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Transducer Signal Noise Analysis for Sensor Authentication
The abstract is being passed through STIMS for submision to the conference. International safeguards organizations charged with promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy employ unattended and remote monitoring systems supplemented with onsite inspections to ensure nuclear materials are not diverted for weaponization purposes. These systems are left unattended for periods of several months between inspections. During these periods physical security means are the main deterrent used to detect intentional monitoring system tampering. The information gathering components are locked in secure and sealed rooms. The sensor components (i.e. neutron and gamma detectors) are located throughout the plant in unsecure areas where sensor tampering could take place during the periods between inspections. Sensor tampering could allow the diversion of nuclear materials from the accepted and intended use to uses not consistent with the peaceful use of nuclear energy. A method and an apparatus is presented that address the detection of sensor tampering during the periods between inspections. It was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the IAEA. The method is based on the detailed analysis of the sensor noise floor after the sensor signal is removed. The apparatus consists of a 2.1” x 2.6” electronic circuit board containing all signal conditioning and processing components and a laptop computer running an application that acquires and stores the analysis results between inspection periods. The sensors do not require any modification and are remotely located in their normal high radiation zones. The apparatus interfaces with the sensor signal conductors using a simple pass through connector at the normal sensor electronics interface package located in the already secure and sealed rooms. The apparatus does not require hardening against the effects of radiation due to its location. Presented is the apparatus design, the analysis method, and the test results as applied to tamper detection using three HE3 neutron sensors and two gamma sensors designed and built for safeguards monitoring.
NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400 C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.
Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.
Bulletin of the Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory (1960)
Bulletin of the Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory (1961)
Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation
This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.
Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 contaminated waste dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1 and 2)
This plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate correction action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 143 consists of two waste dumps used for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. Contaminated Waste Dump No.1 (CAS 25-23-09) was used for wastes generated at the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) Facility and Contaminated Waste Dump No.2 (CAS 25-23-03) was used for wastes generated at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility. Both the R-MAD and E-MAD facilities are located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. Based on site history, radionuclides are the primary constituent of concern and are located in these disposal areas; vertical and lateral migration of the radionuclides is unlikely; and if migration has occurred it will be limited to the soil beneath the Contaminated Waste Disposal Dumps. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of Cone Penetrometer Testing within and near the solid waste disposal dumps, field analysis for radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, as well as sample collection from the waste dumps and surrounding areas for off-site chemical, radiological, and geotechnical analyses. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.
Record of Technical Change No.1 for ``Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada''
This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information provided in ``Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.''
Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2003
No abstract prepared.
Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase II
The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The first part of the project involved preparation of reports on the state of the art at that time for all the areas under consideration (die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy). The primary R&D focus during Phase I was on the wax material since the least was known about it. The main R&D accomplishments during this phase were determination of procedures for obtaining the thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties of an unfilled wax and validating those procedures. Phase II focused on die-wax and shell-alloy systems. A wax material model was developed based on results obtained during the previous R&D phase, and a die-wax model was successfully incorporated into and used in commercial computer programs. Current computer simulation programs have complementary features. A viscoelastic module was available in ABAQUS but unavailable in ProCAST, while the mold-filling module was available in ProCAST but unavailable in ABAQUS. Thus, the numerical simulation results were only in good qualitative agreement with experimental results, the predicted shrinkage factors being approximately 2.5 times larger than those measured. Significant progress was made, and results showed that the testing and modeling of wax material had great potential for industrial applications. Additional R&D focus was placed on one shell-alloy system. The fused-silica shell mold and A356 aluminum alloy were considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. It was very important to obtain accurate temperature data from actual castings, and significant effort was made to obtain temperature profiles in the shell mold. A model for thermal radiation within the shell mold was developed, and the thermal model was successfully validated using ProCAST. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The prefiring of the empty shell mold was considered in the model, and the shell mold was limited to a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulations only with coupled shell-alloy systems. The alloy dimensions were in excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data, validating the deformation module. For actual parts, however, the creep properties of the shell molds must also be obtained, modeled, and validated.
Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza
The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.
Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)
During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity characteristic leach ing procedure protocol for the main contaminant of concern, which was mercury. In addition, the cores were evaluated for the extent of mixing of the injected grout and the contaminated soil. A postgrouting geophysical evaluation of the grouted pit is presented.
Performance assessment analyses unique to Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel
This paper describes the iterative process of grouping and performance assessment that has led to the current grouping of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The unique sensitivity analyses that form the basis for incorporating DOE fuel into the total system performance assessment (TSPA) base case model are described. In addition, the chemistry that results from dissolution of DOE fuel and high level waste (HLW) glass in a failed co-disposal package, and the effects of disposal of selected DOE SNF in high integrity cans are presented.
Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report
This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.
Gamma-Ray Spectrometric Characterization of Overpacked CC104/107 RH-TRU Wastes: Surrogate Tests
Development of the gamma-ray spectrometric technique termed GSAK (Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with Acceptable Knowledge) for the characterization of CC104/107 remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes continued this year. Proof-of-principle measurements have been completed on the surrogate RH-TRU waste drums configured earlier this year. The GSAK technique uses conventional gamma-ray spectrometry to quantify the detectable fission product content of overpacked RH-TRU drums. These results are then coupled with the inventory report to characterize the waste drum content. The inventory report is based on process knowledge of the waste drum loading and calculations of the isotopic distribution in the spent fuel examined to generate the drummed wastes. Three RH-TRU surrogate drums were configured with encapsulated EBR-II driver fuel rod segments arranged in the surrogate drum assemblies. Segment-specific inventory calculations initially specified the radionuclide content of the fuel segments and thus the surrogate drums. Radiochemical assays performed on representative fuel element segments identified a problem in the accuracy of some of the fission and activation product inventory values and provided a basis for adjustment of the specified surrogate drum inventories. The three waste drum surrogates, contained within their 8.9 cm (3.5 inch) thick steel overpacks, were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Seven fission and activation product radionuclides ({sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}CePr, and {sup 154}Eu) were reliably detected. The gamma-ray spectral accuracy was very good. In all cases, a two-sigma error bar constructed about the measured value included the actual drum activity.
Geothermal Electrical Production CO2 Emissions Study
Emission of �greenhouse gases� into the environment has become an increasing concern. Deregulation of the electrical market will allow consumers to select power suppliers that utilize �green power.� Geothermal power is classed as �green power� and has lower emissions of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity than even the cleanest of fossil fuels, natural gas. However, previously published estimates of carbon dioxide emissions are relatively old and need revision. This study estimates that the average carbon dioxide emissions from geothermal and fossil fuel power plants are: geothermal 0.18 , coal 2.13, petroleum 1.56 , and natural gas 1.03 pounds of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour respectively.
Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site
Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950s to the early 1990s. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively.
Nevada National Security Site Environmental Remediation Progress Toward Closure of Contaminated Sites
The Environmental Restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office assess the environmental impacts that resulted from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests conducted from 1951 to 1992 on the Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range (which includes the Tonopah Test Range). The goal is to protect public health and the environment through investigations and corrective actions. The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), established in 1996 between the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense, serves as the cleanup agreement for the Environmental Restoration activities and provides the framework for identifying, prioritizing, investigating, remediating, and monitoring contaminated sites. This agreement satisfies the corrective action requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To ensure efficiency in managing these corrective actions, the sites are grouped according to location, physical and geological characteristics, and/or contaminants. These groups, called corrective action units, are prioritized based on potential risk to workers and the public, available technology, future land use, agency and stakeholder concerns, and other criteria. Environmental Restoration activities include: Industrial Sites, Soils, and Underground Test Area. Nearly 15 years have passed since the FFACO was established, and during this time, more than 3,000 sites have been identified as requiring investigation or corrective actions. To date, approximately 1,945 sites have been investigated and closed through no further action, clean closure, or closure in place. Another 985 sites are currently being investigated or are in the remediation phase, leaving approximately 80 contaminated sites yet to be addressed.
Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)
This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.
U.S. Department of Energy Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD) A model for internal oversight and external transparency
This poster introduces the Department of Energy (DOE) Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD), which contains information on all Department of Energy research projects involving human subjects that: are funded by DOE; are conducted in DOE facilities; are performed by DOE personnel; include current or former DOE or contract personnel.
A novel catalytic synthesis gas oxidation process using molten carbonate salts supported on compatible fluidized iron oxide particles (supported-liquid-phase-catalyst (SLPC) fluidized bed process) was investigated. This process combines the advantages of large scale fluidized bed processing with molten salt bath oxidation. Molten salt catalysts can be supported within porous fluidized particles in order to improve mass transfer rates between the liquid catalysts and the reactant gases. Synthesis gas can be oxidized at reduced temperatures resulting in low NO{sub x} formation while trace sulfides and halides are captured in-situ. Hence, catalytic oxidation of synthesis gas can be carried out simultaneously with hot gas cleanup. Such SLPC fluidized bed processes are affected by inter-particle liquid capillary forces that may lead to agglomeration and de-fluidization of the bed. An understanding of the origin and strength of these forces is needed so that they can be overcome in practice. Process design is based on thermodynamic free energy minimization calculations that indicate the suitability of eutectic Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixtures for capturing trace impurities in-situ (< 1 ppm SO{sub x} released) while minimizing the formation of NO{sub x}(< 10 ppm). Iron oxide has been identified as a preferred support material since it is non-reactive with sodium, is inexpensive, has high density (i.e. inertia), and can be obtained in various particle sizes and porosities. Force balance modeling has been used to design a surrogate ambient temperature system that is hydrodynamically similar to the real system, thus allowing complementary investigation of the governing fluidization hydrodynamics. The primary objective of this research was to understand the origin of and to quantify the liquid capillary interparticle forces affecting the molten carbonate SLPC fluidized bed process. Substantial theoretical and experimental exploratory results indicate process feasibility. The potential environmental gain from success is enormous, impacting all areas of the world where coal is burned to supply steam or direct industrial heat. Project success may lead to an integrated combustion system providing for simultaneous catalytic oxidation and hot gas cleanup of raw synthesis gas from an upstream coal gasifier.
RTE1, A Novel Regulator of Ethylene Receptor Function
RTE1 is a novel conserved gene found in both plants and animals. The main aims of this project were to: 1) examine Arabidopsis RTE1 function using genetic and cell biological analyses, and 2) determine whether the Arabidopsis RTH gene plays a role similar to that of RTE1 in ethylene signaling.
DOE-ER-46139-Phase II-Final-Report-Tritt-2011
This proposal emphasizes investigations of the thermal and electrical transport properties of new and novel solid-state materials, with the specific goal of achieving higher efficiency solid-state thermoelectric materials. This program will continue to build a very strong collaborative research effort between researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ONRL) and Clemson University. We propose three new faculty hires and major equipment purchases in order to further enhance our level of national recognition. We will be positioned for competition for major non-EPSCoR DOE and DOD funding (i.e. NSF-Materials Research Center) and able to address many other areas of DOE and national importance. Graduate and undergraduate students will be extensively involved in this project, spending significant time at ORNL, thus gaining important training and educational opportunities. We will also include an outreach program to bring in outside students and faculty. An External Advisory Board of distinguished scientists will provide oversight to the program.
Magnetic Adsorption Method for the Treatment of Metal Contaminated Aqueous Waste
There have been many recent developments in separation methods used for treating radioactive and non-radioactive metal bearing liquid wastes. These methods have included adsorption, ion exchange, solvent extraction and other chemical and physical techniques. To date very few, if any, of these processes can provide a low cost and environmentally benign solution. Recent research into the use of magnetite for wastewater treatment indicates the potential for magnetite both cost and environment drivers. A brief review of recent work in using magnetite as a sorbent is presented as well as recent work performed in our laboratory using supported magnetite in the presence of an external magnetic field. The application to groundwater and other aqueous waste streams is discussed. Recent research has focused on supporting magnetite in an economical (as compared to the magnetic polymine-epichlorohydrine resin) and inert (non-reactive, chemically or otherwise) environment that promotes both adsorption and satisfactory flow characteristics.
