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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1990-1999
 Year: 1997
3-D spectral IP imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996--September 14, 1997
'The objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth''s subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. The first-year accomplishments are (1) laboratory experiments on fluid-saturated sandstones quantifying the dependence of spectral IP responses on solution chemistry and rock micro-geometry; (2) library research on the current understanding of electromagnetic coupling effects on IP data acquired in the field: and (3) development of prototype forward modeling and inversion algorithms for interpreting IP data in terms of 3-D models of complex resistivity.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc620009/
105-N basin sediment disposition phase-two sampling and analysis plan
The sampling and analysis plan for Phase 2 of the 105-N Basin sediment disposition task defines the sampling and analytical activities that will be performed to support characterization of the sediment and selection of an appropriate sediment disposal option. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc623439/
120-D-1 (100-D) ponds training plan
This is the Environmental Restoration Contractor Team training plan for the 100-D Ponds treatment, storage, and disposal unit. This plan is intended to meet the requirements of WAC 173-303-330 and the Hanford Dangerous Waste Permit. The WAC 173-303-330(1)(d)(ii, v, vi) requires that personnel be familiar, where applicable, with waste feed cut-off systems, proper responses to groundwater contamination incidents, shutdown of operations, response to fire or explosion, and other process operation activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627901/
183-H Solar Evaporation Basins PostClosure Plan
The 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins (183-H) have certified closure under a modified closure option available in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit under Condition II.K.3. The following information contains a description of the unit, past closure actions, and postclosure care requirements subject to compliance under the Permit. Corrective actions required for dangerous waste constituents remaining at 183-H will occur in conjunction with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial actions for the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626607/
300 Area Process Trenches Supplemental Information to the Hanford Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)
The 300 Area Process Trenches are surface impoundments which were used to receive routine discharges of nonregulated process cooling water from operations in the 300 Area and dangerous waste from several research and development laboratories and the 300 Area Fuels Fabrication process. Discharges to the trenches ceased in 1994, and they were physically isolated in 1995. Remediation of the trenches is scheduled to begin during July 1997. Currently, there are no waste management activities required at the 300 Area Process Trenches and the unit does not present any significant hazards to adjacent units, personnel, or the environment. It is unlikely that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the 300 Area Process Trenches, however, during remediation, exposure, spill, fire, and industrial hazards will exist. This contingency plan addresses the emergency organization, equipment and evacuation routes pertinent to the process trenches during remediation digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc620340/
18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program
This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627581/
1996 Hanford site annual dangerous waste report
No abstract available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc622100/
1996 Tier two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory emergency planning and community right-to-know act section 312
No abstract prepared. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc628283/
1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste
The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc622301/
The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA, P.L. 95-87), enacted in 1977, established reclamation standards for all coal surface mining operations, and for the surface effects of underground mining. It also established the Abandoned Mine Land (AML) program to promote the reclamation of sites mined and abandoned prior to the enactment of SMCRA. To finance reclamation of abandoned mine sites, the legislation established fees on coal production. These collections are divided into federal and state shares; subject to annual appropriation, AML funds are distributed annually to states with approved reclamation programs. This report describes the distribution of these funds and the various issues that arise from said distribution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs398/
Abortion Procedures
The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1997, H.R. 1122 was vetoed by President Clinton on October 10, 1997. This legislation would have made it a federal crime, punishable by fine and/or incarceration, for a physician to perform a partial birth abortion unless it was necessary to save the life of a mother whose life is endangered by a physical disorder, illness, or injury. The partial-birth abortion legislation has stimulated a great deal of controversy. This report provides a brief overview of the abortion methods currently in use for which data have been published and some positions on the partial birth abortion legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs370/
Accelerator mass spectrometry as a bioanalytical tool
This paper presents data that supports Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) as a valid bioanalytical tool for tracing long lived radioisotopes in uses as molecular labels or elemental tracers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc628272/
