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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1970-1979
 Year: 1976
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Air Pollution and the Siting of Fossil Fuel Power Plants
The decision to locate a fossil-fueled electrical power plant on a particular site involves trade-offs among the costs of: (1) land acquisition, (2) plant construction, operation, and maintenance, (3) power transmission, and (4) air pollution damage to humans, animals, plants and materials. The fourth of these, pollution costs, has been of great concern in recent years. But seldom, if ever, are the specific dollar trade-offs between the environmental and the other costs associated with site selection taken into account. The sum of the costs of power generation (land, construction, operation, maintenance), power transmission, and air pollution damages (from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates) is the total social cost of a fossil-fuel plant; this total cost will generally vary by site. This paper presents an analysis of the total social cost, and the trade-offs between generation/transmission and air pollution costs, for various types of fossil plants at different sites in northern Illinois. The analysis identifies the combinations of site, fossil fuel, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control technology that minimize total social costs.
America Joins a Metric World
Pamphlet issued by the United States National Bureau of Standards discussing the Metric Conversion Act of 1975, the work of the U.S. Metric Board, and how government agencies are facilitating a switch to the metric system.
Analysis of a Cylindrical Shell Vibrating in a Cylindrical Fluid Region
Analytical and experimental methods are presented for evaluating the vibration characteristics of cylindrical shells such as the thermal liner of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel. The NASTRAN computer program is used to calculate the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and response to a harmonic loading of a thin, circular cylindrical shell situated inside a fluid-filled rigid circular cylinder. Solutions in a vacuum are verified with an exact solution method and the SAP IV computer code. Comparisons between analysis and experiment are made, and the accuracy and utility of the fluid-solid interaction package of NASTRAN is assessed.
An Analysis of Factors Influencing the Reliability of Retrievable Storage Canisters for Containment of Solid High-Level Radioactive Waste
The reliability of stainless steel type 304L canisters for the containment of solidified high-level radioactive wastes in the glass and calcine forms was studied. A reference system, drawn largely from information furnished by Battelle Northwest Laboratories and Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company is described. Operations include filling the canister with the appropriate waste form, interim storage at a reprocessing plant, shipment in water to a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), interim storage at the RSSF, and shipment to a final disposal facility.
Analytical Investigation of Certain Aspects of LMFBR Subassembly-Failure Propagation
An analytical investigation of certain problems in the area of subassembly-to-subassembly failure propagation in LMFBR's is described. Existing analyses of the response of the adjacent subassembly duct to mechanical loads are reviewed and summarized, and major uncertainties are identified. Additional analyses of the response of the adjacent subassembly to certain thermal loads are presented in two parts. In the first part, the effect of an external heat flux on duct melting and thermal stresses is considered. The external heat fluxes required to produce duct melting or excessive thermal stresses are compared with the heat fluxes that might be expected from the molten fuel deposited on the duct wall. In the second part, a thermal-hydraulic study is performed to investigate the effect of the external heat flux on the coolant temperature distribution in the adjacent subassembly. Both normal subassembly geometry and distorted subassembly geometry are considered. A detailed model of the coolant region formed by the heated duct wall and the displaced fuel pins is also analyzed to determine whether there are severe temperature gradients.
ANL/HIWAY: an Air Pollution Evaluation Model for Roadways
This report describes a computer program, called ANL/HIWAY, for estimating air quality levels of nonreactive pollutants produced by vehicular sources. It is valid for receptors at distances of tens to hundreds of meters, at an angle, downwind of the roadway, in relatively uncomplicated terrain. It may be used by planners to analyze the effects of a proposed roadway on adjacent air quality. The ANL/HIWAY model expands the evaluation capabilities of the EPA/HIWAY dispersion model. This report also serves as a user's manual for running the ANL/HIWAY PROGRAM. All command structures are described in detail, with sample problems exemplifying their use.
Application of Frequency-Modified Life Approach to the Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel
The application of the frequency-modified life equation to fatigue life prediction has been critically examined using the extensive fatigue data generated for Type 304 stainless steel at 1100 degrees F under a variety of cyclic-loading conditions. The parameters that enter into the frequency-modified life equation vary with strain rate and show a transition coinciding with the frequency of cycling at which a change in the fracture appearance from predominantly transgranular to predominantly intergranular failure mode or vice versa occurs. The accuracy in life prediction is improved when the effect of strain rate on life-predictive parameters is considered. It is shown how the effect of compressive and symmetric hold time on fatigue life can be taken into account. A comparison between the frequency-modified life approach of Coffin and the damage-rate approach recently developed by Majumdar and Maiya is also made to show the importance of wave-shape on low-cycle fatigue life.
