presented.
3D plasma fluid simulations in divertor tokamaks. Final technical report, 1993--1995
The main accomplishment of this grant was the development of a finite element time dependent magnetofluid code, FEMHD. The code is nonlinear and three dimensional. In the poloidal plane, the elemental cells of the mesh are triangles, which offer both simplicity and adaptability. In the third, toroidal, direction, there is an option of a standard staggered finite difference mesh, or Fourier transforms. The FEMHD code runs on several platforms, including Crays, UNIX workstations, and a parallel version runs on an IBM SP1. Several problems have been considered with the unstructured mesh FEMHD code. They are (1) MHD simulations in divertor tokamaks; (2) simulations of ELM-like ballooning modes in divertor tokamaks; and (3) reconnection and singular MHD equilibria.
3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging
The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.