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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1950-1959
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Notes
Icing Frequencies Experienced During Climb and Descent by Fighter-Interceptor Aircraft

Icing Frequencies Experienced During Climb and Descent by Fighter-Interceptor Aircraft

Date: July 1, 1958
Creator: Perkins, Porter J.
Description: Data and analyses are presented on the relative frequencies of occurrence and severity of icing cloud layers encountered by jet aircraft in the climb and descent phases of flights to high altitudes. Fighter-interceptor aircraft operated by the Air Defense Command (USAF) at bases in the Duluth and Seattle areas collected the data with icing meters installed for a l-year period. The project was part of an extensive program conducted by the NACA to collect Icing cloud data for evaluating the icing problem relevant to routine operations. The average frequency of occurrence of icing was found to be about 5 percent of the number of climbs and descents during 1 year of operations The icing encounters were predominantly in the low and middle cloud layers, decreasing above 15,000 feet to practically none above 25,000 feet. The greatest thickness of ice that would accumulate on any aircraft component (as indicated by the accretion on a small object) was measured with the icing meters. The ice thicknesses on a small sensing probe averaged less than 1/32 inch and did not exceed 1/2 inch. Such accumulations are relatively small when compared with those that can form during horizontal flight in icing clouds. The light ...
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Meteorological Analysis of Icing Conditions Encountered in Low-Altitude Stratiform Clouds

Meteorological Analysis of Icing Conditions Encountered in Low-Altitude Stratiform Clouds

Date: March 1, 1951
Creator: Kline, D. B. & Walker, J. A.
Description: Liquid-water content, droplet size, and temperature data measured during 22 flights in predominatly stratiform clouds through the 1948-49 and the 1949-50 winters are presented. Several icing encounters were of greater severity than those previously measured over the same geographical area, but were within the limits of similar measurements obtained over different terrain within the United States. An analysis of meteorological conditions existing during the 74 flights conducted for four winters indicated an inverse relation of liquid-water concentration to maximum horizontal extent of icing clouds. Data on the vertical extent of supercooled clouds are also presented. Icing conditions were most likely to occur in the southwest and northwest quadrants of a cyclone area, and least likely to occur in the southeast and northeast quadrants where convergent air flow and lifting over the associated warm frontal surface usually cause precipitation. Additional data indicated that, icing conditions were usually encountered in nonprecipitating clouds existing at subfreezing temperatures and were unlikely over areas where most weather observing stations reported the existence of precipitation. Measurements of liquid-water content obtained during 12 flights near the time and location of radiosonde observations were compared with theoretical values. The average liquid-water content of a cloud layer, as measured ...
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Droplet Impingement and Ingestion by Supersonic Nose Inlet in Subsonic Tunnel Conditions

Droplet Impingement and Ingestion by Supersonic Nose Inlet in Subsonic Tunnel Conditions

Date: May 1, 1958
Creator: Gelder, Thomas F.
Description: The amount of water in cloud droplet form ingested by a full-scale supersonic nose inlet with conical centerbody was measured in the NACA Lewis icing tunnel. Local and total water impingement rates on the cowl and centerbody surfaces were also obtained. All measurements were made with a dye-tracer technique. The range of operating and meteorological conditions studied was: angles of attack of 0 deg and 4.2 deg, volume-median droplet diameters from about 11 to 20 microns, and ratios of inlet to free-stream velocity from about 0.4 to 1.8. Although the inlet was designed for supersonic (Mach 2.0) operation of the aircraft, the tunnel measurements were confined to a free-stream velocity of 156 knots (Mach 0.237). The data are extendable to other subsonic speeds and droplet sizes by dimensionless impingement parameters. Impingement and ingestion efficiencies are functions of the ratio of inlet to free-stream velocity as well as droplet size. For the model and range of conditions studied, progressively increasing the inlet velocity ratio from less than to greater than 1.0 increased the centerbody impingement efficiency and shifted the cowl impingement region from the inner- to outer-cowl surfaces, respectively. The ratio of water ingested by the inlet plane to that contained ...
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Impingement of Cloud Droplets on 36.5-Percent-Thick Joukowski Airfoil at Zero Angle of Attack and Discussion of Use as Cloud Measuring Instrument in Dye-Tracer Technique

