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Geothermal Electrical Production CO2 Emissions Study

Geothermal Electrical Production CO2 Emissions Study

Date: October 1, 1999
Creator: (INEEL), K. K. Bloomfield & Institute), J. N. Moore (Energy and Geoscience
Description: Emission of �greenhouse gases� into the environment has become an increasing concern. Deregulation of the electrical market will allow consumers to select power suppliers that utilize �green power.� Geothermal power is classed as �green power� and has lower emissions of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity than even the cleanest of fossil fuels, natural gas. However, previously published estimates of carbon dioxide emissions are relatively old and need revision. This study estimates that the average carbon dioxide emissions from geothermal and fossil fuel power plants are: geothermal 0.18 , coal 2.13, petroleum 1.56 , and natural gas 1.03 pounds of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour respectively.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: (U.S.), Columbia River System Operation Review
Description: This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Cultural Resources.

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Cultural Resources.

Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: (U.S.), Columbia River System Operation Review
Description: This study attempts to identify and analyze the impacts of the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives on cultural resources. The impacts include effects on Native American traditional cultural values, properties and practices. They also include effects on archeological or historic properties meeting the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. In addition to responding to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), this analysis addresses the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the Native American Religious Freedom Act (NARFA), and other relevant legislation. To meet their legally mandated cultural resources requirements, the SOR agencies will develop agreements and Implementation Plans with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs), Tribes, and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) detailing the measures necessary to best manage the resource. The planning and implementation activities will be staged over a number of years in consultation with affected Tribes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: (U.S.), Columbia River System Operation Review
Description: The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: (U.S.), Columbia River System Operation Review
Description: This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: (U.S.), Columbia River System Operation Review
Description: The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: (U.S.), Columbia River System Operation Review
Description: This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix R: Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA).

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix R: Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA).

Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: (U.S.), Columbia River System Operation Review
Description: Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region`s non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region`s power producers to maximize the power system`s reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed in 1964 as an important component of regional plans to maximize the Northwest`s hydro resource capability. Maximization also included the development of storage projects on the Columbia River in Canada pursuant to the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. Because of the link between power coordination and ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix T (Second Continued Volume): Comments & Responses.

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix T (Second Continued Volume): Comments & Responses.

Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: (U.S.), Columbia River System Operation Review
Description: This is Appendix T (second continued volume) giving public comments and responses to the final environmental impact statement for the Columbia River System.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: (U.S.), Columbia River System Operation Review
Description: This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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