An approximate spin design criterion for monoplanes, 1 May 1939
An approximate empirical criterion, based on the projected side area and the mass distribution of the airplane, was formulated. The British results were analyzed and applied to American designs. A simpler design criterion, based solely on the type and the dimensions of the tail, was developed; it is useful in a rapid estimation of whether a new design is likely to comply with the minimum requirements for safety in spinning.
Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research, Annual Report: 1976
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research summarizing research an other activities. This report includes the exploration of the toxicological effects of effluents from various forms of energy production with a view to defining hazards and risk assessments for man.
Argonne National Laboratory Patent Portfolio
This booklet contains the abstracts of all active U. S. patents on technology items that originated at ANL, the applicability of which is not limited to nuclear reactors. Also listed are the titles of all ANL-originated nuclear-related U. S. patents that are still in force. Selected technology items for which patent applications have been filed and are available for licensing are included in several categories. Categories included in this booklet are as follows: atmospheric and earth sciences; biological and medical sciences; chemistry and chemical engineering; cryogenics and superconductivity; electronics and electrical engineering; energy conversion; measurements and controls; methods and devices; materials and fabrication; physics, accelerators and fusion; and selected nuclear-related technology.
The Atomic Spectrum of Neptunium
A description and interpretation of the atomic spectrum of neptunium are given. Wavelengths were measured for 6096 spectrum lines in the range 3793 to 38,812 cm⁻¹ (26,353 to 2575 A), of which 2526 were classified as transitions between 329 odd levels and 130 even levels of neutral neptunium (Np I). The data are presented in five tables.
Automated Approach to Quantitative Error Analysis in Neutron Transport Calculations
A method is described how a quantitative measure for the robustness of a given transport theory code for coarse network calculations can be obtained. A code, that performs this task automatically and at only nominal cost, is described and has been implemented for slab geometry. This code generates also user oriented benchmark problems which exhibit the analytic behavior at interfaces.
Automatic Measurement of Network Parameters: A Survey
Report issued by the Bureau of Standards over a survey conducted on measurement methods of network parameters. As stated in the introduction, "this paper is concerned with the development of automatic methods of measuring basically the magnitudes and phase differences, or the complex ratio of two sinusoidal voltages, and applications of this capability to determining complex reflection coefficients and transmission coefficients and group delay times of electrical networks" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Baseline Energy Consumption Forecasts for Transportation: A Review and Evaluation
A baseline projection of energy consumption is needed to estimate the potential energy savings from proposed transport technology and operational improvements. The Reference Energy System projection by Brookhaven National Laboratories and that which Stanford Research Institute produced for Gulf Oil are reviewed here. Attention is focused on the growth rate assumptions of the forecasts and the allowances made for the sensitivity of transport demand and technological efficiency to fuel price changes. The alternative trajectories of energy use are examined for automobile, bus and intercity air and rail passenger travel, and also for freight movement. Little, if any, justification can be found for many of the assumptions used to estimate transport demand and energy intensiveness. The assumptions underlying the Brookhaven National Laboratories projections are more explicit on changes in energy efficiency and energy price and shifts in transport patterns. However, the relationship of automobile travel, the largest component, to energy price is not specified clearly. The Stanford projection is based on seemingly arbitrary assumptions about changes in travel patterns and energy efficiency with no reference to the market process which must bring them about. It is concluded that the Brookhaven projection is a reasonable interim benchmark. Its structure should improve by refining and validating or revising the judgmental estimates on which it is based. This can be accomplished by identifying those judgments to which the energy consumption projections are most sensitive and modifying them, based on information presently available concerning the transport sector and/or information and relationships which can be developed by limited research.
Benchmark Testing of the Finite-Strain Version of the LIFE-III Fast-Reactor-Element Code
A collection of benchmark problems is used to test the finite-strain formulation of the LIFE-III fast-reactor fuel-element code. Analytical solutions for thick-wall cylinders loaded by internal and external pressure, valid for arbitrarily large strains, are presented for a linear viscous material. Similar problems are formulated for a nonlinear material, and numerical solutions are obtained using the Runge-Kutta method for the integration of an ordinary differential equation. These solutions are then compared with the corresponding solutions obtained using the LIFE-III code. With a proper choice of the number of spatial regions and time steps, good agreement is obtained between the two sets of solutions. The results indicate that the structural-analysis portion of the revised LIFE-III is valid for large strains.
