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New solid state lasers from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared

New solid state lasers from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared

Date: August 15, 1995
Creator: Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F. & Beach, R.J.
Description: The authors discuss three new laser materials that offer improved access to the ultraviolet, near infrared and mid-infrared spectral regions. In order for each of these materials to have been identified, a particular hurdle needed to be overcome with respect to the fundamental laser physics impacting the material. In the case of the 280-320nm Ce:LiSAF laser, the main issue is the need to reduce the loss associated with excited state absorption, while for 1047nm Yb:S-FAP it is the ground state absorption at the laser wavelength that must be minimized. Cr:ZnSe has been down-selected from a number of potential candidates which could lase in the 2200-3000nm region, in order to mitigate the detrimental impact of nonradiative decay. In all three cases the authors discuss how appropriate consideration of fundamental concerns has led to the identification and understanding of the new laser system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: unknown
Description: The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.

YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.

Date: September 18, 1998
Creator: Bates, J. K.; Buck, E. C.; Emery, J. W.; Finch, R. J.; Finn, P. A.; Fortner, J. et al.
Description: This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2, Annual report for FY 1994

Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2, Annual report for FY 1994

Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H. & McConnell, J.W. Jr.
Description: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program is to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that will be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluating the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites are being employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results over the past year on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of the annual report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy conservation opportunities in small commercial buildings

Energy conservation opportunities in small commercial buildings

Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Abraham, M.M. & MacDonald, J.M.
Description: As part of a joint project between Duke Power Co. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a study was performed to determine the energy savings potential of small commercial buildings, located in the Duke Power service territory. This relatively untouched portion of the commercial sector has the potential for reducing energy consumption by 13% - 25%, which corresponds to a reduction in average annual operating costs of $500 - $1000 per building. A database of over sixty customers was used to target five buildings with unusually high levels of energy consumption and/or peak demand. Conservation measures in these buildings were selected on the basis of cost-effectiveness and relative non-intrusiveness on the occupants. Together, ORNL and Duke Power representatives worked on data analysis, site-audits, and measure recommendations. Duke Power supplied hourly and monthly utility data, customer survey information and participated in site-audits. ORNL analyzed the data, developed targeting indices, performed site-audits and corresponding first-order energy simulations on candidate buildings, and recommended individualized conservation retrofits. For the five buildings examined, retrofits including lighting, controls, and HVAC systems accounted for a total reduction in consumption of 32%, and in peak demand of 22%. In addition, the study emphasizes the importance of continuous attention ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical and ceramic methods toward safe storage of actinides using monazite. 1998 annual progress report

Chemical and ceramic methods toward safe storage of actinides using monazite. 1998 annual progress report

Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Morgan, P.E.D. & Boatner, L.A.
Description: 'The use of ceramic monazite, (La,Ce)PO{sub 4}, for sequestering actinides, especially plutonium, and some other radioactive waste elements (rare earths e.g.) and thus isolating them from the environment has been championed by Lynn Boatner of ORNL. It may be used alone or, as it is compatible with many other minerals in nature, can be used in composite combinations. Natural monazite, which almost invariably contains Th and U, is often formed in hydrothermal pegmatites and is extremely water resistant--examples are known where the mineral has been washed out of rocks (becoming a placer mineral as on the beach sands of India, Australia, Brazil etc.) then reincorporated into new rocks with new crystal overgrowths and then washed out again--being 2.5--3 billion years old. During this demanding water treatment it has retained Th and U. Where very low levels of water attack have been seen (in more siliceous waters), the Th is tied up as new ThSiO{sub 4} and remains immobile. Lest it be thought that rare-earths are rare or expensive, this is not so. In fact, the less common lanthanides such as gadolinium, samarium, europium, and terbium, are necessarily extracted and much used by, e.g., the electronics industry, leaving La and Ce ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electric sales and revenue 1994

Electric sales and revenue 1994

Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: unknown
Description: The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: unknown
Description: This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Quantification of uncertain outcomes from site characterization: Insights from the ESF-AS

Quantification of uncertain outcomes from site characterization: Insights from the ESF-AS

Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Boyle, W.J.; Parrish, D.K. & Beccue, P.C.
Description: As part of the Exploratory Studies Facility Alternatives Study (ESF-AS) the uncertain outcomes from site characterization were quantified using a probabilistic tree known as ``Nature`s Tree.`` Nature`s Tree distinguished the true characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site from the perceived characteristics deduced from testing. Bayesian probabilistic calculations converted probabilities in Nature`s Tree to the probabilistic estimates required for the comparative analysis of Exploratory Studies Facility-repository options. Experts on characterization testing explicitly addressed several site characterization issues that are considered implicitly in many site characterization programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Technical issues for possible dry storage of DOE owned spent nuclear fuels

Technical issues for possible dry storage of DOE owned spent nuclear fuels

Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: McKinnon, M.A.; Einziger, R.E.; Louthan, M.L. & Iyer, N.C.
Description: Criteria for interim dry storage of DOE owned spent nuclear fuels will be based on a combination of technical, regulatory, and political requirements. These requirements have not been fully established but will include issues such as the necessity for monitoring the fuel, retrievability of the fuel, maintenance of final disposal options, siting of interim disposal facilities (will the fuels at each site remain on that site throughout the interim disposal period?), and interfacing with the International Atomic Energy Agency over inspectability of the highly enriched fuels in the inventory. Regardless of the other requirement issues, the technical storage criteria are likely to vary with fuel type and will include: (a) a fuel specific maximum storage temperature coupled to; (b) a specific storage environment (for example, Helium gas with less than xx ppm moisture); (c) a mass limit for fissionable isotopes; and (d) provisions for prestorage characterization and, if necessary, segregation of the fuel based on the established condition of the fuel. Each of these criteria has several associated technical issues and there are significant interactions among the criteria. This white paper summarizes many of the technical issues which must be resolved in order to develop functional and design specification for ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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