Impingement of Cloud Droplets on 36.5-Percent-Thick Joukowski Airfoil at Zero Angle of Attack and Discussion of Use as Cloud Measuring Instrument in Dye-Tracer Technique

Date: September 1, 1957
Creator: Brun, R. J. & Vogt, Dorothea E.
Description: The trajectories of droplets i n the air flowing past a 36.5-percent-thick Joukowski airfoil at zero angle of attack were determined. The amount of water i n droplet form impinging on the airfoil, the area of droplet impingement, and the rate of droplet impingement per unit area on the airfoil surface were calculated from the trajectories and cover a large range of flight and atmospheric conditions. With the detailed impingement information available, the 36.5-percent-thick Joukowski airfoil can serve the dual purpose of use as the principal element in instruments for making measurements in clouds and of a basic shape for estimating impingement on a thick streamlined body. Methods and examples are presented for illustrating some limitations when the airfoil is used as the principal element in the dye-tracer technique.
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Impingement of Droplets in 60 Deg Elbows with Potential Flow

Impingement of Droplets in 60 Deg Elbows with Potential Flow

Date: October 1, 1956
Creator: Hacker, Paul T.; Saper, Paul G. & Kadow, Charles F.
Description: Trajectories were determined for water droplets or other aerosol particles in air flowing through 600 elbows especially designed for two-dimensional potential motion. The elbows were established by selecting as walls of each elbow two streamlines of a flow field produced by a complex potential function that establishes a two-dimensional flow around. a 600 bend. An unlimited number of elbows with slightly different shapes can be established by selecting different pairs of streamlines as walls. Some of these have a pocket on the outside wall. The elbows produced by the complex potential function are suitable for use in aircraft air-inlet ducts and have the following characteristics: (1) The resultant velocity at any point inside the elbow is always greater than zero but never exceeds the velocity at the entrance. (2) The air flow field at the entrance and exit is almost uniform and rectilinear. (3) The elbows are symmetrical with respect to the bisector of the angle of bend. These elbows should have lower pressure losses than bends of constant cross-sectional area. The droplet impingement data derived from the trajectories are presented along with equations so that collection efficiency, area, rate, and distribution of droplet impingement can be determined for any ...
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Comparison of Three Multicylinder Icing Meters and Critique of Multicylinder Method

Comparison of Three Multicylinder Icing Meters and Critique of Multicylinder Method

Date: June 1, 1952
Creator: Howell, Wallace E.
Description: Three multicylinder cloud meters, fundamentally similar but differing in important details, were compared in use at the Mount Washington Observatory. Determinations of liquid water content were found to agree within the limits of the probable error, but the two instruments designed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics indicated larger drop sizes than did the Observatory's instrument, apparently because of spurious ice catch on the rather rough surface of the larger cylinders. Comparisons of drop-size distribution were largely indeterminate., In a critique of the method, the probable error of determination of liquid water content was found to be +/-8 percent; of drop size, +/-6 percent; and of drop-size distribution, about +/-0.7 unit of the modulus of distribution. Of the systematic errors, run-off of unfrozen water is most important, blow-off and erosion seldom being hampering. Revision of collection-efficiency computations for cylinders in clouds with distributed drop sizes was found necessary and also revision of one of the correction-factor graphs heretofore used. The assumption of constant ice density in deriving cylinder size was found to be permissible for cylinders 1 inch or more in diameter.
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A probability analysis of the meteorological factors conducive to aircraft icing in the United States

A probability analysis of the meteorological factors conducive to aircraft icing in the United States

Date: July 1, 1952
Creator: Lewis, W. & Bergrun, N. R.
Description: None
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Experimental Droplet Impingement on Four Bodies of Revolution

Experimental Droplet Impingement on Four Bodies of Revolution

Date: December 1, 1957
Creator: Lewis, James P. & Ruggeri, Robert S.
Description: The rate and. area of cloud droplet impingement on four bodies of revolution were obtained experimentally in the NACA Lewis icing tunnel with a dye-tracer technique. The study included spheres, ellipsoidal forebodies of fineness ratios of 2.5 and 3.0, and a conical forebody of 300 included angle and covered a range of angles of attack from 0? to 60 and rotational speeds up to 1200 rpm. The data were obtained at an airspeed of 157 knots and are correlated by dimensionless impingement parameters. In general, the experimental data show that the local and total impingement rates and impingement limits of bodies of revolution are primarily functions of the modified inertia parameters, the body shape, and fineness ratio. Both the local impingement rate and impingement limits depend upon the angle of attack. Rotation of the bodies had a negligible effect on the impingement characteristics except for an averaging effect at angle of attack. For comparable diameters the bluffer bodies had the largest total impingement efficiency, but the finer and sharper bodies had the largest values of maximum local impingement efficiency and, in most cases, the largest limits of impingement. In most cases, the impingement characteristics were less than those calculated from ...
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Experimental Droplet Impingement on Several Two-Dimensional Airfoils with Thickness Ratios of 6 to 16 Percent

Experimental Droplet Impingement on Several Two-Dimensional Airfoils with Thickness Ratios of 6 to 16 Percent

Date: December 1, 1956
Creator: Gelder, Thomas F.; Smyers, William H., Jr. & VonGlahn, Uwe
Description: The rate and area of cloud droplet impingement on several two-dimensional swept and unswept airfoils were obtained experimentally in the NACA Lewis icing tunnel with a dye-tracer technique. Airfoil thickness ratios of 6 to 16 percent; angles of attack from 0 deg to 12 deg, and chord sizes from 13 to 96 inches were included in the study. The data were obtained at 152 knots and are extended to other conditions by dimensionless impingement parameters. In general, the data show that the total and local collection efficiencies and impingement limits are primary functions of the modified inertia parameter (in which airspeed, droplet size, and body size are the most significant variables) and the airfoil thickness ratio. Local collection efficiencies and impingement limits also depend on angle of attack. Secondary factors affecting impingement characteristics are airfoil shape, camber, and sweep angle. The impingement characteristics obtained experimentally for the airfoils were within +/-10 percent on the average of the characteristics calculated from theoretical trajectories. Over the range of conditions studied, the experimental data demonstrate that a specific method can be used to predict the impingement characteristics of swept airfoils with large aspect ratios from the data for unswept airfoils of the same ...
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An Oil-Stream Photomicrographic Aeroscope for Obtaining Cloud Liquid-Water Content and Droplet Size Distributions in Flight

An Oil-Stream Photomicrographic Aeroscope for Obtaining Cloud Liquid-Water Content and Droplet Size Distributions in Flight

Date: January 1, 1956
Creator: Hacker, Paul T.
Description: An airborne cloud aeroscope by which droplet size, size distribution, and liquid-water content of clouds can be determined has been developed and tested in flight and in wind tunnels with water sprays. In this aeroscope the cloud droplets are continuously captured in a stream of oil, which Is then photographed by a photomicrographic camera. The droplet size and size distribution can be determined directly from the photographs. With the droplet size distribution known, the liquid-water content of the cloud can be computed from the geometry of the aeroscope, the airspeed, and the oil-flow rate. The aeroscope has the following features: Data are obtained semi-automatically, and permanent data are taken in the form of photographs. A single picture usually contains a sufficient number of droplets to establish the droplet size distribution. Cloud droplets are continuously captured in the stream of oil, but pictures are taken at Intervals. The aeroscope can be operated in icing and non-icing conditions. Because of mixing of oil in the instrument, the droplet-distribution patterns and liquid-water content values from a single picture are exponentially weighted average values over a path length of about 3/4 mile at 150 miles per hour. The liquid-water contents, volume-median diameters, and distribution ...
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