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Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

Date: July 12, 2009
Creator: Pepper,S.E.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Occhogrosso, D.M.; Lockwood, D.; Carroll, C.J. et al.
Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards October 22 and 23, 2008. The workshop was sponsored by DOE/NA-243 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). Placing well-qualified Americans in sufficient number and in key safeguards positions within the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) Department of Safeguards is an important U.S. non-proliferation objective. The goal of the NGSI Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards was to improve U.S. efforts to recruit U.S. citizens for IAEA positions in the Department of Safeguards. The participants considered the specific challenges of recruiting professional staff, safeguards inspectors, and managers. BNL’s International Safeguards Project Office invited participants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the IAEA, U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and professional societies who are either experts in international safeguards or who understand the challenges of recruiting for technical positions. A final report for the workshop will be finalized and distributed in early 2009. The main finding of the workshop was the need for an integrated recruitment plan to take into account pools of potential candidates, various government and private agency stakeholders, the needs of the IAEA, and the NGSI human capital development plan. There were numerous findings ...
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Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2009

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2009

Date: October 15, 2009
Creator: Sisterson, DL
Description: Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data then are sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by 1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and 2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.
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Technical Progress Report for "Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials"

Technical Progress Report for "Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials"

Date: October 31, 2008
Creator: Jiang, Hongxing
Description: Investigations have been conducted focused on the fundamental material properties of AIN and high AI-content AIGaN alloys and further developed MOCVD growth technologies for obtaining these materials with improved crystalline quality and conductivities.
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Photoinduced Charge and Energy Transfer Processes in Molecular Aggregates

Photoinduced Charge and Energy Transfer Processes in Molecular Aggregates

Date: October 20, 2009
Creator: Endicott, John F.
Description: This project involved the experimental probing of the electronic excited states generated by photoinduced (center-to-center) electron and energy transfer processes in several classes of transition metal donor/acceptor (D/A) complexes. Some of the general properties inferred from these studies should be useful in the design of new systems for energy conversion applications. Pursuit of the project goals has involved the determination of electron transfer efficiencies and the detailed study of variations in the electronic spectra of D/A complexes. This has resulted in the study of some very fundamental issues of photoinduced charge transfer and the identification of some of the constraints on its efficiency. The experimental studies of the competition between the degradative non-radiative unimolecular relaxation of transition metal excited states and their transfer of charge from these excited states to external acceptors have involved a range of techniques such as transient decay kinetics, photoacoustic calorimetry and transient or stationary state spectroscopy. The substrates synthesized for these studies were selected to provide model systems, or series of model systems to probe the validity of models of electronic excited states and their reactivity. The work during the last few years has focused largely, but not exclusively, on the use of emission spectral ...
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Comparison of the NDA of HEU Oxide between the AWCC and the HPGe Detector

Comparison of the NDA of HEU Oxide between the AWCC and the HPGe Detector

Date: December 1, 2009
Creator: Chiang, L. G.; Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Dukes, E. E. & Akin, J. A.
Description: This paper compares the performance of the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) with the performance of high resolution gamma spectrometry using an HPGe detector to nondestructively assay highly enriched (HEU) oxide. Traditionally the AWCC was considered to be the more appropriate instrument for this measurement. Although the AWCC had a high degree of precision, the HPGe provided the more accurate measurement of this material. The AWCC determines mass of U-235 from the coincident pairs of neutron detections, or doubles rate. The HPGe determines the mass of both U-235 and U238, the enrichment, and the quantity of other radioisotopes. The Tl-208 gamma rays were used to verify the amount of attenuation for the HPGe analysis. Fifty-four cans of enriched U3O8 were shipped to the Y-12 National Security Complex from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under Scrap Declaration LANL-45. The declared values for net weight, mass of uranium, mass of U-235, and enrichment (percent mass of U-235 to total uranium) are shown in Table A-1. The masses of U-235 range from 104g to 2404g and the enrichment varies from 20% to 98%.
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Material properties limiting the performance of CZT gamma-ray detectors

Material properties limiting the performance of CZT gamma-ray detectors

Date: March 16, 2009
Creator: Bolotnikov,A.E.; Babalola, S.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, S. U.; Hossain, A. et al.
Description: CdZnTe (CZT) nuclear radiation detectors are advanced sensors that utilize innovative technologies developed for wide band-gap semiconductor industry and microelectronics. They open opportunities for new types of room-temperature operating, field deployable instruments that provide accurate identification of potential radiological threats and timely awareness for both the civilian and military communities. Room-temperature radiation detectors are an emerging technology that relies on the use of high-quality CZT crystals whose availability is currently limited by material non-uniformities and the presence of extended defects. To address these issues, which are most critical to CZT sensor developments, we developed X-ray mapping and IR transmission microscopy systems to characterize both CZT crystals and devices. Since a customized system is required for such X-ray measurements, we use synchrotron radiation beams available at BNL's National Synchrotron Light Source. A highly-collimated and high-intensity X-ray beam supports measurements of areas as small as 10 x 10 {micro}m{sup 2}, and allowed us to see fluctuations in collected charge over the entire area of the detector in a reasonable time. The IR microscopy system allows for 3D visualization of Te inclusions and other extended defects. In this paper, we describe the experimental techniques used in our measurements and typical results obtained from ...
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Time-Based Data Streams: Fundamental Concepts for a Data Resource for Streams

