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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1980-1989
Pourability Enhancement of PETN Explosive Powders

Pourability Enhancement of PETN Explosive Powders

Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Vannet, M.D. & Ball, G.L.
Description: Manufacture of precision detonators requires the pelletizing of very fine, organic, crystalline explosive powders. Production of pellets in automatic machines within critical dimensional and weight tolerances requires that the powders pour uniformly into die cavities. The pellets must be able to be initiated with low energy and have a predictable energy output. Modifications to needle-like crystalline PETN explosive powders to make them pourable were introduced by the application of about 80 A thick polymeric coatings to the individual crystals, followed by a controlled agglomeration into a spherical prill. Microencapsulation techniques provided the key to achieving the result using less than 0.5 wt. % coating (an order of magnitude less coating than in usual PBX systems). These coatings did not appreciably alter the energy required to initiate and significantly increased the strength of the pellets. A key point demonstrated, which may be translated to other applications, was that powders that exhibit performance based on physical characteristics could have their handling and strength properties tailored with little change in their primary function.
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LOFT Monthly Progress Report for August 1980

LOFT Monthly Progress Report for August 1980

Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Kaufman, N. C.
Description: During August, plant modifications for small-break Test L3-5 continued. The intact-loop-break piping installation is well underway and will be completed soon. Installation of the instrument spool piece was completed and advanced testing disclosed problems which have been worked and are 90% resolved. Installation of the new small-break piping path also made it necessary to fabricate and install hangers for support purposes. Work is progressing well on this effort; however, the additional time required to completion will move the L3-5 Test from a mid-to late-September test date. Major management attention has been devoted to the successful fiscal year 1980 closeout. The actual spending rate to date is still in good agreement with the current approved budgets and authorized funding levels.
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LOFT LTSF Thermocouple Thermal Analysis to Detemrine Transient Temperature Response

LOFT LTSF Thermocouple Thermal Analysis to Detemrine Transient Temperature Response

Date: June 23, 1980
Creator: Howell, S. K.
Description: A two-dimensional finite element model of the LOFT LTSF thermocouple assembly was developed to study the thermal response of the thermocouples to the expected temperature transient in the L3-4, 5 and 6 experiments. Subjecting the thermocouple model to a 10 F fluid temperature step change resulted in a .10 second delay before 95% of the step change was observed in the thermocouple temperature response. A thermal analysis was performed on the Loft Test Support Facility (LTSF) small-break thermocouple assembly to evaluate the thermal response of the thermocouples during the upcoming L3-4, 5 and 6 small-break experiments. The thermocouple assembly (see Figure 1) consists of 3 Type K thermocouples placed radially through an 8 inch diameter section on the pressurizer relief line in the LTSF. In support of the upcoming L3-4, 5 and 6 experiments the LTSF will be used to define thermal conditions expected during these tests. The temperature transients these thermocouples are required to follow are very rapid step changes. Therefore, it is necessary that these thermocouples have a short response time in order to follow the temperature transient in this line. A two-dimensional finite element model of the thermocouple assembly was constructed using COUPLE, a finite element heat ...
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Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

Date: April 3, 1981
Creator: Schock, Alfred
Description: Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during ...
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Solar Design Workbook

Solar Design Workbook

Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M. et al.
Description: This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.
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LOFT Monthly Progress Report for April 1980

LOFT Monthly Progress Report for April 1980

Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Kaufman, N. C.
Description: During April, activities continued in preparation for Tests L6-5 and L3-7, currently scheduled for June 1 and June 23. April activities at the LOFT facility were particularly centered around the installation of new and improved instrumentation. During April, a new baseline budget was established for FY-1980, the third major change this fiscal year. This baseline plan reflects a revised test sequence and dates reflecting test needs (particularly instrumentation), and current funding. Costs to date are in good agreement with the current budgets and the authorized funding levels. During April, a revised budget was proposed for FY-1981 and a new budget was proposed for FY-1982. These budgets and their assumptions were presented to NRC in mid-year reviews and important decision elements were identified. A reorganization of the LOFT personnel was announced this month. The LOFT Experimental Program Division was replaced with the LOFT Program Division, managed by Dr. C. W. Solbrig, and with the LOFT Measurements Division, managed by D. J. Hanson.
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LOFT Monthly Progress Report for November 1980

LOFT Monthly Progress Report for November 1980

Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Kaufman, N. C.
Description: During November major work efforts were directed towards preparation for Test L3-6/L8-1. These tests, to be run in sequence, will evalute the system effects of primary coolant pump operation during a small break LOCA (L3-6), and are to obtain a partial core uncovery to aid in the planning and conduct of future core uncovery experiments (L8-1). Plant modifications in preparation for the December test included installation of a new PC-3 gamma densitometer to measure the density of fluid coming from the steam generator and the installation of the EPRI Liquid Level Detector system to measure levels of fluid during the core uncovery experiment. Other key efforts concerned planning for test conduct and safety analysis. On November 6 and 7 the LOFT Review Group met in Idaho Falls to evaluate the activities on LOFT since its last meeting in February. Future test plans, budgets, the man-machine (AOC) program, and various other topics presented by LOFT personnel and consultants were discussed. Several suggestions were presented by those in attendance. These comments were directed to the areas of test scheduling and the kinds of tests to be run as well as how LOFT could better communicate with utilities and vendors to transmit information ...
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LOFT Monthly Progress Report for December 1980

LOFT Monthly Progress Report for December 1980

Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Leach, L. P.
Description: On December 10, 1980, LOFT conducted its fifth nuclear test in the L3 Series (small break) as well as the first in the L8 Series (core uncovery). The tests, designated L3-6/L8-1, were run in series with each experiment designated to address specific safety questions. Test L3-6 simulated a four-inch break in a commercial pressurized water reactor. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the influence of main coolant pump operation on the quantity of fluid which leaves the system and the quantity of fluid in the reactor core region during the experiment. The results of L3-6 are being compared with the results of a previous LOFT test, designated L3-5, which was performed on September 29, 1980. On December 9 and 10, a special review group committee, commissioned by the NRC, visited LOFT. The purpose of the committee's presence here was to study and evaluate the LOFT project, and then report recommendations to the NRC. The NRC would then use this information to help determine how the resources of the project could best be utilized, and which kind and how many tests should be conducted over how long a time period. Recommendations of this committee are expected to be announced ...
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MITG Test Plan

MITG Test Plan

Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Eck, Marshall B.
Description: The plan presented is for the testing of a prototypical slice of the Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG). Cross Reference T48-1.
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Unique Features and Spacecraft Applications of Dynamic Isotope Power Systems

Unique Features and Spacecraft Applications of Dynamic Isotope Power Systems

Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Raab, B.
Description: The dynamic isotope power system represents the most recent attempt to develop a heat-engine generator for space electric power. A major objective in this most recent effort was to increase the power and to reduce the cost of nuclear space power systems to the point where the unique features of this power source could be brought to bear for Earth-orbit missions which could benefit therefrom. This objective was largely achieved; both weight and cost of the dynamic isotope systems are comparable to solar power systems. The dynamic isotope power system, designed for spacecraft requiring prime power in the 500-2000 W range, has been successfully built and ground tested. A number of studies, summarized herein, have demonstrated the advantages of using such a power system instead of the conventional solar system for a variety of Earth-orbit missions. These advantages stem from the unique nature of the dynamic isotope system, different in kind from solar power systems. As a result, in many cases, the spacecraft design can be significantly simplified and more closely harmonized with mission requirements. This overall advantage can be crucial in missions which have stringent pointing, stability, viewing, and/or positioning requirements.
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Multicouple Anomaly Interpretation

Multicouple Anomaly Interpretation

Date: August 1, 1986
Creator: Schock, Alfred
Description: The report discusses the difference in conclusions over the cause of the shorting anomaly in the multicouple 16 between the project (DOE,GE,FI) and JPL.
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On the Nature of the Distortion of a GPHS Fueled Capsule Impacted on Various Media at Various Velocities and Under Various Boundary Conditions; Appendix F: Response of the GPHS Module to LH(Sub-2)-LO(Sub-2) Overpressure in Various Shielded and Unshielded Geometries

On the Nature of the Distortion of a GPHS Fueled Capsule Impacted on Various Media at Various Velocities and Under Various Boundary Conditions; Appendix F: Response of the GPHS Module to LH(Sub-2)-LO(Sub-2) Overpressure in Various Shielded and Unshielded Geometries

Date: August 25, 1987
Creator: Eck, Marshall B & Mukunda, Meera
Description: This body of work represents the parametric investigation of conditions of impact for a GPHS fueled capsule.
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Thermoelectric Alloys and Devices for Radioisotope Space Power Systems: State of the Art and Current Developments

Thermoelectric Alloys and Devices for Radioisotope Space Power Systems: State of the Art and Current Developments

Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Barnett, W.; Dick, P.; Beaudry, B.; Gorsuch, P. & Skrabek, E.
Description: Lead telluride and silicon germanium type alloys have served over the past several decades as the preferred thermoelectric conversion materials for U. S. radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power systems for planetary deep space exploration missions. The Pioneer missions to Jupiter and Jupiter/Saturn and the Viking Mars Lander missions employed TAGS-2N (lead and germanium telluride derivatives) power conversion devices. Since 1976, silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys, incorporated into the unicouple device, have evolved as the thermoelectric materials of choice for U. S. RTG powered space missions. These include the U. S. Air Force Lincoln Experimental Satellites 8 & 9 for communications, in 1976, followed in 1977 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Voyager 1 and 2 planetary missions. In 1989, advanced SiGe RTGs were used to power the Galileo exploration of Jupiter and, in 1990, will be used to power the Ulysses investigation of the Sun. In addition, SiGe technology has been chosen to provide RTG power for the 1995 Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby mission and the 1996 Cassini Saturn orbiter mission. Summaries of the flight performance data for these systems are presented.; Current U. S. Department of Energy thermoelectric development activities include (1) the development of conversion devices based ...
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LOFT Monthly Progress Report for July 1980

LOFT Monthly Progress Report for July 1980

Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Kaufman, N. C.
Description: During July, the LOFT test sequence underwent careful review which determined that changes would be appropriate. Evaluation of Tests L3-4 and L6-1 indicated they would not add significantly to the information base available from other experiments; therefore, these tests were cancelled. As shown in the Management Summary Schedule included in this report, the next test to be run is L3-5, scheduled for mid-September. Test L3-5 will be a small-break test in the cold leg side of the operating loop of the plant. Work efforts during July concentrated on plant preparation for the mid-September test. Installation of a new small-break path from the cold leg to the blowdown suppression tank, together with the associated new instrumentation installations, were well underway and on schedule at month's end. The Actual spending rate to date is in agreement with current budgets and authorized funding levels.
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MITG Station 2 Build 1 Disassembly

MITG Station 2 Build 1 Disassembly

Date: November 18, 1982
Creator: Eck, Marshall B & Kling, Harry P
Description: No Abstract. There is a duplicate copy. A decison was made not to send this to the OSTI library.
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MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 6

MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 6

Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Jones, A. R.
Description: Under contract to the Department of Energy, Westinghouse has prepared the definition of a program plan for the development of an MHD Advanced Power Train (APT). The scope of work of this contract includes conceptual designs of early commercial MHD/steam electric plants (topping/bottoming) ranging from 200 to 1000 Mw(e). These plant designs were prepared during 1982 and made use of a system analysis model that provides performance and design information and economic estimates. In early April 1984, DOE requested westinghouse to perform special studies under the existing APT contract to aid the Department in evaluating MHD program options. Two tasks were defined by DOE: the first task was to evaluate an 80 MW(t) integrated test system (with steam electric bottoming cycle) for installation at the CDIF in Butte, Montana; the second task was to investigate placing a 50 MW(e) MHD topping stage onto an existing steam electric plant (as a retrofit). This volume of the final report documents the results of these special studies. Highlights of the studies were presented orally to DOE on May 15, 1984.
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LOFT Small Break Test Themocouple Installation

LOFT Small Break Test Themocouple Installation

Date: May 28, 1980
Creator: Fors, R. M.
Description: The subject thermocouple design has been analyzed for maximum expected hydraulic loading and found to be adequate. The natural frequency of the thermocouple was found to be between the vortex shedding frequencies for the gas and liquid phase so that a tendency for resonance will exist. However, since the thermocouple support will have a restricted displacement, stresses found are below the endurance limit and, thus, are acceptable in respect to fatigue life as well as primary stress due to pressure loading.
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LOFT Monthly Progress Report for September 1980

LOFT Monthly Progress Report for September 1980

Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Kaufman, N. C.
Description: The fourth nuclear powered small break test (L3-5/5A) was conducted on September 29, 1980. The test was initiated from a steady state operating condition wherein the core was generating heat at a maximum rate of approximately 52 kW/m. The test consisted of two parts: L3-5 simulated a 4-in. pipe break in a commerical pressurized water reactor; the second part, L3-5A, was intended to investigate natural circulation and steam generator heat transfer modes and also plan recovery using secondary system control in a situation where the pipe break and the ECCS accumulator are isolated from the primary coolant system. Initial test data indicated that all systems functioned as expected. The several hundred measurements of system coolant and reactor core conditions made during the three hour duration of the test will continue to be analyzed over the next several months. Preparations were also underway for conduting three tests in the Anticipated Transient Series. These tests, designated L6-1, L6-2, and L6-3 will provide information on plant control systems and operator response to transients in which the initiating event is not a loss-of-primary coolant. The transient tests to be conducted during September and others scheduled in the future will add greatly to understanding responses ...
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MITG Station 1 Build 1 and Build 2 Disassembly

MITG Station 1 Build 1 and Build 2 Disassembly

Date: October 18, 1982
Creator: Eck, Marshall B & Kling, Harry P
Description: No Abstract. There is a duplicate copy.
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Design and Structural Analysis of Mars Rover RTG

Design and Structural Analysis of Mars Rover RTG

Date: September 29, 1989
Creator: Schock, Alfred; Hamrick, T.; Sankarankandath, V. & Shirbacheh, M.
Description: The paper describes the design and the structural and mass analysis of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the MARS Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The RTG design study was conducted by Fairchild Space Company for the U.S. Department of Energy, in support of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's MRSR project.; The paper briefly describes a reference mission scenario, an illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, and its power system requirements and environmental constraints, including the RTG cooling requirements during transit to Mars. It identifies the key RTG design problem, i.e. venting the helium generated by the fuel's alpha decay without intrusion of the Martian atmosphere into the RTG, and proposes a design approach for solving that problem.; Using that approach, it describes a very conservative baseline RTG design. The design is based on the proven and safety-qualified General Purpose Heat Source module, and employs standard thermoelectric unicouples whose reliability and performance stability has been extensively demonstrated on previous space missions. The heat source of the 250-watt RTG consists of a stack of 18 separate modules that is supported at its ends but not along its ...
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Summary Results of the Neptun Boil-Off Experiments to Investigate the Accuracy and Cooling Influence of LOFT Cladding-Surface Thermocouples (System 00)

Summary Results of the Neptun Boil-Off Experiments to Investigate the Accuracy and Cooling Influence of LOFT Cladding-Surface Thermocouples (System 00)

Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Tolman, E. L. & Aksan, S. N.
Description: Nine boil-off experiments were conducted in the Swiss NEPTUN Facility primarily to obtain experimental data for assessing the perturbation effects of LOFT thermocouples during simulated small-break core uncovery conditions. The data will also be useful in assessing computer model capability to predict thermal hydraulic response data for this type of experiment. System parameters that were varied for these experiments included heater rod power, system pressure, and initial coolant subcooling. The experiments showed that the LOFT thermocouples do not cause a significant cooling influence in the rods to which they are attached. Furthermore, the accuracy of the LOFT thermocouples is within 20 K at the peak cladding temperature zone.
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Structural, Thermal, and Safety Analysis of Isotope Heat Source and Integrated Heat Exchangers for 6-kWe Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS)

Structural, Thermal, and Safety Analysis of Isotope Heat Source and Integrated Heat Exchangers for 6-kWe Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS)

Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Schock, Alfred
Description: The design of the 30-kWt isotope heat source integrated with a Rankine boiler and a Brayton gas heater, which was described in the preceding paper in these proceedings, was subjected to structural, thermal, and safety analyses. The present paper describes and discusses the results of these analyses. Detailed structural analyses of the heat source integrated with the boiler and gas heater showed positive safety margins at all locations during the launch. Detailed thermal analyses showed acceptable temperatures at all locations, during assembly, transfer and orbital operations. Reentry thermal analyses showed that the clads have acceptable peak and impact temperatures. Loss-of-cooling analyses indicated the feasibility of a passive safety concept for preventing over temperatures. Static structural analysis showed positive safety margins at all locations, and dynamic analysis showed that there were no low-frequency resources. Continuum-mechanics code analyses of the effects of the impact of Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) fragments on the heat source and of the very unlikely impact of the full heat source on concrete indicated relatively modest fuel clad deformations and little or no fuel release.
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LOFT Monthly Progress Report for January 1980

LOFT Monthly Progress Report for January 1980

Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Kaufman, N. C.
Description: During January, the LOFT Project focused on preparing for the next small-break experiment. That test, L3-2, is scheduled for February 6. The test will simulate a break size corresponding to a failure in a one-inch pipe for a 1000 MW(e) commercial power plant. It will be the second small break experiment in LOFT to use nuclear heat. Overall costs for January are very close to budget (greater than 1%). The costing rate will require continued close monitoring. The manpower rate is higher than budgeted and the material rate is less than budgeted. Detailed investigation has shown that these are intentional resource changes, reflecting decisions on the most effective method of work conduct. Thus, they do not indicate a future budget problem.
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Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG) Design and Development, Part A-E. Original was presented at 1983 Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC)

Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG) Design and Development, Part A-E. Original was presented at 1983 Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC)

Date: April 29, 1983
Creator: Schock, A.
Description: Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing 24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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