Acceptance test procedure for the master equipment list (MEL)database system -- phase I
The Waste Remediation System/.../Facilities Configuration Management Integration group has requested development of a system to help resolve many of the difficulties associated with management of master equipment list information. This project has been identified as Master Equipment List (MEL) database system. Further definition is contained in the system requirements specification (SRS), reference 7. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc619789/
Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report
'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH{sup -} = B(OH){sup -4} was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH{sub 3} -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl{sup -} becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626343/
Acoustic probe for solid-gas-liquid suspensions. 1997 annual progress report
'Acoustic probes have shown promise to be quite effective in determining the solid content in solid-liquid suspensions. However, the presence of small amounts of gas in the waste slurries stored in tanks across the DOE complex prevents straightforward application for characterization of these slurries. The proposed research will develop an acoustic probe for monitoring particle size and volume fraction in slurries in the absence and the presence of gas bubbles. Theoretical Analysis Accomplished: Attenuation of sound waves depends on the size distribution of the solids and the volume fraction of solids. These can in principle be calculated from attenuation measured over a range of frequencies. However, small amounts of bubbles distort the measured attenuation. A typical result from theoretical analysis for the attenuation of solid- gas-liquid systems is given in Figure 1. The total attenuation of a sound wave v(o) equals the sum of contributions by a large number of ''bins'' of particle sizes. This notion yields the following equation for the (hitherto) unknown number density of solid particles as a function of particle radius N(a): j k(o,a)N(a)da = v(o), where the kernel k(o,a) is obtained from analysis. If N(a) is given, the above equation is used to calculate the attenuation v(o). This is referred to as solving the ''forward problem''. Solving for N(a) with v(o) given is the ''inverse problem''. A complication that one faces when trying to solve the inverse problem is that the stated problem is mathematically ill-posed, i.e., small fluctuations in v(o) cause large fluctuations in the result for the number density. Therefore the problem needs to be ''regularized'', i.e., the stated problem needs to be changed slightly such as to make it well-posed. This has been done by others for gas-liquid systems in the past. This approach is currently being applied in the present project to solid-liquid systems. As is shown in Figure 2, it successfully recovers the number density that has been used in the forward problem to generate attenuation data. Having this solution technique giving reliable results for the inverse problems of both gas-liquid and solid-liquid systems, the authors shall apply this method in the near future to solid-gas-liquid systems.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc622010/
Adapting the decomposable mandrel technique to build specialty ICF targets
No abstract available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc618345/
Addressing nuclear and hostile environment challenges with intelligent automation
No abstract available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc621166/
Adoption Promotion Legislation in the 105th Congress
President Clinton signed the Adoption and Safe Families Act into law on November 19, 1997, after the House and Senate approved final versions of the legislation on November 13. The new law (P.L. 105-89) is intended to promote adoption or other permanent arrangements for foster children who are unable to return home, and to make general improvements in the nation’s child welfare system. The House initially passed legislation (H.R. 867) on April 30 by a vote of 416-5, and the Senate passed an amended version on November 8. A compromise version was passed on November 13, by a vote of 406-7 in the House and by unanimous consent in the Senate. This report discusses the final version of the legislation, as enacted into law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs446/
The adsorption and reaction of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) on metal oxides. Annual progress report, September 1996--October 1997
'The interactions of carbon tetrachloride with strongly basic oxides and hydroxides have been studied by several techniques in order to understand the surface reactions and the subsequent bulk reactions that result in the destruction of the chlorinated hydrocarbon. Emphasis has been placed on understanding the surface phases, as well as the bulk phases, that are present during these transformations. As a result of the study with barium oxide, a reaction cycle has been demonstrated that may have practical significance in the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626732/
Adsorption/membrane filtration as a contaminant concentration and separation process for mixed wastes and tank wastes. Progress report, 1996--1997
'The goal of this research is the development of a treatment system for the separation of contaminants in low-organic Hanford tank wastes into sub-groups that can subsequently be processed and appropriately disposed of. Since many of the contaminants of concern are associated with solids, initial experimental work has focused on characterizing the particulate matter in Hanford waste and understanding the filterability of this waste through membranes. Removal of some of the soluble contaminants by adsorption has been studied as well. The experimental work conducted to date can be divided into four categories: speciation calculations; solid/aqueous phase partitioning; membrane filtration experiments; and sorption experiments. The work was conducted using two simulated Hanford wastes (SHWs), one that contained strong complexing agents (citrate and EDTA) and one that did not.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc621722/
Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II
Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc672521/
Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II
The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher resid conversion than the other salts and untreated PMA. To activate PMA, a series of sulfided PMA materials was prepared by subjecting the crystalline acid to H S/H at 125-450 C. The chemistries 2 2 o of these partially sulfided materials are reported as well as the reactivity of several impregnated coals. None of the coals impregnated with these sulfided PMA materials gave conversions that exceeded PMA. Reports covering work by the subcontractors for this reporting period have not been received. A report from CONSOL covering a previous reporting period is included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc671731/
Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II
Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC9104O during the period October 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOI+ Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work invoives the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627576/
Advanced experimental analysis of controls on microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction. First year progress report
'The authors have made considerable progress toward a number of project objectives during the first several months of activity on the project. An exhaustive analysis was made of the growth rate and biomass yield (both derived from measurements of cell protein production) of two representative strains of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (Shewanellaalga strain BrY and Geobactermetallireducens) growing with different forms of Fe(III) as an electron acceptor. These two fundamentally different types of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) showed comparable rates of Fe(III) reduction, cell growth, and biomass yield during reduction of soluble Fe(III)-citrate and solid-phase amorphous hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Intrinsic growth rates of the two FeRB were strongly influenced by whether a soluble or a solid-phase source of Fe(III) was provided: growth rates on soluble Fe(III) were 10--20 times higher than those on solid-phase Fe(III) oxide. Intrinsic FeRB growth rates were comparable during reduction of HF0 and a synthetic crystalline Fe(III) oxide (goethite). A distinct lag phase for protein production was observed during the first several days of incubation in solid-phase Fe(III) oxide medium, even though Fe(III) reduction proceeded without any lag. No such lag between protein production and Fe(III) reduction was observed during growth with soluble Fe(III). This result suggested that protein synthesis coupled to solid-phase Fe(III) oxide reduction in batch culture requires an initial investment of energy (generated by Fe(III) reduction), which is probably needed for synthesis of materials (e.g. extracellular polysaccharides) required for attachment of the cells to oxide surfaces. This phenomenon may have important implications for modeling the growth of FeRB in subsurface sedimentary environments, where attachment and continued adhesion to solid-phase materials will be required for maintenance of Fe(III) reduction activity. Despite considerable differences in the rate and pattern of FeRB growth with different Fe(III) forms, a roughly consistent long-term biomass yield of 5 to 15 mg protein per mmol Fe(III) reduced was observed during growth on different forms of Fe(III). These results should prove useful for quantitative modeling of FeRB growth and metabolism in various types of experimental and in situ anaerobic sedimentary systems.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626797/
Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery From Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico
The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery. The plan included developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced methods. A key goal is to transfer advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere, and throughout the US oil and gas industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc628339/
Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery From Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico
The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery. The plan included developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced methods. A key goal is to transfer advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere, and throughout the US oil and gas industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc625728/
Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Reservoir
