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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agriculture Support Mechanisms in the European Union: A Comparison with the United States

Agriculture Support Mechanisms in the European Union: A Comparison with the United States

Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: The European Union (EU), comprised of 15 member states (countries), is one of the United States’ chief agricultural trading partners and also a major competitor in world markets. Both heavily support their agricultural sectors, with a large share of such support concentrated on wheat, feed grains, cotton, oilseeds, sugar, dairy, and tobacco. However, the EU provides more extensive support to a broader range of farm and food products. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the EU and United States in 2001 together accounted for nearly two-thirds of all government support to agriculture among the major developed economies. However, EU agricultural spending generally is much higher than in the United States. Information comparing how the U.S. and EU governments support their producers is expected to be of interest to policymakers while negotiations are underway among world trading partners to further reform agricultural trade.
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Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.S.-EU Dispute

Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.S.-EU Dispute

Date: November 17, 2005
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: In May 2003, the United States, Canada, and Argentina initiated a formal challenge before the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the European Union’s (EU’s) de facto moratorium on approving new agricultural biotechnology products, in place since 1998. Although the EU effectively lifted the moratorium in May 2004 by approving a genetically engineered (GE) corn variety, the three countries are pursuing the case, in part because a number of EU member states continue to block approved biotech products. Because of delays, the WTO is expected to decide the case by December 2005. The moratorium reportedly cost U.S. corn growers some $300 million in exports to the EU annually. The EU moratorium, U.S. officials contend, threatened other agricultural exports not only to the EU, but also to other parts of the world where the EU approach to regulating agricultural biotechnology is taking hold.
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Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.S.-EU Dispute

Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.S.-EU Dispute

Date: March 10, 2006
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: In May 2003, the United States, Canada, and Argentina initiated a formal challenge before the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the European Union’s (EU’s) de facto moratorium on approving new agricultural biotechnology products, in place since 1998. Although the EU effectively lifted the moratorium in May 2004 by approving a genetically engineered (GE) corn variety, the three countries are pursuing the case, in part because a number of EU member states continue to block approved biotech products. Because of delays, the WTO is expected to decide the case by December 2005. The moratorium reportedly cost U.S. corn growers some $300 million in exports to the EU annually. The EU moratorium, U.S. officials contend, threatened other agricultural exports not only to the EU, but also to other parts of the world where the EU approach to regulating agricultural biotechnology is taking hold.
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Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation: Background and Analysis

Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation: Background and Analysis

Date: March 7, 2011
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Description: This report discusses commercial ties between the United States and the 27-member European Union. These ties are substantial, growing, and mutually beneficial, but differences in regulatory approaches limit an even more integrated marketplace from developing. This report is intended to serve as an introduction and primer on this complicated, broad, and often highly technical set of issues.
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NATO and the European Union

NATO and the European Union

Date: April 6, 2004
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.
Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
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NATO and the European Union

NATO and the European Union

Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.
Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
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NATO and the European Union

NATO and the European Union

Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E
Description: Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions.
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NATO and the European Union

NATO and the European Union

Date: January 4, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Gallis, Paul E.
Description: None
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Turkey: Situation Update

Turkey: Situation Update

Date: September 12, 1997
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Description: This report briefly discusses recent political, economic, and security issues in Turkey, especially relating to Turkey's relationship with Greece, the European Union, and the United States.
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World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

Date: December 12, 2011
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report discusses the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, begun in November 2001, which has entered its 11th year. The report includes background on Doha and the significance fo the negotiations as well as a breakdown of issues on the Doha agenda and the role of the Congress.
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U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

Date: May 21, 2012
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: This report examines the evolution of counterterrorism cooperation between the United States and the European Union (EU), particularly since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. It includes a discussion of U.S.-EU cooperation progress and ongoing challenges, as well as perspectives and issues for Congress.
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U.S. and EU Agricultural Support: Overview and Comparison

U.S. and EU Agricultural Support: Overview and Comparison

Date: March 21, 2011
Creator: Schnepf, Randy & Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: This report uses data from two public sources to compare agricultural support between the United States and the European Union (EU): (1) estimates of domestic support for agricultural programs based on World Trade Organization (WTO) notifications; and (2) the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD's) country-level policy database. Each of these data sources uses a slightly different metric to evaluate agricultural support. The report includes an overview of farm programs in the U.S. and EU, comparisons of support based on the metrics, and conclusions with policy implications.
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U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

Date: July 18, 2011
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: This report examines the evolution of counterterrorism cooperation between the United States and the European Union (EU), particularly since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. It includes a discussion of U.S.-EU cooperation progress and ongoing challenges, as well as perspectives and issues for Congress.
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U.S. - EU Poultry Dispute

