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**Partner:**UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

**Decade:**1930-1939

**Serial/Series Title:**NACA Technical Reports

**Collection:**Technical Report Archive and Image Library

### The effect of cowling on cylinder temperatures and performance of a Wright J-5 engine

**Date:**January 1, 1930

**Creator:**Schey, Oscar W & Biermann, Arnold E

**Description:**This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine the effect of different amounts and kinds of cowling on the performance and cylinder temperatures of a standard Wright J-5 engine. These tests were conducted in conjunction with drag and propeller tests in which the same cowlings were used. Four different cowlings were investigated varying from the one extreme of no cowling on the engine to the other extreme of the engine completely cowled and the cooling air flowing inside the cowling through an opening in the nose and out through an annular opening at the rear of the engine. Each cowling was tested at air speeds of approximately 60, 80, and 100 miles per hour.

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### Nomenclature for Aeronautics

**Date:**January 1, 1939

**Creator:**unknown

**Description:**The nomenclature for aeronautics presented in this Report No. 474 is a revision of the last previous report on this subject (i.e., Report no. 240.) This report is published for the purpose of encouraging greater uniformity and precision in the use of terms relating to aeronautics, both in official documents of the Government and in commercial publications. Terms in general use in other branches of engineering have been included only where they have some special significance in aeronautics, or form an integral part of its terminology.

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### Ice prevention on aircraft by means of engine exhaust heat and a technical study of heat transmission from a Clark y airfoil

**Date:**January 1, 1933

**Creator:**Clay, William C & Theodorsen, Theodore

**Description:**This investigation was conducted to study the practicability of employing heat as a means of preventing the formation of ice on airplane wings. The report relates essentially to technical problems regarding the extraction of heat from the exhaust gases and its proper distribution over the exposed surfaces. In this connection a separate study has been made to determine the variation of the coefficient of heat transmission along the chord of a Clark Y airfoil. Experiments on ice prevention both in the laboratory and in flight show conclusively that it is necessary to heat only the front portion of the wing surface to effect complete prevention. Experiments in flight show that a vapor-heating system which extracts heat from the exhaust and distributes it to the wings is an entirely practical and efficient method for preventing ice formation.

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### The physical effects of detonation in a closed cylindrical chamber

**Date:**January 1, 1935

**Creator:**Draper, C S

**Description:**Detonation in the internal-combustion engine is studied as a physical process. It is shown that detonation is accompanied by pressure waves within the cylinder charge. Sound theory is applied to the calculation of resonant pressure-wave frequencies. Apparatus is described for direct measurement of pressure-wave frequencies. Frequencies determined from two engines of different cylinder sizes are shown to agree with the values calculated from sound theory. An outline of the theoretically possible modes of vibration in a right circular cylinder with flat ends is included. An appendix by John P. Elting gives a method of calculating pressure in the sound wave following detonation.

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### General airplane performance

**Date:**January 1, 1939

**Creator:**Rockfeller, W C

**Description:**Equations have been developed for the analysis of the performance of the ideal airplane, leading to an approximate physical interpretation of the performance problem. The basic sea-level airplane parameters have been generalized to altitude parameters and a new parameter has been introduced and physically interpreted. The performance analysis for actual airplanes has been obtained in terms of the equivalent ideal airplane in order that the charts developed for use in practical calculations will for the most part apply to any type of engine-propeller combination and system of control, the only additional material required consisting of the actual engine and propeller curves for propulsion unit. Finally, a more exact method for the calculation of the climb characteristics for the constant-speed controllable propeller is presented in the appendix.

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### Elastic instability of members having sections common in aircraft construction

**Date:**January 1, 1932

**Creator:**Trayer, George W & March, H W

**Description:**Two fundamental problems of elastic stability are discussed in this report. In part one formulas are given for calculating the critical stress at which a thin, outstanding flange of a compression member will either wrinkle into several waves or form into a single half wave and twist the member about its longitudinal axis. A mathematical study of the problem, which together with experimental work has led to these formulas, is given in an appendix. Results of test substantiating the recommended formulas are also presented. In part two the lateral buckling of beams is discussed. The results of a number of mathematical studies of this phenomenon have been published prior to this writing, but very little experimentally determined information relating to the problem has been available heretofore. Experimental verification of the mathematical deductions is supplied.