Time-Based Data Streams: Fundamental Concepts for a Data Resource for Streams

Date: October 10, 2009
Creator: Plale, Beth A.
Description: Real time data, which we call data streams, are readings from instruments, environmental, bodily or building sensors that are generated at regular intervals and often, due to their volume, need to be processed in real time. Often a single pass is all that can be made on the data, and a decision to discard or keep the instance is made on the spot. Too, the stream is for all practical purposes indefinite, so decisions must be made on incomplete knowledge. This notion of data streams has a different set of issues from a file, for instance, that is byte streamed to a reader. The file is finite, so the byte stream is becomes a processing convenience more than a fundamentally different kind of data. Through the duration of the project we examined three aspects of streaming data: the first, techniques to handle streaming data in a distributed system organized as a collection of web services, the second, the notion of the dashboard and real time controllable analysis constructs in the context of the Fermi Tevatron Beam Position Monitor, and third and finally, we examined provenance collection of stream processing such as might occur as raw observational data flows from the ...
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Development of Novel PEM Membrane and Multiphase CD Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell

Development of Novel PEM Membrane and Multiphase CD Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell

Date: December 30, 2009
Creator: Berry, K. J. & Das, Susanta
Description: To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance. To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic ...
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Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

Date: September 22, 2009
Creator: Nash, Kenneth L.
Description: Implementation of a closed loop nuclear fuel cycle requires the utilization of Pu-containing MOX fuels with the important side effect of increased production of the transplutonium actinides, most importantly isotopes of Am and Cm. Because the presence of these isotopes significantly impacts the long-term radiotoxicity of high level waste, it is important that effective methods for their isolation and/or transmutation be developed. Furthermore, since transmutation is most efficiently done in the absence of lanthanide fission products (high yield species with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections) it is important to have efficient procedures for the mutual separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanides. The chemistries of these elements are nearly identical, differing only in the slightly stronger strength of interaction of trivalent actinides with ligand donor atoms softer than O (N, Cl-, S). Research being conducted around the world has led to the development of new reagents and processes with considerable potential for this task. However, pilot scale testing of these reagents and processes has demonstrated the susceptibility of the new classes of reagents to radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. In this project, separations of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides have been investigated in studies of 1) the extraction ...
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2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

Date: December 14, 2009
Creator: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs
Description: The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.
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Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

Date: November 15, 2003
Creator: Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S. & Stow, S.H.
Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host ...
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SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

Date: May 12, 2009
Creator: Huber, Steven C.
Description: Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to ...
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Wind Generation on Winnebago Tribal Lands

Wind Generation on Winnebago Tribal Lands

Date: September 30, 2009
Creator: Multiple
Description: The Winnebago Wind Energy Study evaluated facility-scale, community-scale and commercial-scale wind development on Winnebago Tribal lands in northeastern Nebraska. The Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska has been pursuing wind development in various forms for nearly ten years. Wind monitoring utilizing loaned met towers from NREL took place during two different periods. From April 2001 to April 2002, a 20-meter met tower monitored wind data at the WinnaVegas Casino on the far eastern edge of the Winnebago reservation in Iowa. In late 2006, a 50-meter tower was installed, and subsequently monitored wind data at the WinnaVegas site from late 2006 through late 2008. Significant challenges with the NREL wind monitoring equipment limited the availability of valid data, but based on the available data, average wind speeds between 13.6 – 14.3 miles were indicated, reflecting a 2+/3- wind class. Based on the anticipated cost of energy produced by a WinnaVegas wind turbine, and the utility policies and rates in place at this time, a WinnaVegas wind project did not appear to make economic sense. However, if substantial grant funding were available for energy equipment at the casino site, and if either Woodbury REC backup rates were lower, or NIPCO was willing to pay ...
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EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Zygarlicke, Christopher J.; Hurley, John P.; Aulich, Ted R.; Folkedahl, Bruce C.; Strege, Joshua R.; Patel, Nikhil et al.
Description: The Center for Biomass Utilization (CBU®) 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.
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Electrospun Silicon Nanowires as Lithium Anodes

Electrospun Silicon Nanowires as Lithium Anodes

Date: April 1, 2010
Creator: Schulz, Doug; Hoey, Justin; Smith, Jeremiah; Wu, Xiangfa; Akhatov, Iskander; Pederson, Larry et al.
Description: No abstract prepared.
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Carbide-Derived Carbons with Tunable Porosity Optimized for Hydrogen Storage

Carbide-Derived Carbons with Tunable Porosity Optimized for Hydrogen Storage

Date: January 7, 2010
Creator: Fisher, John E.; Gogotsi, Yury & Yildirim, Taner
Description: On-board hydrogen storage is a key requirement for fuel cell-powered cars and trucks. Porous carbon-based materials can in principle adsorb more hydrogen per unit weight at room temperature than liquid hydrogen at -176 oC. Achieving this goal requires interconnected pores with very high internal surface area, and binding energies between hydrogen and carbon significantly enhanced relative to H2 on graphite. In this project a systematic study of carbide-derived carbons, a novel form of porous carbon, was carried out to discover a high-performance hydrogen sorption material to meet the goal. In the event we were unable to improve on the state of the art in terms of stored hydrogen per unit weight, having encountered the same fundamental limit of all porous carbons: the very weak interaction between H2 and the carbon surface. On the other hand we did discover several strategies to improve storage capacity on a volume basis, which should be applicable to other forms of porous carbon. Further discoveries with potentially broader impacts include • Proof that storage performance is not directly related to pore surface area, as had been previously claimed. Small pores (< 1.5 nm) are much more effective in storing hydrogen than larger ones, such that ...
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Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Zhou, Dr. Chenn
Description: Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.
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Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

Date: October 19, 2009
Creator: Rogers,E.; deBoer,G.; Crawford, C.; De Castro, K. & Landers, J.
Description: The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." Gen. Eugene Habiger, a former "Assistant Secretary for Safeguards and Security" at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear-weapons complex and a former commander of U.S. strategic nuclear forces, has observed that "good security is 20% equipment and 80% people." Although eliminating the "human factor" is not possible, accounting for and mitigating the risk of the insider threat is an essential element in establishing an effective nuclear security culture. This paper will consider the organizational role in mitigating the risk associated with the malicious insider through monitoring and enhancing human reliability and motivation as well as enhancing the nuclear security culture.
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Hi-Q Rotor - Low Wind Speed Technology

Hi-Q Rotor - Low Wind Speed Technology

Date: January 11, 2010
Creator: Mills, Todd E. & Tatum, Judy
Description: The project objective was to optimize the performance of the Hi-Q Rotor. Early research funded by the California Energy Commission indicated the design might be advantageous over state-of-the-art turbines for collecting wind energy in low wind conditions. The Hi-Q Rotor is a new kind of rotor targeted for harvesting wind in Class 2, 3, and 4 sites, and has application in areas that are closer to cities, or 'load centers.' An advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor is that the rotor has non-conventional blade tips, producing less turbulence, and is quieter than standard wind turbine blades which is critical to the low-wind populated urban sites. Unlike state-of-the-art propeller type blades, the Hi-Q Rotor has six blades connected by end caps. In this phase of the research funded by DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, the goal was to improve the current design by building a series of theoretical and numeric models, and composite prototypes to determine a best of class device. Development of the rotor was performed by aeronautical engineering and design firm, DARcorporation. From this investigation, an optimized design was determined and an 8-foot diameter, full-scale rotor was built and mounted using a Bergey LX-1 generator and furling system which were ...
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A quick guide to wind power forecating : state-of-the-art 2009.

A quick guide to wind power forecating : state-of-the-art 2009.

Date: November 20, 2009
Creator: Monteiro, C.; Keko, H.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J. et al.
Description: This document contains a summary of the main findings from our full report entitled 'Wind Power Forecasting: State-of-the-Art 2009'. The aims of this document are to provide guidelines and a quick overview of the current state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting (WPF) and to point out lines of research in the future development of forecasting systems.
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Nuclear Lattice Calculation

Nuclear Lattice Calculation

Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Seki, Ryoichi
Description: Thermal property of low-density neutron matter is reliably determined by a large scale computation using supercomputers. Physics of superfluid in neutron matter are clarified, as a basis of the structure of neutron-halo nuclei and of outer crust of neutron stars. In achieving these, a novel method of lattice quantum Monte Carlo technique is applied by combining with effective field theory.
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The REBUS-MCNP linkage.

The REBUS-MCNP linkage.

Date: April 24, 2009
Creator: Stevens, J. G. & Division, Nuclear Engineering
Description: The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program uses the REBUS-PC computer code to provide reactor physics and core design information such as neutron flux distributions in space, energy, and time, and to track isotopic changes in fuel and neutron absorbers with burnup. REBUS-PC models the complete fuel cycle including shuffling capability. REBUS-PC evolved using the neutronic capabilities of multi-group diffusion theory code DIF3D 9.0, but was extended to apply the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP for one-group fluxes and cross-sections. The linkage between REBUS-PC and MCNP has recently been modernized and extended, as described in this manual. REBUS-PC now calls MCNP via a system call so that the user can apply any valid MCNP executable. The interface between REBUS-PC and MCNP requires minimal changes to an existing MCNP model, and little additional input. The REBUS-MCNP interface can also be used in conjunction with DIF3D neutronics to update an MCNP model with fuel compositions predicted using a DIF3D based depletion.
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Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

Date: September 1, 2009
Creator: LLC, Elvado Environmental
Description: This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2010 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2010 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek ...
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ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information September 2009

ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information September 2009

Date: October 1, 2009
Creator: Voyles, JW
Description: The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.
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