U.S. - EU Poultry Dispute

Date: February 4, 2009
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report discusses the European Union (EU) refusal to accept U.S. imports of poultry treated with antimicrobial rinses. Prior to 1997, when the prohibition took effect, U.S. exports of broiler and turkey meat to the 15 countries that then constituted the EU were reported to total nearly 32,000 MT with a value of $44.4 million.
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U.S.-EU Trade and Economic Relations: Key Policy Issues for the 112th Congress

U.S.-EU Trade and Economic Relations: Key Policy Issues for the 112th Congress

Date: January 18, 2012
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Description: U.S. and European private stakeholders, concerned about slow growth, job creation, and increased competition from emerging economies, have urged Brussels and Washington to strengthen transatlantic trade and economic ties by reducing or eliminating remaining trade barriers and by cooperating more closely in addressing global economic challenges. A select group of these issues are examined in this report.
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U.S.-EU Trade and Economic Relations: Key Policy Issues for the 112th Congress

U.S.-EU Trade and Economic Relations: Key Policy Issues for the 112th Congress

Date: February 17, 2011
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Description: This report examines the trade relations between the United States, the European Union, and China.
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The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

Date: July 27, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides a background of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) financial crisis and the issues for Congress.
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The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

Date: May 25, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides a background of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), financial crisis and the issues for Congress.
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The Proposed Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Background and Key Issues

The Proposed Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Background and Key Issues

Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: The proposed Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a new agreement for combating intellectual property rights (IPR) infringement. The ACTA negotiation concluded in October 2010, nearly three years after it began, and negotiating parties released a final text of the agreement in May 2011. Negotiated by the United States, Australia, Canada, the European Union and its 27 member states, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore, and Switzerland, the ACTA is intended to build on the IPR protection and enforcement obligations set forth in the 1995 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement).
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The European Parliament

The European Parliament

Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: The 785-member, directly elected European Parliament (EP) is a key institution of the 27-member European Union (EU). Once limited to being a consultative assembly, the EP has accumulated more power over time. Currently, it plays a role in the EU's legislative and budgeting processes, and exercises general supervision over other EU bodies. Ties between the EP and the U.S. Congress are long-standing, and EPCongressional exchanges are expected to continue in the second session of the 110th Congress.
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European Union Englargement

European Union Englargement

Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: The European Union (EU) views the enlargement process as a historic opportunity to promote stability and prosperity in Europe. Although the EU maintains that the enlargement door remains open, "enlargement fatigue" has become a serious issue in Europe and some experts believe that EU enlargement may be reaching its limits. The status of EU enlargement is one of many transatlantic issues likely to be of interest to the second session of the 110th Congress. This report lists the various nations admitted to the European Union within the past several years and analyzes the enlargement issue in general.
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The European Union: Questions and Answers

The European Union: Questions and Answers

Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: This report describes the European Union (EU), its evolution, governing institutions, trade policy, and efforts to forge common foreign and defense policies. The report also addresses the EU-U.S. and EU-NATO relationships, which may be of interest to the second session of the 110th Congress. It will be updated as events warrant. For more information, see CRS Report RS21344, European Union Enlargement, by Kristin Archick, and CRS Report RL34381, European Union-U.S. Trade and Investment Relations: Key Issues, coordinated by Raymond Ahearn.
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The European Union's Reform Process: The Lisbon Treaty

The European Union's Reform Process: The Lisbon Treaty

Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: In December 2007, leaders of the European Union (EU) signed the Lisbon Treaty, which seeks to reform the EU's governing institutions and decisionmaking processes to enable a larger EU to operate more effectively. This new treaty represents the latest stage in a reform process begun in 2002 and essentially replaces the proposed EU "constitution" that foundered after French and Dutch voters rejected it in referendums in 2005. In June 2008, Irish voters rejected the Lisbon Treaty, and have thrown its future into doubt. This report provides background information on EU reform efforts and possible implications for U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the second session of the 110th Congress.
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European Union Enlargement

European Union Enlargement

Date: April 4, 2012
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: The European Union (EU) has long viewed the enlargement process as an extraordinary opportunity to promote political stability and economic prosperity in Europe. U.S. Administrations and many Members of Congress have long backed EU enlargement, believing that it serves U.S. interests by advancing democracy and economic prosperity throughout the European continent. Some U.S. officials are concerned that "enlargement fatigue" as well as the EU's ongoing financial crisis could hinder EU expansion. The status of EU enlargement and its implications for both the EU itself and U.S.-EU relations may be of interest to the second session of the 112th Congress.
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