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### Air propellers in yaw

**Date:**January 1, 1937

**Creator:**Lesley, E P; Worley, George F & Moy, Stanley

**Description:**Report presents the results of tests conducted at Stanford University of a 3-foot model propeller at four pitch settings and at 0 degree, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees yaw. In addition to the usual propeller coefficients, cross-wind and vertical forces and yawing, pitching, and rolling moments were determined about axes having their origin at the intersection of the blade axis and the axis of rotation. The tests showed that the maximum efficiency was reduced only slightly for angles of yaw up to 10 degrees but that at 30 degrees yaw the loss in efficiency was about 10 percent. In all cases the cross-wind force was found to be greater than the cross-wind component of the axial thrust. With a yawed propeller an appreciable thrust was found for v/nd for zero thrust at zero yaw. Yawing a propeller was found to induce a pitching moment that increased in magnitude with yaw.

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### Application of practical hydrodynamics to airship design

**Date:**January 1, 1933

**Creator:**Upson, Ralph H & Klikoff, W A

**Description:**The purpose of the first two parts of this report is to present in concise format all the formulas required for computation of the hydrodynamic forces, so that they can be easily computed for either straight or curvilinear flight. Improved approximations are also introduced having a high degree of accuracy throughout the entire range of practical proportions. The remaining two parts of the report are devoted respectively to stability and skin friction, as functions of the same hydrodynamic forces.

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### A proof of the theorem regarding the distribution of lift over the span for minimum induced drag

**Date:**January 1, 1931

**Creator:**Durand, W F

**Description:**The proof of the theorem that the elliptical distribution of lift over the span is that which will give rise to the minimum induced drag has been given in a variety of ways, generally speaking too difficult to be readily followed by the graduate of the average good technical school of the present day. In the form of proof this report makes an effort to bring the matter more readily within the grasp of this class of readers.

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### Aircraft woods: their properties, selection, and characteristics

**Date:**January 1, 1931

**Creator:**Markwardt, L J

**Description:**Strength values of various woods for aircraft design for a 15 per cent moisture condition of material and a 3-second duration of stress are presented, and also a discussion of the various factors affecting the values. The toughness-test method of selecting wood is discussed, and a table of acceptance values for several species is given.

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### A method of calculating the ultimate strength of continuous beams

**Date:**January 1, 1931

**Creator:**Newlin, J A & Trayer, George W

**Description:**The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of continuous beams after the elastic limit has been passed. As a result, a method of calculation, which is applicable to maximum load conditions, has been developed. The method is simpler than the methods now in use and it applies properly to conditions where the present methods fail to apply.

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### Stability of thin-walled tubes under torsion

**Date:**January 1, 1935

**Creator:**Donnell, L H

**Description:**In this report a theoretical solution is developed for the torsion on a round thin-walled tube for which the walls become unstable. The results of this theory are given by a few simple formulas and curves which cover all cases. The differential equations of equilibrium are derived in a simpler form than previously found, it being shown that many items can be neglected.

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### An extended theory of thin airfoils and its application to the biplane problem

**Date:**January 1, 1931

**Creator:**Millikan, Clark B

**Description:**The report presents a new treatment, due essentially to von Karman, of the problem of the thin airfoil. The standard formulae for the angle of zero lift and zero moment are first developed and the analysis is then extended to give the effect of disturbing or interference velocities, corresponding to an arbitrary potential flow, which are superimposed on a normal rectilinear flow over the airfoil. An approximate method is presented for obtaining the velocities induced by a 2-dimensional airfoil at a point some distance away. In certain cases this method has considerable advantage over the simple "lifting line" procedure usually adopted. The interference effects for a 2-dimensional biplane are considered in the light of the previous analysis. The results of the earlier sections are then applied to the general problem of the interference effects for a 3-dimensional biplane, and formulae and charts are given which permit the characteristics of the individual wings of an arbitrary biplane without sweepback or dihedral to be calculated. In the final section the conclusions drawn from the application of the theory to a considerable number of special cases are discussed, and curves are given illustrating certain of these conclusions and serving as examples to indicate ...

