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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Country: Iraq
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
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Iraq: International Attitudes to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Reconstruction
Although there was widespread international disagreement in the period leading up to the U.S.-led war in Iraq, forty-nine countries demonstrated support for the coalition’s actions in Iraq by publicly agreeing to be included in the Bush Administration’s “coalition of the willing." This report tracks countries’ current political stances on the postwar situation, as well as major foreign monetary and military contributions to postwar Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9292/
NATO and the European Union
Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5920/
Iraq Agriculture and Food Supply: Background and Issues
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Iraq: Transition to Sovereignty
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Iraq's Trade with the World: Data and Analysis
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Iraq: U.S. Military Operations and Costs
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Iraq: Paris Club Debt Relief
Iraq’s public debt was estimated to be US$120.2 billion in nominal value as of the end of 2004. The debt owed to Paris Club creditors as of December 31, 2004, was estimated to be US$38.9 billion. The U.S. share of this amount is around $4 billion. Non-Paris Club countries, mostly Persian Gulf countries, are owed around $60 - $65 billion. The remaining debts are to private commercial creditors. Iraqi debt relief is a high priority for both the President and Congress (H.R. 2482). This report will discuss efforts to implement Iraqi debt relief and highlight some policy concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7721/
Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
This report discusses United States and United Nations preparations for Iraq’s planned elections for a transitional National Assembly, scheduled for January 30, 2005. Elections preparations are significantly hindered by continuing insurgency and threats of a boycott by many of Iraq’s Sunni Arabs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7859/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
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NATO and the European Union
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U.S. Treatment of Prisoners in Iraq: Selected Legal Issues
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Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
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Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
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Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
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The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
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Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
Large-scale reconstruction assistance programs are being undertaken by the United States following the war with Iraq. To fund such programs, Congress approved on April 12, 2003, a $2.48 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) in the FY2003 Supplemental Appropriation. On November 6, 2003, the President signed into law P.L. 108-106, the FY2004 Emergency Supplemental Appropriation, providing $18.4 billion for Iraq reconstruction. Contributions pledged at the October 24, 2003, Madrid donor conference by other donors amounted to roughly $3.6 billion in grant aid and as much as $13.3 billion in possible loans. This report describes recent developments in this assistance effort. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8314/
Iraq's New Security Forces: The Challenge of Sectarian and Ethnic Influences
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Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
This report discusses issues with the “oil-for-food” program (OFFP), which was the centerpiece of a long-standing U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining key elements of the 1991 Gulf war-related sanctions regime. The program terminated following the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime, the assumption of sovereignty by an interim Iraqi government on June 28, 2004, and the lifting of Saddam-era U.N. sanctions. However, since the fall of the regime, there have been new allegations of mismanagement and abuse of the program, including allegations that Saddam Hussein’s regime manipulated the program to influence U.N. officials, contractors, and politicians and businessmen in numerous countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8313/
Iraq Oil: Reserves, Production, and Potential Revenues
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The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
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Iraq: Elections and New Government
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NATO and the European Union
Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6481/
Iraq: U.S. Military Operations
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U.S. Treatment of Prisoners in Iraq: Selected Legal Issues
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The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA or “the authority”) was established approximately one month after United States and coalition forces took control of Baghdad in Iraq on April 9, 2003.1 The authority’s mission was “to restore conditions of security and stability, to create conditions in which the Iraqi people can freely determine their own political future, (including by advancing efforts to restore and establish national and local institutions for representative governance) and facilitating economic recovery, sustainable reconstruction and development. This report discusses two views on how the authority was established, reviews selected characteristics of the authority, identifies statutory reporting requirements concerning the authority and the reconstruction of Iraq, and explores several policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6482/
Women in Iraq: Background and Issues for U.S. Policy
The issue of women’s rights in Iraq has taken on new relevance, following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, efforts to reconstruct Iraq, and recent elections for a Transitional National Assembly (TNA). Over the past three years, the Bush Administration has reiterated its interest in ensuring that Iraqi women participate in politics and ongoing reconstruction efforts in Iraq. There has also been a widening debate regarding the extent to which the U.S.-led reconstruction efforts have been able to enhance women’s rights in Iraq and encourage their participation in Iraq’s governing institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7161/
Iraq: Elections and New Government
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Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
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Iraq: U.S. Military Operations
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Iran's Influence in Iraq
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Iran's Influence in Iraq