Natural fractures exert a strong influence over oil production in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs in the Permian Basin of west Texas. The importance of the fracture network has been known since the 1950s, but until recently, there has been very little detailed study of the fractures themselves. In 1996, a horizontal Spraberry well was cored as part of a DOE Class III Field Demonstration Project. Fractures from the horizontal core as well as other fractures encountered in vertical Spraberry cores were analyzed in detail for information on both large scale features including orientation and spacing and small-scale features such as the relationships between fracture mineralization and matrix rock composition. At least three sets of fractures are found within the upper and middle Spraberry cores. These sets have distinct orientations, spacing, mineralization, distribution with respect to lithology, and surface characteristics (Lorenz, 1997). Fractures found in the 1U zone of the upper Spraberry have a NE strike, and tend to be partly mineralized with barite, quartz, and dolomite. Distribution of these mineral phases can greatly affect conductivity between the fractures and the rock matrix. The 5U zone of the upper Spraberry contains fractures with NNE and ENE orientations. The NNE set of fractures has stepped fracture surfaces indicating a shear origin, and minor amounts of quartz and dolomite mineralization. The ENE fracture set has smooth planar surfaces of tension origin with some calcite mineralization present. Natural fractures in black shales overlying both the 1U and the 5U have an ENE orientation similar to unmineralized fractures in the 5U. No fractures were encountered in similar shales underlying reservoir zones. A set of hairline fractures, most completely healed with calcite cement was also found in some Middle Spraberry cores. The unique nature of each of these fracture sets implies that fracturing probably occurred as several separate events and indicates that the Spraberry Formation has undergone a more complex stress history than might be construed from its fairly flat-lying nature. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc666565/
Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales
The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc628025/
Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales
The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the West Dome of the Buena Vista Hills Field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc620754/
Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales
The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc667158/
Advanced sensing and control techniques to facilitate semi-autonomous decommissioning of hazardous sites. 1997 annual progress report, September 15, 1996--September 14, 1997
'The first year of this effort emphasized independent development and refinement of each of the three major subsystems (imaging/AI, robotics and virtual reality). Two of the three efforts emphasized the critical task of site. virtualization, prior to telepresence-guided D and D. Substantial algorithm refinement and software and hardware development occurred in each area. Relevant publications resulting from this work are cited below.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc622646/
An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc672043/
An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York
Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc666445/
African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE
The conservation of African elephants has been controversial recently on two fronts: the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, to which the United States is a party), and a Zimbabwean program for sustainable development called CAMPFIRE, which is partially funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Two controversies have sprung up recently about the African elephant. One is the changing status of this species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), of which the United States is a signatory. The other is over a program in Zimbabwe called "CAMPFIRE." The partial funding of this program by the U.S. Agency for International Development has been criticized by animal welfare groups and some conservation groups, though it has been supported by other conservation groups as well as many hunting organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs388/
Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade
Technical barriers to trade (TBTs) are widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate rnarkets, protect their consumers, and preserve natural resources, but which can also discriminate against imports in favor of domestic products. Most TBTs in agriculture are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures designed to protect humans, animals, and plants from contaminants, diseases, and pests. In the wake of new trade agreements aimed at reducing tariffs, import quotas, and other trade barriers, TBTs have become more prominent concerns for agricultural exporters and policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs380/
Agricultural Research, Education, Extension and Economics Programs: A Primer
The 105th Congress is undertaking a thorough review of federal laws and policies affecting the nationwide system of federal and state agricultural research laboratories and agencies, the land grant Colleges of Agriculture and related schools of forestry and veterinary medicine, and the continuing education programs of the Cooperative Extension System. In preparation for hearings and subsequent debate on these subjects, this report provides an overview of all the components of the system, its major programs, and its funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs375/
Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws
This report includes a glossary of approximately 1,700 agriculture and related terms (e.g., food programs, conservation, forestry, environmental protection, etc.). Besides defining terms and phrases with specialized meanings for agriculture, the glossary also identifies acronyms, agencies, programs, and laws related to agriculture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs379/
Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation
Senate and House committees in October reported legislation for new fast track authority enabling the Administration to negotiate trade agreements with foreign countries and to submit them to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Many agricultural and food industry interests are among the export-dependent enterprises that support new fast track authority, arguing that foreign trading partners will not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacks it. However, some agricultural groups argue that fast track provides them with inadequate opportunities for dealing with their issues, and that it ultimately will lead to new agreements that benefit foreign more than U.S. producers, at least in some commodity sectors. Neither bill was taken to the floor in 1997 because of insufficient votes for passage in the House. However, the President is expected to seek approval in 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs407/
AGRINI containment data report
No abstract prepared. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc624689/
Air Quality: EPA's Proposed New Ozone and Particulate Matter Standards
This report discusses the contentious issue of enforcing stringent national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM), the opponents of which decry as harmful to the economy. The report discusses actions undertaken by the EPA, President Clinton's support of the NAAQSs, and the criticisms of opponents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs384/
Alien Eligibility for Public Assistance
This report discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which affected alien eligibility for federal, state, and local government assistance programs, both imposing and broadening restrictions on a number of immigration benefits and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs460/
An alternative host matrix based on iron phosphate glasses for the vitrification of specialized nuclear waste forms. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996--September 14, 1997
'Objectives of this project are to: (1) investigate the glass composition and processing conditions that yield optimum properties for iron phosphate glasses for vitrifying radioactive waste, (2) determine the atomic structure of iron phosphate glasses and the structure-property relationships, (3) determine how the physical and structural properties of iron phosphate glasses are affected by the addition of simulated high level nuclear waste components, and (4) investigate the process and products of devitrification of iron phosphate waste forms. The glass forming ability of about 125 iron phosphate melts has been investigated in different oxidizing to reducing atmospheres using various iron oxide raw materials such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and FeC{sub 2}O{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O. The chemical durability, redox equilibria between Fe(II) and Fe(III), crystallization behavior and structural features for these glasses and their crystalline forms have been investigated using a variety of techniques including Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA), and X-ray and neutron diffraction.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc624588/
American Federalism, 1776 to 1997: Significant Events
This report identifies several significant eras and events in the evolution of American federalism and provides a capsule description or discussion of each. It should be noted that among experts in the field of federalism there may be a general consensus concerning the evolution of American federalism; however, the choice of events and scholarly interpretations of such events may vary and are by nature subjective. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs490/
Amtrak: Federal Financial Assistance
This report discusses federal financial assistance to Amtrak, an intercity rail service created by Congress in 1971. It discusses the possibility of significantly reducing, or even eliminating, federal financial assistance to Amtrak, in an effort to reduce the federal budget deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs497/
Analysis of classical transport equations for the Tokamak edge plasma
The classical fluid transport equations for a magnet-plasma as given, for example, by Braginskii [1], are complicated in their most general form. Here we obtain the simplest reduced set which contains the essential physics of the tokamak edge problem in slab geometry by systematically applying a parameter ordering and making use of specific symmetries. An important ingredient is a consistent set of boundary conditions as described elsewhere [2]. This model clearly resolves some important issues concerning diamagnetic drifts, high parallel viscosity, and the ambipolarity constraint. The final equations can also serve as a model for understanding the structure of the equations in the presence of anomalous transport terms arising from fluctuations. In fact, Braginskii-like equations are the basis of a number of scrape-off layer (SOL) transport codes [3]. However, all of these codes contain ad hoc radial diffusion terms and often neglect some classical terms, both of which make the self-consistency of the models questionable. Braginskii's equations [1] have been derived from the first principles via the kinetic equations and, thereby, contain such ''built-in'' features as the symmetry of kinetic coefficients, and automatic quasineutrality of a cross-field diffusion in a system with toroidal symmetry such as a tokamak. Our model thus maintains these properties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc625499/
Analysis of Potential Concerete Floor Decontamination Technologies
During the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities to be conducted at the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), contaminated concrete waste will be generated from the D&D of approximately 200 buildings and other structures [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Fernald site. The site is a contractor-operated federal facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products for the DOE and its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, from 1952 to 1989. Thorium being ores were also processed at FEMP, but on a smaller scale. Production activities ceased in 1989, and the production mission of the facility ended formally in 1991. FEMP was included on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List in 1989. The current mission of the site is environmental restoration according to the requirements specified by CERCLA [1]. Decontamination and decommissioning activities require the treatment of concrete floors to segregate technetium-99 contaminated concrete from the remainder of the concrete. Many proven commercial stiace removal technologies are available. These processes vary in aggressiveness, stiety requirements, waste generation, capital requirements, and operating and maintenance costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc620913/
Analysis of surface leaching processes in vitrified high-level nuclear wastes using in-situ raman imaging and atomistic modeling. 1997 annual progress report
'The objectives of this report are: (1) To investigate the development of Raman spectroscopy for remote, in-situ, real-time measurement of the processes underlying chemical corrosion of glasses, (2) To conduct Raman spectroscopy measurements and quantum mechanical modelling studies of the transition states, corrosion products, and transition state energies for the hydrate species of higher valence and multivalent ions formed in the reconstructed glass surface. (3) To use these results to model long-term corrosion behavior of complex borosilicate wasteform glasses. (4) To apply the Raman spectroscopy and modelling methods developed here for the remote analysis of leaching processes in waste glasses containing radioactive components, and for imaging of variations in leaching behavior due to composition inhomogeneities in large scale waste glass products. Results of First Year Research During the first year, the authors primarily addressed Objective (1) which is to develop a methodology for the remote monitoring of leaching processes in glasses by Raman spectroscopy. The authors assembled a micro and macro Raman system for examining surface structure in glass samples, in-situ within the leaching vessel. The Raman spectrometer was prepared for imaging by installing a CCD detector which gives 2-dimensional information. The latter can be used to obtain spectrographic data in one dimension and to scan variations in materials behavior across the other dimension. By scanning the sample in a perpendicular direction, it is possible to conduct 2-dimensional spectral analysis of the sample surface. The plan is to select one or several identifying Raman lines that follow the leaching process After that, it will be possible to introduce a slit configuration and use both dimensions of the CCD detector for scanning the sample surface while examining only the selected spectral feature. Glass samples consisting of alkali silicates were first examined. The samples were melted in a conventional electric furnace in 100 gr batches and poured into brass molds. The samples were cut and polished under water-free conditions and then immersed under water in petri dishes. By leaving the upper surface uncovered, the authors focused the objective lens of a microscope on the submerged glass surface. Light from an Argon laser operating at 514.5 nm with approximately 100 mW of power was directed to the glass surface at a large angle of incidence (55 ). Raman spectra were collected in a 0.6 m spectrometer with a 1,200 line/mm grating using a supernotch filter to block the laser line. Typical data are shown in the attached figure. Samples of the following compositions were tested: 20% Na,O--80% SiO, and 30% L and O--70% SiO, . The attached figure reports the results from the Li,O-SiO, glass. The results show a significant difference between the unleached and water-exposed samples. This is evident in the relative amplitudes of the Raman peaks at 436 cm{sup -2} and 582 cm{sup -2}. These 2 peaks are associated with vibrations of the alkali coordinated non- bridging oxygen. In fact, the ratio of the 582 to the 436 peaks gives a measure of the alkali content of the material. By examining the sample surface only, and conducting the tests while the sample is submerged, the authors observed a decrease in the 582 cm{sup -1} peak and an increase in the 436 cm{sup -1} peak with increased exposure of the sample to the aqueous environment. This is shown in the attached figure and is clear indication of the progressive dealkalization of the glass surface by water. The peaks can be fitted to Gaussian shapes and the integrated intensity will yield a direct measure of the alkali content of the glass surface. In addition, the angle of incidence of the laser beam can be adjusted to provide more penetration into the sample and yield composition profiles.' digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc618822/
Analysis of Ten Selected Science and Technology Policy Studies
Since the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, a number of reports have been prepared on a broad range of science and technology (S&T) policy issues, most notably dealing with national research and development (R&D) goals, priorities, and budgets, and university-government-industry relationships. This report discusses and analyzes ten of these S&T reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs481/
Analysis of the AC losses in the US preprototype ITER joint
No abstract prepared. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc619571/
Annual Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project
The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. Air injection on the west flank began in November of 1994. Although west flank air injection has increased reservoir pressure by 500 pounds per square inch (psi), production response has not yet occurred. The gas cap on the west flank has not expanded sufficiently to push the oil rim down to the nearest downstructure well. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc618296/
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