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### On the theory of laminar boundary layers involving separation

**Date:**January 1, 1934

**Creator:**Von Karman, TH & Millikan, C

**Description:**This paper presents a mathematical discussion of the laminar boundary layer, which was developed with a view of facilitating the investigation of those boundary layers in particular for which the phenomenon of separation occurs. The treatment starts with a slight modification of the form of the boundary layer equation first published by Von Mises. Two approximate solutions of this equation are found, one of which is exact at the outer edge of the boundary layer while the other is exact at the wall. The final solution is obtained by joining these two solutions at the inflection points of the velocity profiles. The final solution is given in terms of a series of universal functions for a fairly broad class of potential velocity distributions outside of the boundary layer. Detailed calculations of the boundary layer characteristics are worked out for the case in which the potential velocity is a linear function of the distance from the upstream stagnation point. Finally, the complete separation point characteristics are determined for the boundary layer associated with a potential velocity distribution made up of two linear functions of the distance from the stagnation point. It appears that extensions of the detailed calculations to more complex ...

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### The design of plywood webs for airplane wing beams

**Date:**January 1, 1931

**Creator:**Trayer, George W

**Description:**This report deals with the design of plywood webs for wooden box beams to obtain maximum strength per unit weight. A method of arriving at the most efficient and economical web thickness, and hence the most suitable unit shear stress, is presented and working stresses in shear for various types of webs and species of plywood are given. The questions of diaphragm spacing and required glue area between the webs and flange are also discussed.

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### The design of airplane wing ribs

**Date:**January 1, 1931

**Creator:**Newlin, J A & Trayer, George W

**Description:**The purpose of this investigation was to obtain information for use in the design of truss and plywood forms, particularly with reference to wing ribs. Tests were made on many designs of wing ribs, comparing different types in various sizes. Many tests were also made on parallel-chord specimens of truss and plywood forms in place of the actual ribs and on parts of wing ribs, such as truss diagonals and sections of cap strips. It was found that for ribs of any size or proportions, when they were designed to obtain a well-balanced construction and were carefully manufactured, distinct types are of various efficiencies; the efficiency is based on the strength per unit of weight. In all types of ribs the heavier are the stronger per unit of weight. Reductions in the weight of wing ribs are accompanied even in efficient designs by a much greater proportional reduction in strength.

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### Aerodynamic theory and test of strut forms. Part I

**Date:**January 1, 1930

**Creator:**Smith, R H

**Description:**This report presents the first part of a two part study made under this title. In this part the symmetrical inviscid flow about an empirical strut of high service merit is found by both the Rankine and the Joukowsky methods. The results can be made to agree as closely as wished. Theoretical stream surfaces as well as surfaces of constant speed and pressure in the fluid about the strut are found. The surface pressure computed from the two theories agrees well with the measured pressure on the fore part of the model but not so well on the after part. From the theoretical flow speed the surface friction is computed by an empirical formula. The drag integrated from the friction and measured pressure closely equals the whole measured drag. As the pressure drag and the whole drag are accurately determined, the friction formula also appears trustworthy for such fair shapes. (author).

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### Tables for pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds

**Date:**January 1, 1930

**Creator:**Zahm, A F & Louden, F A

**Description:**In Technical Report no. 247 of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics theoretical formulas are given from which was computed a table for the pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds, such as those of aircraft and propeller blades. In that report, the table gave incompressible and adiabatic stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour and for some even-speed intervals in knots per hour. Table II of the present report extends the above-mentioned table by including the stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour, feet per-second, knots per hour, kilometers per hour, and meters per second. The pressure values in table II are also more exact than values given in the previous table. To furnish the aeronautical engineer with ready numerical formulas for finding the pressure of air on coming to rest, table I has been derived for the standard values specified below it. This table first presents the theoretical pressure-speed formulas and their working forms in C. G. S. Units as given in NACA Technical Report No. 247, then furnishes additional working formulas for several special units of speed. (author).

