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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides background information Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), and discusses U.S. trade negotiating objectives, procedures for congressional-executive notification and consultation, and expedited legislative procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306519/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and presents potential issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans, including the planned size of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and prospective affordability. Congressional decisions on Navy shipbuilding programs can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306501/
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic
This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups. The reports and related websites are grouped under the following cybersecurity topics: policy overview; National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC); cloud computing and FedRAMP; critical infrastructure; cybercrime, data breaches and data security; national security, cyber espionage, and cyberwar (including Stuxnet); international efforts; education/training/workforce; and research and development (R&D). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306561/
Implementing the Affordable Care Act: Delays, Extensions, and Other Actions Taken by the Administration
This report discusses the health care reform, private health insurance provisions and the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306536/
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
This report offers background information on Ukraine's current political and economic situation, as well as foreign policy towards NATO, the European Union, and Russia. It also discusses U.S. policy, U.S. aid to Ukraine, the congressional response, and other legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306529/
Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments
This report discusses the noncontributory military retirement system which includes monthly compensation and benefits after an active or reserve military career, disability retirement for those physically unfit to continue to serve, and survivor benefits for the eligible survivors of deceased retirees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306566/
Selected Recently Expired Business Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders")
This report briefly summarizes and discusses the economic impact of selected business-related tax provisions that expired at the end of 2013 and that are being considered for extension. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306513/
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer
This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306538/
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of the key issues for Congress related to Egypt and information on U.S. foreign aid to Egypt. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt, as well as addressing the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306543/
SNAP and Related Nutrition Provisions of the 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79)
This report discusses the Nutrition Title (Title IV) of the enacted 2014 farm bill. As Congress formulated the Nutrition provisions of the 2014 farm bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306514/
Malaysia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report analyzes U.S.-Malaysia relations and the economy, domestic politics, and diplomacy of Malaysia. It also provides background on current events and policy debates, as Congress has expressed interest in a variety of issues in U.S.-Malaysia relations, especially regarding trade, security cooperation, and human rights. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306544/
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
This report reviews the ongoing programs and issues that will affect the expected size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force structure. It includes an overview of this force structure during the Cold War summarizes the reductions and changes that have occurred since 1991, and offers details about each category of delivery vehicle--land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) and heavy bombers--focusing on their current deployments and ongoing and planned modernization programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306516/
U.S.-Vietnam Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the U.S.-Vietnamese cooperation on nuclear energy and nonproliferation that has grown in recent years along with closer bilateral economic, military, and diplomatic ties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306507/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), a relatively inexpensive Navy surface combatant equipped with modular "plug-and-fight" mission packages for countering mines, small boats, and diesel-electric submarines, particularly in littoral (i.e., near-shore) waters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306524/
Maritime Territorial Disputes in East Asia: Issues for Congress
This report presents policy and oversight issues for Congress arising from maritime territorial disputes involving East Asia, East China Sea (ECS), and an additional dispute over whether China has a right under international law to regulate U.S. and other foreign military activities in its maritime Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306520/
How Social Security Benefits Are Computed: In Brief
This report discusses how Social Security benefits are currently computed, including information about eligibility, earnings, cost-of-living adjustments, factors that can affect benefit levels, and benefits for dependents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306533/
Energy and Water Development: FY2015 Appropriations
This report discusses the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill that provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), for the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Department of Energy (DOE), and several independent agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306509/
The United Kingdom and U.S.-UK Relations
This report discusses the relations between United Kingdom (UK) and the United States, including a sense of shared history, values, and culture, as well as extensive and long-established cooperation on a wide range of foreign policy and security issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306558/
State and Local "Sanctuary" Policies Limiting Participation in Immigration Enforcement