Evaluation of Natural Attenuation as One Component of Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater Remediation
Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the site of a large trichloroethene (TCE) plume resulting from the historical injection of wastewater into the Snake River Plain Aquifer. The TAN Record of Decision (ROD) selected pump and treat as the final remedy and included a contingency for post-ROD treatability studies of alternative technologies. The technologies still under consideration are in-situ bioremediation, in-situ chemical oxidation, and natural attenuation. Both anaerobic and aerobic laboratory microcosm studies indicate the presence of microorganisms capable of chloroethene degradation. Field data indicate that TCE concentrations decrease relative to tritium and tetrachloroethene indicating an as yet unknown process is contributing to natural attenuation of TCE. Several methods for analyzing the field data have been evaluated and important limitations identified. Early results from the continued evaluation of the three alternative technologies suggest the combined approach of active remediation of the source area (in situ bioremediation and/or chemical oxidation replacing or augmenting pump and treat) and natural attenuation within the dissolved phase plume may be more cost and schedule effective than the base case pump and treat.
A Transient Numerical Simulation of Perched Ground-Water Flow at the Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1952-94
Studies of flow through the unsaturated zone and perched ground-water zones above the Snake River Plain aquifer are part of the overall assessment of ground-water flow and determination of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies include definition of the hydrologic controls on the formation of perched ground-water zones and description of the transport and fate of wastewater constituents as they moved through the unsaturated zone. The definition of hydrologic controls requires stratigraphic correlation of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds within the saturated zone, analysis of hydraulic properties of unsaturated-zone rocks, numerical modeling of the formation of perched ground-water zones, and batch and column experiments to determine rock-water geochemical processes. This report describes the development of a transient numerical simulation that was used to evaluate a conceptual model of flow through perched ground-water zones beneath wastewater infiltration ponds at the Test Reactor Area (TRA).
Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Basalt Core Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho
Strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) were measured for 24 basalt core samples collected from selected sites at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The measurements were made to help assess the variability of strontium Kd's as part of an ongoing investigation of strontium transport properties through geologic materials at the INEEL. The investigation is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were used to measure Kd's of basalt core samples using an aqueous solution representative of wastewater in waste-disposal ponds at the INEEL. Calculated strontium Kd's of the 24 basalt core samples ranged from 3.6{+-}1.3 to 29.4{+-}1.6 milliliters per gram. These results indicate a narrow range of variability in the strontium sorptive capacities of basalt relative to those of the sedimentary materials at the INEEL. The narrow range of the basalt Kd's can be attributed to physical and chemical properties of the basalt, and to compositional changes in the equilibrated solutions after being mixed with the basalt. The small Kd's indicate that basalt is not a major contributor in preventing the movement of strontium-90 in solution.
Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Surficial and Sedimentary Interbed Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho
The transport and fate of waste constituents in geologic media is dependent on physical and chemical processes that govern the distribution of constituents between the solid, geologic, stationary phase and an aqueous, mobile phase. This distribution often is quantified, at thermodynamic equilibrium by an empirically determined parameter called the distribution coefficient (Kd). Kd's can be used effectively to summarize the chemical factors that affect transport efficiency of ground-water constituents. Strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) were measured for 21 surficial and 17 sedimentary interbed samples collected from sediment cores from selected sites at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to help assess the variability of strontium Kd's at the INEEL as part of an ongoing investigation of strontium chemical-transport properties. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine strontium Kd's of the sediments. Measured strontium Kd's of th e surficial and interbedded sediments ranged from 26{+-}1 to 328{+-}41 milliliters per gram. These results indicate significant variability in the strontium sorptive capacities of surficial and interbedded sediments at the INEEL. Some of this variability can be attributed to physical and chemical properties of the sediment; other variability may be due to compositional changes in the equilibrated solutions after being mixed with the sediment.
Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997
The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.