Bibliography for Transportation Energy Conservation
A listing is given of 578 reports, books, articles, and conference papers on transportation and energy. Coverage is primarily on U. S. developments and research from 1970 to 1975. Following a section of citations of general works on energy, the bibliography contains two main parts: ''Energy for Transportation'' and ''Transportation of Energy.'' Within each of these topics the arrangement is multimodal (at the urban, regional, national, or international level), then by mode. Selected information sources are listed in the last part. Within each section, entries are arranged alphabetically by author or, lacking an author, by title. References were drawn from the Transportation Center Library collection and other libraries in the Northwestern University system. An earlier bibliography, Transportation and Energy, compiled by the Transportation Center Library in March 1974, forms the basis for the arrangement and provides coverage from 1970 to 1973.
Brief History of Measurement Systems: with a Chart of the Modernized Metric System
Pamphlet issued by the United States National Bureau of Standards providing an overview of the English system of measurement used in the United States and of the metric system. The internal pages of the pamphlet contain a chart labeled "The Modernized Metric System" which includes tables of common conversions and a chart of the seven base units: meter/length, kilogram/mass, second/time, ampere/electric current, kelvin/temperature, mole/amount of substance, and candela/luminous intensity, as well as two supplementary units: radian/plane angle and steradian/solid angle. There is also a graphic representation of yards versus meters in ruler form at the bottom.
Calculated Burnups and Fluences for Experimental Fuel Elements Irradiated in EBR-II Runs 5-55B
A procedure is described for calculation of burnups and fluences at any point in a subassembly in EBR-II runs 5-55B. The calculations are performed by the BRN program package and require data generated for any element in the highly inhomogeneous fueled experimental subassemblies is the most important application of the pointwise capability. Tables allow calculation of burnup and fluences for any element in such a subassembly.
Ceramic Coatings for Components Exposed to Coal-Gas Environments : a Review
The corrosive and erosive environments at high temperatures and pressures in coal gasifiers impose severe requirements on the alloys of fabrication. A concise review of the application of ceramic coatings to resist coal-gas environments has been conducted. The purpose of this review is to explore suitable ceramic or cermet materials that may resist or retard the degradation of metal components and to summarize the state of the art of various methods of producing such coatings.
Chemical Engineering Division Environmental Chemistry Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976
The chemistry of airborne particulate matter is being investigated by means of laboratory and field studies. Experiments were conducted using the flow reactor to identify the reaction conditions under which detectable amounts of sulfate particles could be formed under gaseous sulfur dioxide. A procedure was developed for the analysis of acidic and neutral ammonium sulfate in filter-collected samples of atmospheric particulate matter.
Chemical Engineering Division Fast-Neutron Dosimetry, Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976
One of the objectives of the Dosimetry and Damage Analysis Center is to provide standardized dosimetry technology for materials-study programs within the ERDA Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy. Current efforts have included characterization of neutron environments in terms of fluence and spectral distribution for materials experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's (LLL) Rotating Target Neutron Source and at the LLL-Davis Cyclograaff. Environment characterization efforts at Brookhaven National Laboratory's High Flux Beam Reactor and those pertaining to an enriched-uranium converter for the ANL CP-5 reactor are also described. The capability of calculating material radiation damage parameters associated with these neutron environments is demonstrated. Average fission yields determined from two fast-neutron irradiations and one thermal-neutron irradiation are compiled for laboratories participating in the inter-laboratory Reaction Rate program. These results are in excellent agreement with literature values. Progress on the development of boron-10 and lithium-6-loaded liquid scintillation detectors for detecting very low intensity neutrons is presented. Material purification tests and performance tests of scintillation mixtures are described.
Chemical Engineering Division Fuels and Materials Chemistry Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division regarding activities related to properties and handling of radioactive materials, operation of nuclear reactors, and other relevant research.
Chemical Engineering Division Physical Inorganic Chemistry Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976
Various aspects of physical inorganic chemistry were investigated and are summarized in this report.
Chemical Engineering Division Reactor Safety and Physical Properties Studies Annual Report, July 1975-June 1976
A report of the work on Reactor Safety and Physical Property Studies performed in the Chemical Engineering Division at Argonne National Laboratory is given for the period July 1975-June 1976.
Chemical Engineering Division Thermochemical Studies Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976
Standard enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are reported for MgUO4, CaUO4, BaUO4, VF3, and PrF3 based on solution and fluorine bomb calorimetric measurements. High-temperature enthalpy increments have been determined for MgUO4 by drop calorimetry. Preliminary work on gamma -UO3 and beta-LiAl is described.