This report discusses legal issues related to state and local measures that limit law enforcement cooperation with federal immigration authorities. It includes legal background and select limitations on immigration enforcement including traditional "sanctuary" policies, declining to honor immigration detainers, shielding juveniles from federal detection, and modifying criminal sentences to avoid immigration consequences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306522/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board and the Security Council. It will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306532/
Tort Suits Against Federal Contractors: Selected Legal Issues
This report provides background on, and analysis of, key legal issues that such suits present. It provides a broad overview of tort claims generally, discusses the primary mechanisms through which contractors have attempted to defend against tort liability, and examines indemnification agreements between the government and contractors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306517/
Afghanistan: Drug Trafficking and the 2014 Transition
This report describes key U.S. counternarcotics programs in Afghanistan in the context of the 2014 transition and analyzes policy issues related to these programs for Congress to consider as policy makers examine the drug problem in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306535/
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions
The report provides basic consumer sources, including broad overviews of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) law, and resources related to specific provisions. It also has links to contacts for specific questions (including websites, hotlines, and online chat assistance). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306527/
Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the LX(R) amphibious ship program, a Navy program to build a new class of 11 amphibious ships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306546/
Millennium Challenge Corporation
This report discusses the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), which provides economic assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursuing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. It also discusses several concerns related to MCC implementation, including the level of funding to support MCC programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306528/
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
This report provides an overview of the rationale for the Prompt Global Strike (PGS) mission and the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles or boost-glide systems. It also reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems and summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals, then provides a more detailed account of the issues raised by these concepts and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306541/
Legislative Branch: FY2015 Appropriations
This report discusses the legislative branch appropriations bill that provides funding for the Senate, House of Representatives, Joint Items, Capitol Police, Office of Compliance, Congressional Budget Office (CBO), Architect of the Capitol (AOC), Library of Congress (LOC) -- including the Congressional Research Service (CRS) -- Government Printing Office (GPO), Government Accountability Office (GAO), and Open World Leadership Center. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306505/
U.S. International Broadcasting: Background and Issues for Reform
This report discusses the United States International Broadcasting Act of 1994 (USIB Act) and the U.S. international broadcasting services were consolidated under the BBG within the United States Information Agency (USIA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306503/
Federal Holidays: Evolution and Current Practices
This report discusses the creation of federal holidays, how holidays affect employee pay, and recent holiday legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306567/
Low-Income Assistance Programs: Trends in Federal Spending
This report examines the spending trends of 10 major need-tested benefit programs or groups of programs: (1) health care from Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); (2) the refundable portion of the health insurance tax credit enacted in the 2010 health care reform law; (3) the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP); (4) assisted housing; (5) financial assistance for post-secondary students (Pell Grants); (6) compensatory education grants to school districts; (7) the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); (8) the Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC); (9) Supplemental Security Income (SSI); and (10) Family Support Payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306562/
Community Services Block Grants (CSBG): Background and Funding
This report looks at the purpose and background of Community Services Block Grants (CSBG), which provide federal funds to states, territories, and tribes for distribution to local agencies to support a wide range of community-based activities to reduce poverty. It includes program data, funding activity for fiscal years 2013 and 2014, and proposals for FY2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306551/
Unauthorized Aliens in the United States: Policy Discussion
This report discusses the unauthorized immigrant (illegal alien) population in the United States, which is a key and controversial immigration issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306525/
Administrative Law Primer: Statutory Definitions of "Agency" and Characteristics of Agency Independence
This report explores several important statutes that regulate agencies and these statutes' respective definitions of "agency." These statutes include the Administrative Procedure Act, the Freedom of Information Act, the Federal Records Act, statutes governing federal employees, and the Paperwork Reduction Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306540/
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on the potential implications of China's naval modernization for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The report particularly discusses how potential United States responses to China's military modernization effort -- including its naval modernization effort -- have emerged as a key issue in U.S. defense planning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306552/
The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions
This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306565/
Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: Law, History, Practice, and Procedure
This report examines the source of the contempt power, reviews the historical development of the early case law, outlines the statutory and common law basis for Congress's contempt power, and analyzes the procedures associated with inherent contempt, criminal contempt, and the civil enforcement of subpoenas. It also includes a detailed discussion of two recent information access disputes that led to the approval of contempt citations in the House against then-White House Chief of Staff Joshua Bolten and former White House Counsel Harriet Miers, as well as Attorney General Eric Holder. Finally, the report discusses both non-constitutional and constitutionally-based limitations on the contempt power. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306521/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. Congress decisions concerning these programs could substantially affect Navy capabilities, funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306534/
Internet Domain Names: Background and Policy Issues
This report discusses the Domain Name System (DNS), which is the distributed set of databases that contain address numbers mapped to corresponding domain names, making it possible to send and receive messages and to access information on the Internet. The report includes background on the DNS and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) that manages the services, as well as related issues for the 113th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306512/
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic
This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups. The reports and related websites are grouped under the following cybersecurity topics: policy overview; National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC); cloud computing and FedRAMP; critical infrastructure; cybercrime, data breaches and data security; national security, cyber espionage, and cyberwar (including Stuxnet); international efforts; education/training/workforce; and research and development (R&D). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306502/
Nigeria's Boko Haram: Frequently Asked Questions
This report discusses Boko Haram, a violent Nigerian Islamist movement, has grown increasingly active and deadly in its attacks against state and civilian targets in recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306560/
Federal Aid to State and Local Governments: Select Issues Raised by a Federal Government Shutdown
This report explores two grant-administration issues specifically affected by the federal shutdown. It gives an overview of federal aid to state and local governments, characteristics of federal grants and methods for disbursing the funds, grant administration issues affected by a lapse in federal funding, and potential legislative options to reduce the impact of future government shutdowns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306553/
Securing U.S. Diplomatic Facilities and Personnel Abroad: Background and Policy Issues
This report provides background information on the organization, practice, and funding of U.S. diplomatic security efforts. It also provides summary information on the September 11, 2012, attack on U.S. facilities in Benghazi, Libya, as well as on the subsequent Accountability Review Board. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306518/
FY2015 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations: Fact Sheet
This report will track and describe actions taken by the Administration and Congress to provide FY2015 appropriations for Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS) accounts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306545/
Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act
This report discusses the Spectrum Act, a provision of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012. It includes an overview of the Spectrum Act, the specific policy revisions (deficit reduction, directed auctions, incentive auctions, federal spectrum use and reallocation, and unlicensed spectrum) and a conclusion discussing geographic coverage of spectrum licenses, spectrum caps, and planning for future needs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306554/
The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2015
This report discusses financial assistance for global climate change initiatives in developing countries. The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) -- one of the three main pillars to the 2010 directive -- aims to integrate climate change considerations into relevant foreign assistance, from FY2008 enacted funding request for FY2010 through the FY2014. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306547/
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on the potential implications of China's naval modernization for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The report particularly discusses how potential United States responses to China's military modernization effort -- including its naval modernization effort -- have emerged as a key issue in U.S. defense planning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306548/
Achievements of and Outlook for Sanctions on Iran
This report analyzes the effect that sanctions have had in contributing to the achievement of U.S. objectives on Iran and analyzes several scenarios that might affect whether sanctions are eased or increased, or that might affect the effectiveness of the sanctions. It briefly reviews the imposition of sanctions, both by the United States and the international community, and discusses their stated objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306511/
Recently Expired Charitable Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief
This report briefly summarizes the temporary charitable tax provisions that expired at the end of 2013 and are being considered for extension. The report also discusses the economic impact of these charitable tax provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306508/
H.R. 3080 and S. 601: Comparison of Select Provisions and Conference Developments
This report discusses the conference report H.Rept. 113-449 that would resolve differences between H.R. 3080, the Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2013 (WRRDA 2013), and S. 601, the Water Resources Development Act of 2013 (WRDA 2013). Both bills represented omnibus authorization legislation for water resource activities, principally associated with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306555/
Recently Expired Community Assistance Related Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief
This report briefly summarizes four community assistance-related tax provisions included in the EXPIRE Act, which are (1) the New Markets Tax Credit, (2) Empowerment Zone Tax Incentives, (3) allocation of bond limitations for Qualified Zone Academy Bonds, and (4) the American Samoa Economic Development Credit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306557/
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