Inverse Process Analysis for the Acquisition of Thermophysical Data
One of the main barriers in the analysis and design of materials processing and industrial applications is the lack of accurate experimental data on the thermophysical properties of materials. To date, the measurement of most of these high-temperature thermophysical properties has often been plagued by temperature lags that are inherent in measurement techniques. These lags can be accounted for with the appropriate mathematical models, reflecting the experimental apparatus and sample region, in order to deduce the desired measurement as a function of true sample temperature. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements are routinely used to determine enthalpies of phase change, phase transition temperatures, glass transition temperatures, and heat capacities. In the aluminum, steel, and metal casting industries, predicting the formation of defects such as shrinkage voids, microporosity, and macrosegregation is limited by the data available on fraction solid and density evolution during solidification. Dilatometer measurements are routinely used to determine the density of a sample at various temperatures. An accurate determination of the thermophysical properties of materials is needed to achieve accuracy in the numerical simulations used to improve or design new material processes. In most of the instruments used to measure properties, the temperature is changed according to instrument controllers and there is a nonhomogeneous temperature distribution within the instrument. Additionally, the sample temperature cannot be measured directly: temperature data are collected from a thermocouple that is placed at a different location than that of the sample, thus introducing a time lag. The goal of this project was to extend the utility, quality and accuracy of two types of commercial instruments -a DSC and a dilatometer - used for thermophysical property measurements in high-temperature environments. In particular, the quantification of solid fraction and density during solidification was deemed of critical importance. To accomplish this project goal, we redesigned sample holders and developed inverse mathematical methods to account for system lags. The desired property could then be correlated to the proper sample temperature. For the NETZSCH DSC 404C instrument with a high-accuracy heat capacity sensor, a mathematical model was developed by assuming that each component was isothermal and that the heat transfer among components occurred by conduction and radiation. Model parameters included effective conduction time constants and radiation time constants. Several model cases were investigated to assess the effect of heat transfer interactions. New features that have not been considered in previous DSC models were included in the present study. These new features included (a) considering the sensor platform, (b) accounting for the heat loss through the stem, and (c) considering the lag between furnace temperature and set point temperature. Comparisons with experimental results showed that temperature lags in heat flux DSC instruments could be determined by performing a heat transfer analysis based on a comprehensive model. The proposed mathematical model yielded accurate results over a wide temperature range during heating and cooling regimes. The induced thermal lag in the Theta Industries dual push-rod horizontal dilatometer is apparent owing to the distance of the thermocouple from the actual sample. In a near steady-state mode of operation, this apparent problem is minimal. However, in a transient situation, where the density is varying as a function of time, the temperature output from the remote temperature sensor must be adjusted in order to reflect the sample temperature. The conventional push-rod dilatometer insert was modified significantly to allow an accurate correlation of the measured density to the predicted sample temperature of alloys in the phase-change regime. This new configuration made use of a standard furnace assembly; however, the specimen was symmetrically encased in a well-instrumented cylindrical graphite shell. The new insert was designed, fabricated, instrumented, calibrated, and tested. It was demonstrated, using an array of high-precision thermocouples, that a nearly uniform temperature distribution existed in the sample holder. The combination of system geometry and high-conductivity sample holder material promoted the development of a simplified but highly effective inverse heat transfer model. The prediction of this model properly correlated the measured density in the phase change regime to that of the actual sample temperature based on using remote, sample-holder temperature measurements. It was demonstrated (using A356) that accurate modeling of the solid fraction was important for accounting for thermal lags in the phase-change regime. Additionally, the average heat transfer coefficient during phase change was also calculated and compared to existing results.
[Catalyst research]. Final Report
Research results are the areas of catalyst precursor synthesis, catalyst fluxionality, catalyst stability, polymerization of {alpha}-olefins as well as the chemistry of Group IV and Group V metal centers with aryloxide and arylsulfide ligands.
Closeout of Advanced Boron and Metal Loaded High Porosity Carbons.
The Penn State effort explored the development of new high-surface-area materials for hydrogen storage, materials that could offer enhancement in the hydrogen binding energy through a direct chemical modification of the framework in high specific-surface-area platforms. The team chemically substituted boron into the hexagonal sp2 carbon framework, dispersed metal atoms bound to the boro-carbon structure, and generated the theory of novel nanoscale geometries that can enhance storage through chemical frustration, sheet curvature, electron deficiency, large local fields and mixed hybridization states. New boro-carbon materials were synthesized by high temperature plasma, pyrolysis of boron-carbon precursor molecules, and post-synthesis modification of carbons. Hydrogen uptake has been assessed, and several promising leads have been identified, with the requirement to simultaneously optimize total surface area while maintaining the enhanced hydrogen binding energies already demonstrated.
Final Technical Report "Energy Partitioning in Elementary Chemical Reactions"
This is the final technical report of the subject grant. It describes the scientific results obtained during the reporting period. These results are focused on the reactions of atomic oxygen with terminal alkenes. We have studied the production of vinoxy in these reactions. We have characterized the energy disposal in the reactions and have elaborated the reaction mechanism.
Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Chloroform to Four Species of Freshwater Fish
Acute toxicity of chloroform to four species of freshwater fish was studied in flow-through 96-hr toxicity tests. Chloroform is toxic to fish in the tens of parts per million, a concentration well above that which would be expected to be produced under normal power plant chlorination conditions. Investigations of acute toxicity of chloroform and the bioaccumulation of chlorinated compounds in tissues of fish revealed differences in tolerance levels and tissue accumulations. Mean 96-hr LC{sub 50}s for chloroform were 18 ppm for rainbow trout and bluegill, 51 ppm for largemouth bass and 75 ppm for channel catfish. Mortalities of bluegill and largemouth bass occurred during the first 4 hr of exposure while rainbow trout and channel catfish showed initial tolerance and mortalities occurred during the latter half of the 96-hr exposure. Rainbow trout had the highest level of chloroform tissue accumulation, 7 {micro}g/g tissue, catfish the second highest, 4 {micro}g/g tissue, followed by bluegill and largemouth bass which each accumulated about 3 {micro}g/g tissue. Accumulation of chloroform was less than one order of magnitude above water concentrations for all species.
Chronic Effects of Chlorination By-Products on Rainbow Trout, Salmo gairdneri
Rainbow trout were exposed to by-products of low-level water chlorination for several months in two separate experiments. In each test 2400 juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were reared under chlorination conditions designed to simulate those of a power plant. Objectives were to determine effects of long term exposure to provide samples for tissue analysis of chlorination byroducts. No significant difference in fish condition factors was found between the test groups and controls, neither was there an apparent effect on mortality. Background levels of chloroform were found in all fish, but there was no evidence of an increased amount of chloroform or other chlorination by-products resulting from chronic low level exposure to chlorination by-products.
Estimated Incremental Costs for NRC Licensees to Implement the US/IAEA Safeguards Agreement
At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy, conducted a brief study to identify the incremental cost for implementing the US/IAEA safeguards treaty agreement. The purpose of the study was to develop an estimate of the cost impact to eligible NRC licensees for complying with the proposed Part 75 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 75), the rule which will implement the treaty. The study was conducted using cost estimates from several eligible licensees who will be affected by the agreement and from cost analyses by PNL staff. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 25 NRC licensees, some of whom had more than one licensed facility. Their responses were obtained primarily by telephone after they had reviewed the survey insttument and a list of assumptions. The primary information received from the licensees was the incremental cost to their particular facility in the form of manpower, dollars or both. In summary, the one-time cost to all eligible NRC licensees to implement 10 CFR 75 is estimated by PNL to range from $1.9 to $7.2 millions. The annual cost to the industry for the required accounting and reporting activities is estimated by PNL at $0.5 to $1.4 millions. Annual inspection costs to the industry for the limited IAEA inspection being assumed is $80,000 to $160,000.
Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters
The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.
A Measurement Control Program for Nuclear Material Accounting
A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurements of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities. equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality.
Measurement of the D*(2010)+ Natural Line Width and the D*(2010)+ - D0 Mass Difference
Abstract Not Provided
Measurement of the Mass of the D0 Meson
Abstract Not Provided
The finite element model, FETRA, simulates transport of sediment and radionuclides (and other contaminants, such as heavy metals, pesticides, and other toxic substances) in surface water bodies. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral} model which consists of the following three submodels coupled to include sediment-contaminant interactions: 1) sediment transport submodel, 2} dissolved contaminant transport submodel, and 3) particulate contaminant (contaminant adsorbed by sediment) transport submodel. Under the current phase of the study, FETRA was modified to include sediment-wave interaction in order to extend the applicability of the model to coastal zones and large lakes (e.g., the Great Lakes) where wave actions can be one of the dominant mechanisms to transport sediment and toxic contaminant. FETRA was further modified to handle both linear and quadratic approximations to velocity and depth distributions in order to be compatible with various finite element hydrodynamic models (e.g., RMA II and CAFE) which supply hydrodynamic input data to FETRA. The next step is to apply FETRA to coastal zones to simulate transport of sediment and radionuclides with their interactions in order to test and verify the model under marine and large lacustrine environments.
Monitoring the Random Errors of Nuclear Material Measurements
Monitoring and controlling random errors is an important function of a measurement control program. This report describes the principal sources of random error in the common nuclear material measurement processes and the most important elements of a program for monitoring, evaluating and controlling the random error standard deviations of these processes.
Precision Electroweak Measurements at the SLC : Overview and Perspective.
Preliminary SLD electroweak results based on essentially the complete 550K Z dataset are presented and interpreted, and some historical background is provided.
Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications
In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.
A Procedure for the Qualitative Interpretation of Fuel Centerline Thermocouple Response to Step-Power Decreases
This report reviews the present calculational techniques that may be used to interpret the transient response of fuel centerline thermocouples to step decreases in rod power. A new technique developed herein involves plotting the natural logarithm of the normalized thermocouple data versus time, plotting various calculations in the same way, and observing the curvature of the resulting lines. Also described is the small computer code, MWRAM, which facilitates testing various models against transient data. Transient data from IFA-513 is presented. This test assembly in the Halden Reactor, Norway, is jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Halden Project. A comparison of MWRAM calculations with this data has shown that fuel cracking appears to greatly influence the heat transfer modes in the fuel rod. A method of estimating the effective fuel-cladding gap size from this transient data is also discussed in this report .
Several tasks are to be undertaken in this study which, when combined, have the end objective of defining the leak rates of plutonium oxide powder from characterized leaks.
Several tasks are to be undertaken in this study which, when combined, have the end objective of defining the leak rates of plutonium oxide powder from characterized leaks.
In this phase of work the Process Development Unit (PDU) is to be remodeled by incorporation of appropriate subsystems to permit operation in continuous process mode. The PDU will be operated for a period of time sufficient to demonstrate process viability.
RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada
This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.
Saturation and Dynamic Range of Microchannel Plate-Based X-Ray Imagers
This paper describes recent advances in Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP)–based x-ray detectors, a continuation of ongoing work in this area. A Monte Carlo simulation model has been developed over the past several years by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The model simulates the secondary electron emission process in an MCP pore and includes the effects of gain saturation. In this work we focus on MCP gain saturation and dynamic range. We have performed modeling and experimental characterizations of L/D = 46, 10-micron diameter, MCP-based detectors. The detectors are typically operated by applying a subnanosecond voltage pulse, which gates the detector on. Agreement between the simulations and experiment is very good for a variety of voltage pulse waveforms ranging in width from 150 to 300 ps. The results indicate that such an MCP begins to show nonlinear gain around 5 × 10^4 electrons per pore and hard saturation around 105 electrons per pore. The simulations show a difference in MCP sensitivity vs voltage for high flux of photons producing large numbers of photoelectrons on a subpicosecond timescale. Simulations and experiments both indicate an MCP dynamic range of 1 to 10,000, and the dynamic range depends on how the voltage is applied.