This report discusses Iran’s influence over the post-Saddam government in Iraq, which is substantial because the predominant parties in that government have long enjoyed Tehran’s sponsorship. An emerging concern is that Iran’s influence has extended to support for militant groups in Iraq. Some U.S. statements and press sources say that sophisticated explosive devices are entering Iraq from Iran, suggesting that Iran, or factions within Iran, are backing Iraqi factions that use violence to oppose the U.S. and allied military presence in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8312/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
This report provides an annotated list of U.N. agencies that are involved in Iraq, key U.S. government agencies, and a sample list of major international and U.S.- based aid organizations that are providing humanitarian assistance to Iraq. Internet links to the U.N. agencies and humanitarian aid organizations are also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8026/
NATO and the European Union
Report which discusses issues related to the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) including the level of involvement of the entities in using political and military actions to defend against terrorism and proliferation, the types of military forces necessary, the role of the EU in crisis management, the appropriateness of decision-making procedures to respond to emerging threats, and the role of other international institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8362/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
Following years of authoritarian rule and economic sanctions, the United States and the international community agreed in the spring of 2003 that efforts should be made to introduce economic reform and democratic government to post-war Iraq. More recently, the Bush Administration has asserted a “victory” strategy composed of eight objectives, five of which are to: transition Iraq to security self-reliance, help Iraqis form a national compact for democratic government, help Iraq build government capacity and provide essential services, help Iraq strengthen its economy, and help Iraq strengthen the rule of law and promote civil rights. To meet these ends, a large-scale reconstruction assistance program has been undertaken by the United States in Iraq. This report describes recent developments in this assistance effort. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8112/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
Following years of authoritarian rule and economic sanctions, the United States and the international community agreed in the spring of 2003 that efforts should be made to introduce economic reform and democratic government to post-war Iraq. More recently, the Bush Administration has asserted a “victory” strategy composed of eight objectives, five of which are to: transition Iraq to security self-reliance, help Iraqis form a national compact for democratic government, help Iraq build government capacity and provide essential services, help Iraq strengthen its economy, and help Iraq strengthen the rule of law and promote civil rights. To meet these ends, a large-scale reconstruction assistance program has been undertaken by the United States in Iraq. This report describes recent developments in this assistance effort. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8355/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
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Iraq's New Security Forces: The Challenge of Sectarian and Ethnic Influences
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8286/
Iraq: U.S. Military Operations
The major challenges to coalition forces are now quelling a persistent Iraqi resistance movement and training sufficient Iraqi forces to assume responsibility for the nations domestic security. This report discusses military planning and operations in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8356/
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance
Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains violent and unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, as well as increasing sectarian violence. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8577/
Women in Iraq: Background and Issues for U.S. Policy
The issue of women’s rights in Iraq has taken on new relevance, following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, efforts to reconstruct Iraq, and recent elections for a Transitional National Assembly (TNA). Over the past three years, the Bush Administration has reiterated its interest in ensuring that Iraqi women participate in politics and ongoing reconstruction efforts in Iraq. There has also been a widening debate regarding the extent to which the U.S.-led reconstruction efforts have been able to enhance women’s rights in Iraq and encourage their participation in Iraq’s governing institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8587/
U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany, and Japan Compared
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U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany, and Japan Compared
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Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, now compounded by Sunni-Shiite violence that some believe is a civil war. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8676/
Iraq's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments
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Iraq Oil: Reserves, Production, and Potential Revenues
This report discusses Iraqi Oil in the post-Saddam period. Iraq’s potential oil wealth remains largely unrealized. Substantial proven reserves exist, and there are likely more resources awaiting discovery. But oil production has been slow to fully recover and many obstacles stand in the way of achieving a stable export flow. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8992/
Iraq: U.S. Military Operations
The major challenges to coalition forces are now quelling a persistent Iraqi resistance movement and training sufficient Iraqi forces to assume responsibility for the nations domestic security. This report discusses military planning and operations in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8983/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, compounded by burgeoning sectarian violence. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9023/
Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties
This report provides casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), as tallied from the agency’s press releases. Table 1 provides statistics on fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom, which began on March 19, 2003, and is ongoing, as well as on the number of fatalities since May 1, 2003, plus statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003. Statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and as all records are processed through the U.S. military’s casualty system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8982/
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected websites for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, facilities used by U.S. forces in the Gulf, and U.S. government humanitarian assistance and reconstruction activities in Iraq are also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9709/