Coal Liquefaction Support Studies
A development program is being carried out to obtain information applicable to the SYNTHOIL process for converting coal to liquid fuel of low sulfur content. This report presents information on (1) the design of a calorimeter to measure heat of reaction of hydrogen with coal slurries, (2) the design of apparatus and calculations for measuring coefficients of heat transfer from SYNTHOIL process feed and effluent products to process vessel walls, (3) tests on the use of additives to facilitate the removal of solids from oil produced in coal liquefaction processes, and (4) the design and construction of a test unit for evaluating new catalysts for coal liquefaction processes.
Coal Liquefaction Support Studies
A development program is being carried out to obtain information applicable to the SYNTHOIL process for converting coal to liquid fuel of low sulfur content. This report presents information on (1) the design of a calorimeter to measure heat of reaction of hydrogen with coal slurries, (2) the design of apparatus and calculations for measuring coefficients of heat transfer from SYNTHOIL process feed and effluent products to process vessel walls, (3) tests on the use of additives to facilitate the removal of solids from oil produced in coal liquefaction processes, and (4) the design and construction of a test unit for evaluating new catalysts for coal liquefaction processes.
Coal Project: Background Information (Planning and Management)
From foreword: "This report presents summary information on coal development in the United States, and material on the potential interactions of that development with fish and wildlife resources."
Coal Project: Five Year Framework (FY 1976 Through FY 1980)
This document presents the total scope of the framework for the U.S. Coal Project during fiscal years 1976 through 1980. The project was initiated to provide information for appropriate involvement of the Fish and Wildlife Service in U.S. coal development actions.
Coal Supply and Air Quality Limitations on Fossil-Fueled Energy Centers
The coterminous United States is screened on a county-by-county basis to identify areas most likely to provide sites for fossil energy centers (FECs) utilizing local coals and having capacities between 5,000 and 20,000 MWe. Areas eliminated as potential sites include national public lands excluded by legislation, urbanized areas, Air Quality Maintenance Areas for particulates and SO2, and counties where air quality data indicate violations of particulate or SO2 ambient standards. The remaining counties are further screened for suitable coal reserves. The quality of coal required for an FEC to meet emissions and ambient standards is determined for sulfur content and heating value. Based on Bureau of Mines coal reserve data, counties in areas with not enough quality reserves to support an FEC are eliminated. Areas most likely to provide sites for FECs of 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 MWe, in two different spatial configurations, each with and without flue gas desulfurization are determined and mapped. The possible impacts of regulations for the prevention of significant deterioration are illustrated.
Comparison of the AMDAHL 470V/6 and the IBM 370/195 Using Benchmarks
Six groups of jobs were run on the IBM 370/195 at the Applied Mathematics Division (AMD) of Argonne National Laboratory using the current production versions of OS/MVT 21.7 and ASP 3.1. The same jobs were then run on an AMDAHL 470V/6 at the AMDAHL manufacturing facilities in Sunnyvale, California, using the identical operating systems. Performances of the two machines are compared. Differences in the configurations were minimized. The memory size on each machine was the same, all software which had an impact on run times was the same, and the I/O configurations were as similar as possible. This allowed the comparison to be based on the relative performance of the two CPU's. As part of the studies preliminary to the acquisition of the IBM 195 in 1972, two of the groups of jobs had been run on a CDC 7600 by CDC personnel in Arden Hills, Minnesota, on an IBM 360/195 by IBM personnel in Poughkeepsie, New York, and on the AMD 360/50/75 production system in June, 1971.
Computer-Code Formulation for Three-Dimensional HEXCAN Response Coupled with Internal Hydrodynamics
A procedure is described for the dynamic analysis of a fast-reactor hexagonal subassembly. The internals of the fuel subassembly are treated by an axisymmetric hydrodynamic code REXCO-HT which, among other properties, possesses a model of an MFCI pressure source. The housing of the fuel subassembly is handled by the SADCAT code, which is based on a triangular finite element in three-dimensional space. The code is used to illustrate the discrepancies involved if the hexcan is modeled by a cylinder of the same thickness. A study is also made of the reduction of cylinder thickness such that the same final cylindrical deformation can be predicted. A discussion in arriving at such an equivalence is offered.