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### Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid

**Date:**January 1, 1930

**Creator:**Zahm, A F

**Description:**Part I gives a general method for finding the steady-flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. Part II, applying this steady-flow method, finds the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms, and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. Part III finds the pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight. Part IV derives general equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid, and in some cases compares the moment values with those found for bodies moving in air. Part V furnishes ready formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms. Thence are derived tables giving numerical values of those coefficients for a comprehensive range of shapes.

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### The torsion of members having sections common in aircraft construction

**Date:**January 1, 1930

**Creator:**Trayer, George W & March, H W

**Description:**Within recent years a great variety of approximate torsion formulas and drafting-room processes have been advocated. In some of these, especially where mathematical considerations are involved, the results are extremely complex and are not generally intelligible to engineers. The principal object of this investigation was to determine by experiment and theoretical investigation how accurate the more common of these formulas are and on what assumptions they are founded and, if none of the proposed methods proved to be reasonable accurate in practice, to produce simple, practical formulas from reasonably correct assumptions, backed by experiment. A second object was to collect in readily accessible form the most useful of known results for the more common sections. Formulas for all the important solid sections that have yielded to mathematical treatment are listed. Then follows a discussion of the torsion of tubular rods with formulas both rigorous and approximate.

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### Aerodynamic theory and tests of strut forms. Part II

**Date:**January 1, 1930

**Creator:**Smith, R H

**Description:**This report presents the second of two studies under the same title. In this part five theoretical struts are developed from distributed sources and sinks and constructed for pressure and resistance tests in a wind tunnel. The surface pressures for symmetrical inviscid flow are computed for each strut from theory and compared with those found by experiment. The theoretical and experimental pressures are found to agree quantitatively near the bow, only qualitatively over the suction range, the experimental suctions being uniformly a little low, and not at all near the stern. This study is the strut sequel to Fuhrmann's research on airship forms, the one being a study in two dimensions, the other in three. A comparison of results indicates that the agreement between theory and experiment is somewhat better for bodies of revolution than for cylinders when both are shaped for slight resistance. The consistent deficiency of the experimental suctions which is found in the case of struts was not found in the case of airships, for which the experimental suctions were sometimes above sometimes below their theoretical values.

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### Tests of five metal model propellers with various pitch distributions in a free wind stream and in combination with model VE-7 fuselage

**Date:**January 1, 1930

**Creator:**Lesley, E P & Reid, Elliott G

**Description:**This report describes the tests of five adjustable blade metal model propellers both in a free wind stream and in combination with a model fuselage with stub wings. The propellers are of the same form and cross section but have variations in radial distributions of pitch. By making a survey of the radial distribution of air velocity through the propeller plane of the model fuselage it was found that this velocity varies from zero at the hub center to approximately free stream velocity at the blade tip. The tests show that the efficiency of a propeller when operating in the presence of the airplane is, over the working range, generally less than when operating in a free wind stream, but that a propeller with a radial distribution of pitch of the same nature as the radial distribution of air velocity through the propeller plane suffers the smallest loss in efficiency.

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### Stress analysis of beams with shear deformation of the flanges

**Date:**January 1, 1937

**Creator:**Kuhn, Paul

**Description:**This report discusses the fundamental action of shear deformation of the flanges on the basis of simplifying assumptions. The theory is developed to the point of giving analytical solutions for simple cases of beams and of skin-stringer panels under axial load. Strain-gage tests on a tension panel and on a beam corresponding to these simple cases are described and the results are compared with analytical results. For wing beams, an approximate method of applying the theory is given. As an alternative, the construction of a mechanical analyzer is advocated.

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### Working charts for the determination of propeller thrust at various air speeds

**Date:**January 1, 1935

**Creator:**Hartman, Edwin P

**Description:**A set of propeller performance charts, based on a torque speed coefficient has been constructed from full-sized metal propeller data obtained in the NACA propeller-research tunnel.

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