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Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

Date: July 15, 2005
Creator: Abraham, D. P.; Dees, D. W.; Knuth, J.; Reynolds, E.; Gerald, R.; Hyung,Y.-E. et al.
Description: The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Impact of spectral transition zone in reference ENIGMA configuration.

Impact of spectral transition zone in reference ENIGMA configuration.

Date: October 5, 2005
Creator: Aliberti, G.; Palmiotti, G.; Taiwo, T. A. & Tommasi, J.
Description: The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is one of six advanced nuclear energy systems being studied under the auspices of the Gen IV International Forum (GIF). In a bilateral International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project French and U.S. national laboratories, industry, and universities are collaborating on the development of the GFR. This effort is led by the ANL in the U.S. and the CEA in France. Some of the attractions of the GFR include: (1) Hard spectrum and core breeding ratio, BR {approx} 1. These features allow minimal waste production, improved transmutation capability, optimal and flexible use of natural resources, potentially better economy (because of use of higher power density relative to current thermal gas-cooled systems), and improved non-proliferation (no fertile blanket); (2) Temperature resistant fuel and structure elements that are favorable to tight fission product confinement and system operation at high temperature; (3) High temperature and transparent helium (He) gas coolant that allows a high thermodynamic conversion efficiency, other energy applications (e.g., hydrogen production), and ease of in-service inspection and repair; and (4) Possible direct energy conversion cycle leading to a simpler design, increased conversion efficiency, and lower investment costs. The French strategy for advanced systems includes the development ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proceedings -- US Russian workshop on fuel cell technologies

Proceedings -- US Russian workshop on fuel cell technologies

Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Baker, B. & Sylwester, A.
Description: On September 26--28, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored the first Joint US/Russian Workshop on Fuel Cell Technology at the Marriott Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This workshop brought together the US and Russian fuel cell communities as represented by users, producers, R and D establishments and government agencies. Customer needs and potential markets in both countries were discussed to establish a customer focus for the workshop. Parallel technical sessions defined research needs and opportunities for collaboration to advance fuel cell technology. A desired outcome of the workshop was the formation of a Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium to advance fuel cell technology for application in emerging markets in both countries. This consortium is envisioned to involve industry and national labs in both countries. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Burtis, M.D.; Razuvaev, V.N. & Sivachok, S.G.
Description: This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Canted undulator front-end exit-mask flow-induced vibration measurements.

Canted undulator front-end exit-mask flow-induced vibration measurements.

Date: November 10, 2004
Creator: Collins, J.; Doose, C. L.; Attig, J. N. & Baehl, M. M.
Description: All of the high-heat-load critical components in the new canted-undulator front-end (CU FE) design use wire-coil inserts inside of the cooling channels to significantly enhance heat transfer. Wire-coil inserts have replaced the copper-mesh inserts used in previous front-end high-heat-load critical-component designs. The exit mask, the most downstream component in the CU FE line relative to the x-ray beam path, has an exit aperture of 2 mm vertical x 3 mm horizontal and is the most sensitive component, in terms of final beam stability, of all of the CU FE components. In general, final beam stability is determined by the storage-ring output-beam stability and not by the CU FE components. Although front-end components are not very sensitive to vibration, several measurements have been performed to assess the flow-induced vibration associated with the CU FE exit mask. Results yield only 0.16 {micro}mrms vertical displacement and 1.0 {micro}mrms horizontal displacement under worst-case conditions. The maximum displacement values are very small compared to the aperture size, and therefore flow-induced vibration has a negligible effect on the CU FE output beam stability. More general measurements have also been performed to directly compare flow-induced vibration in an open, unrestricted tube relative to the same tube containing ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control

Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control

Date: June 9, 2004
Creator: DePoy, DM; Fourspring, PM; Baldasaro, PF; Beausang, JF; Brown, EJ; Dashiel, MW et al.
Description: Spectral control is a key technology for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion systems because only a fraction (typically less than 25%) of the incident thermal radiation has energy exceeding the diode bandgap energy, E{sub g}, and can thus be converted to electricity. The goal for TPV spectral control in most applications is twofold: (1) Maximize TPV efficiency by minimizing transfer of low energy, below bandgap photons from the radiator to the TPV diode. (2) Maximize TPV surface power density by maximizing transfer of high energy, above bandgap photons from the radiator to the TPV diode. TPV spectral control options include: front surface filters (e.g. interference filters, plasma filters, interference/plasma tandem filters, and frequency selective surfaces), back surface reflectors, and wavelength selective radiators. System analysis shows that spectral performance dominates diode performance in any practical TPV system, and that low bandgap diodes enable both higher efficiency and power density when spectral control limitations are considered. Lockheed Martin has focused its efforts on front surface tandem filters which have achieved spectral efficiencies of {approx}83% for E{sub g} = 0.52 eV and {approx}76% for E{sub g} = 0.60 eV for a 950 C radiator temperature.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Transmission electron microscopy analysis of corroded metal waste forms.

Transmission electron microscopy analysis of corroded metal waste forms.

Date: April 15, 2005
Creator: Dietz, N. L.
Description: This report documents the results of analyses with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area electron diffraction (ED) of samples of metallic waste form (MWF) materials that had been subjected to various corrosion tests. The objective of the TEM analyses was to characterize the composition and microstructure of surface alteration products which, when combined with other test results, can be used to determine the matrix corrosion mechanism. The examination of test samples generated over several years has resulted in refinements to the TEM sample preparation methods developed to preserve the orientation of surface alteration layers and the underlying base metal. The preservation of microstructural spatial relationships provides valuable insight for determining the matrix corrosion mechanism and for developing models to calculate radionuclide release in repository performance models. The TEM results presented in this report show that oxide layers are formed over the exposed steel and intermetallic phases of the MWF during corrosion in aqueous solutions and humid air at elevated temperatures. An amorphous non-stoichiometric ZrO{sub 2} layer forms at the exposed surfaces of the intermetallic phases, and several nonstoichiometric Fe-O layers form over the steel phases in the MWF. These oxide layers adhere ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Zirconium and technetium recovery and partitioning in the presence of actinides in modified Purex process for ATW program. Final report

Zirconium and technetium recovery and partitioning in the presence of actinides in modified Purex process for ATW program. Final report

Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Dzekun, E.G.; Fedorov, Y.S.; Galkin, B.Y.; Lyubtsev, R.I.; Mashkin, A.N.; Mishin, E.N. et al.
Description: The modified Purex process flowsheet is based on combination of all irradiated materials, their joint dissolution and reprocessing as a NPP spent fuel solution with abnormal Pu content after addition of recycled depleted U concentrate. Some groups of long-lived radionuclides could be completely recovered and localized at the stage of extraction reprocessing using 30% TBP. Studies were conducted for 10 y to develop the process for recovery, concentration, and localization of U, Pu, Np, Tc, and Zr within 1st extraction cycle. Actinides are recovered from high-level raffinate of this cycle after evaporation and feed adjustment. Results in this report show that combined deep recovery of several elements from highly irradiated materials by TBP extraction, for further transmutation, is possible. Selective stripping of Zr from solvent phase containing U, Pu, Np, and Tc is quite effective. Development of the modified Purex process is not complete; main problem to be solved should be oxide separation from the loop and permissible storage duration before reprocessing and reuse in the loop.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Study Summary; Resumen de Estuidio de la Flotilla de GNC de la Empresa SuperShuttle

SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Study Summary; Resumen de Estuidio de la Flotilla de GNC de la Empresa SuperShuttle

Date: October 1, 2001
Creator: Eudy, L.
Description: An account of the successful use of alternative fuels in a fleet of SuperShuttle passenger vans, which offer shared-rides between Boulder and Denver International Airport.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
UO2 CORROSION IN HIGH SURFACE-AREA-TO-VOLUME BATCH EXPERIMENTS

UO2 CORROSION IN HIGH SURFACE-AREA-TO-VOLUME BATCH EXPERIMENTS

Date: May 11, 1998
Creator: Finch, Robert J.; Wolf, Stephen F.; Hanchar, John M. & Bates, John K.
Description: Unsaturated drip tests have been used to investigate the alteration of unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent UO{sub 2} fuel in an unsaturated environment, such as may be expected in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. In these tests, simulated groundwater is periodically injected onto a sample at 90 C in a steel vessel. The solids react with the dripping groundwater and water condensed on surfaces to form a suite of U(VI) alteration phases. Solution chemistry is determined from leachate at the bottom of each vessel after the leachate stops interacting with the solids. A more detailed knowledge of the compositional evolution of the leachate is desirable. By providing just enough water to maintain a thin film of water on a small quantity of fuel in batch experiments, we can more closely monitor the compositional changes to the water as it reacts to form alteration phases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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