Computers, Health Records, and Citizen Rights
Report issued by the Bureau of Standards over studies on the benefits of computerized record-keeping. Medical records were chosen for the studies, and they also focus on patient privacy and rights. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Cost Estimate for the Commercial Manufacture of Lithium/Iron Sulfide Cells for Load-Leveling
An estimate was made of the cost of commercial manufacture of batteries for load-leveling in utility networks, based on the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide system. The battery design chosen is the 0.92-kWh cell proposed for the BEST Facility. The manufacturing plant was sized to produce 5000 of such cells per day. These cells are assembled for sale in battery cases or sub-modules, 24 cells to a case. The plant investment is estimated to be $12,500,000. A selling price of $29.16 per kWh is projected; this price yields a 25 percent return on invested capital. An allowance for recycle lithium yields a net price of $27.33 per kWh.
Cracking and Healing Behavior of UO2 as Related to Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction : Interim Report, July 1976
A direct-electrical-heating apparatus has been designed and fabricated to investigate those nuclear-fuel-related phenomena involved in the gap closure-bridging annulus formation mechanism that can be reproduced in an out-of-reactor environment. Prototypic light-water-reactor uranium dioxide fuel-pellet temperature profiles have been generated utilizing high flow rates (approximately 700 liters/min) of helium coolant gas, and a re-circulating system has been fabricated to permit tests of up to 1000 h. Simulated light-water-reactor single- and multiple-thermal-cycle experiments will be conducted on both unclad and ceramic (fused silica) clad uranium dioxide pellet stacks. A laser dilatometer is used to measure pellet dimensional increase continuously during thermal cycling. Acoustic emissions from thermal-gradient cracking have been detected and correlated with crack length and crack area. The acoustic emissions are monitored continuously to provide instantaneous information about thermal-gradient cracking. Post-test metallography and fracture-mechanics measurements are utilized to characterize cracking and crack healing.
Decomposition of Calcium Sulfate : a Review of the Literature
One of the important issues related to fluidized bed combustion of fossil fuels is the subsequent handling and/or treatment of the partially sulfated lime material removed from the combustor. One alternative would be to regenerate the sulfated additive to recover the sulfur, which would be stored for use, and lime that would be recycled for reuse in the combustor. It is the purpose of this report to review the development of regeneration technology which has progressed rather slowly as compared with the technology relative to the fluidized bed combustion process. The review covers research efforts specifically directed toward the regeneration of sulfated limestones plus those studies which have been made to investigate the decomposition of naturally occurring minerals of calcium sulfate. The report reviews basic thermodynamic and kinetic studies as well as laboratory, bench, and pilot scale process development studies. No attempt has been made in the review to evaluate the engineering, environmental, or economic merits of regeneration of the various regeneration schemes.
Development of Lithium/Metal Sulfide Batteries at Argonne National Laboratory : Summary Report
Overview of the battery program at Argonne National Laboratory being developed for use as energy storage devices for load-leveling on electric utilities and as power sources for electric automobiles.
The Dynamics of Fields of Higher Spin
Report presenting a relativistic theory of motion that is free of many of the difficulties common in relativistic equations of motion. This Lagrangian theory describes fields and particles with arbitrary mass and charge and having any discrete spin, integer or half integer.
Electrokinetic Consolidation of Slimes in an Underground Mine
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over tests conducted on underground mine slimes from a collection sump. Testing methods and results are discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Elevated-Temperature, Strain-Controlled Fatigue Data on Type 304 Stainless Steel : a Compilation, Multiple Linear Regression Model, and Statistical Analysis
The results are discussed, and the heats and heat treatments that are most resistant to fatigue damage under these leading and environmental conditions are identified.
Environmental Costs of Landfills and Incinerators
After an introductory statement describing the characteristics of landfills and incinerators, these two devices for municipal waste disposal are compared in terms of economic and environmental costs. Cost data for the Chicago area is used. It is concluded that landfills have lower investment, operating and environmental costs.
Environmental Monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Report: 1975
Annual report of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory, discussing activities and findings of the group.
Environmental Pollutants and the Urban Economy : Phase 1. Final Report, June 1972-October 1975
Costs and benefits of various urban air pollution control policies have been examined in Phase 1 of the Environmental Pollutants and the Urban Economy study being conducted jointly by Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago. The need for sound economic evaluation of air quality regulations is evidenced by the resistance of many industries to pollution control policies based solely on the technical feasibility of achieving public health-related standards. For many firms that emit air pollutants, the cost of not complying with some regulations is significantly less than the cost of compliance. This final report on the Phase 1 research presents highlights of what has been learned, the mechanisms developed for transferring results to users, a bibliography of documents produced during the project, and a collection of correspondence, articles, and evaluation illuminating the use of project work by others.
Examination of the SCEPTRE and CSMP Programs for Solving the Point-Kinetics Equations with Feedback
Two modeling programs, SCEPTRE and CSMP, are used to solve the point-kinetics equations - - seven coupled nonlinear differential equations - - with a linear-feedback function. The constants used are appropriate for EBR-II; therefore the computational accuracy may be tested against the experimental rod drops. Run-time, versatility, programming ease, and accuracy are criteria used to evaluate the two programs. SCEPTRE is found to be more efficient in run time and CSMP more versatile. The ease of programming is about the same for both programs. The accuracy is nearly equivalent if the optimum integration routines are used.
Experimental and Analytical Study of the Sputtering Phenomena
An experimental apparatus was constructed to examine the heat-transfer characteristics of a sputtering front. In the present study, a heat source of sufficient intensity was located immediately below the sputtering front, which prevented its downward progress, thus permitting detailed measurements of steady-state surface temperatures throughout a sputtering front. A two-dimensional analytical model was developed to describe a stationary sputtering front where the wet-dry interface corresponds to a CHF phenomena and the dry zone is adiabatic. This model is nonlinear because of the temperature dependence of the heat-transfer coefficient in the wetted region and has yielded good agreement with data. A simplified one-dimensional approximation was developed which adequately describes these data. Finally, by means of a coordinate transformation and additional simplifying assumptions, this analysis was extended to analyze moving sputtering fronts, and reasonably good agreement with reported data was shown.
Experimental Study of the Neutronics of the First Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Benchmark Assembly (GCFR Phase 1 Assembly)
The Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) Phase I Assembly is the first in a series of ZPR-9 critical assemblies designed to provide a reference set of reactor physics measurements in support of the 300 MW(e) GCFR Demonstration Plant designed by General Atomic Company. The Phase I Assembly was the first complete mockup of a GCFR core ever built. A set of basic reactor physics measurements were performed in the assembly to characterize the neutronics of the assembly and assess the impact of the neutron streaming on the various integral parameters. The analysis of the experiments was carried out using ENDF/B-IV based data and two-dimensional diffusion theory methods. The Benoist method of using directional diffusion coefficients was used to treat the anisotropic effects of neutron streaming within the framework of diffusion theory. Calculated predictions of most integral parameters in the GCFR showed the same kinds of agreements with experiment as in earlier LMFBR assemblies.
Explosive Interaction of Molten UO2 and Liquid Sodium
The interim report presented describes a continuation of the work reported in ANL-7890, Interaction of Sodium with Molten Uranium dioxide and Stainless Steel Using a Dropping Mode of Contact. In the current study, sodium was injected into a pool of molten uranium dioxide. The experiment consistently produced vapor explosions, both with the injection nozzle above and beneath the surface of the uranium dioxide. Although the efficiency of the conversion of thermal to mechanical energy was small (due in part to very conservative data analysis and an inefficient geometry), the results did demonstrate that there is no intrinsic reason why reactor materials cannot produce a vapor explosion.
Final Report on Test L4, a Loss-of-Flow Experiment
The behavior of FTR-type, mixed-oxide, pre-irradiated "high-power-structure" fuel during a simulation of an FTR loss-of-flow accident was studied in the Mark-IIA integral TREAT loop. Analysis of the data leads to a postulated scenario (sequence and timing) of events in this test. This scenario is presented, together with the calculated timing of events obtained by use of SAS code.
Final Report on the Small-Scale Vapor-Explosion Experiments Using a Molten NaCl-H2O System
Vapor explosions were produced by injecting small quantities of water into a container filled with molten sodium chloride. Minimum explosion efficiencies, as evaluated from reaction-impulse measurements, were relatively large. Subsurface movies showed that the explosions resulted from a two-step sequence: an initial bulk-mixing phase in which the two liquids intermix on a large scale, but remain locally separated by an insulating gas-vapor layer; and a second step, immediately following breakdown of the gas layer, during which the two liquids locally fragment, intermix, and pressurize very rapidly. The experimental results were compared with various mechanistic models that had been proposed to explain vapor explosions. Early models seemed inconsistent with the results. More recent theories suggest that vapor explosions may be caused by a nucleation limit or by dynamic mixing combined with high surface-heat-transfer rates. Both types of models are consistent with the results.
Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) : Upgrading of Plant Protection System, Volume 1
This report is a compilation of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA's) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum that have been prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant protection system. Each major section is an edited version of the original FSAA for a particular modification and provides a description of the pre - and post -modification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis.